(Amended by Ord. No. 186,488, Eff. 12/27/19.)
Section 1705 of the CBC is adopted by reference, except CBC Sections 1705.3, 1705.3.2, 1705.6, 1705.7, 1705.8, 1705.11.1, 1705.11.4, 1705.12.1, 1705.12.1.1, 1705.16.2 and 1705.17 are not adopted; and, in lieu, LAMC Subsections 91.1705.1.2, 91.1705.1.3, 91.1705.1.4, 91.1705.1.5, 91.1705.1.6, 91.1705.1.7, 91.1705.1.8, 91.1705.1.9, 91.1705.1.10, 91.1705.1.11, 91.1705.1.12, 91.1705.1.13, 91.1705.2.4, 91.1705.3, 91.1705.3.1.2, 91.1705.3.2, 91.1705.6, 91.1705.6.2, 91.1705.7, 91.1705.8, 91.1705.12.1, 91.1705.12.1.1.1, 91.1705.13.1, 91.1705.17.2 and 91.1705.18, and Table 1705.3 are added.
91.1705.1.2. Certifications by Engineer or Geologist. If the grading or foundation earthwork has required continuous inspection, the responsible engineering geologist or soils engineer shall certify by signature to the Department that, to the best of his or her knowledge, the field work was completed in conformity with the technical design data.
91.1705.1.3. Department's Responsibility. The employment of a Registered Deputy Inspector for any work does not deprive the Department of the right to make periodic or called inspections of all or portions of the work. On any work requiring continuous inspection by a Registered Deputy Inspector, the called inspections required by Section 91.108 of this Code may be delegated to the Registered Deputy Inspector by the Superintendent of Building.
91.1705.1.4. Structural, Termite and Fungus Damage. Every building raised from its foundation shall be inspected. If there is any superficial evidence of structural damage, termites or fungus growth, the permittee shall remove and renew the damaged or infested members before reseating the building or moving it from its existing site or into the City.
91.1705.1.5. Emergencies or Catastrophes. In the event of an emergency or of a major catastrophe in the City, the Department may deputize Emergency Building Inspectors for the Department. The inspectors shall receive no compensation from the City, and they shall be appointed for the periods of time the Department deems advisable.
91.1705.1.6. Special Activity Inspection. (Amended by Ord. No. 185,587, Eff. 7/16/18.) In addition to the construction or work inspected as described in LAMC Sections 91.108 and 91.1704 through 91.1705, there are other construction activities that are sufficiently important to the structural stability of the structure, the occupants of and the fire and life safety of the structure that inspection by a specially qualified inspector is necessary in order to ensure compliance with the Code requirements. These special activity inspections may occur during off-site fabrication or during on-site construction.
Inspections by Department Approved Special Activity Inspectors will be required in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Superintendent of Building where:
1. The structure is more than five stories or 60 feet (18,288 mm) in height.
2. The structure exceeds 50,000 square feet (4645 m 2 ) of ground area or 200,000 square feet (18 580 m 2 ) of total floor area.
3. Nondestructive structural testing methods are utilized.
4. The quality identification markings of the materials used are not inspectable after installation.
5. The manner of use of materials precludes full inspection after installation.
EXCEPTION: The Department may waive continuous or periodic inspection required by this Section where minor quantities are involved and no unusual hazards exist.
In addition to the projects included in the above categories, the Superintendent of Building may require Special Activity inspections if the Superintendent of Building determines that these inspections are needed to ensure compliance with the provisions of this Code and the work involves:
6. Unique, novel or innovative construction;
7. Highly complex or intricate construction;
8. Unique, novel or innovative grading, earth support or foundation procedures; or
9. New methods of construction not yet provided for in the rules and regulations.
Special Activity inspection authority will be determined on a case-by-case basis and will require Registered Deputy Inspector registration. The Superintendent of Building shall adopt rules and regulations implementing the provisions of this Section. These regulations may establish and set the requirements for different types of Department Approved Special Activity Inspectors.
91.1705.1.8. Registration. The procedures and conditions of registration as a Special Activity Inspector shall be the same as applicable to a Registered Deputy Inspector under LAMC Subsection 91.1704.2.1, except that the extent and duration of special inspection authority shall be as specified in the rules and regulations adopted by the Superintendent of Building.
91.1705.1.9. Duties. Except as otherwise indicated by regulations promulgated by the Superintendent of Building, the duties and responsibilities for a Special Activity Inspector shall be the same as specified for a Registered Duty Inspector under LAMC Subsection 91.1704.2.1.1
91.1705.1.10. Fees. The procedures for the examination, registration and renewal of authority as a Special Activity Inspector shall be the same as specified for a Registered Deputy Inspectors under LAMC Subsection 91.1704.2.1.2.
91.1705.1.11. Renewal Process. LAMC Subsection 91.1704.2.1.2 applies to the application, examination and renewal process for registration as a Special Activity Inspector.
91.1705.1.13. The Superintendent of Building shall suspend or revoke any certificate upon evidence of failure of the person so certified to conduct welding operations in compliance with any of the conditions upon which it is based, or where quality of workmanship is not equivalent to that required by the Code, or for any of the reasons set forth in Article 8, Chapter IX of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. Any action shall be in accordance with the provisions of Article 8, Chapter IX of the Los Angeles Municipal Code.
91.1705.2.4. Cold-formed Steel Trusses Spanning 60 Feet or Greater. Where a cold-formed steel truss clear span is 60 feet (18 288 mm) or greater, the deputy inspector shall verify that the temporary installation restraint/bracing and the permanent individual truss member restraint/bracing are installed in accordance with the approved truss submittal package. (Amended by Ord. No. 185,198, Eff. 11/22/17.)
91.1705.3. Concrete Construction. Special inspections and tests of concrete construction shall be performed in accordance with this section and LAMC Table 1705.3.
EXCEPTION: Special inspections and tests shall not be required for:
1. Isolated spread concrete footings of buildings three stories or less above grade plane that are fully supported on earth or rock, where the structural design of the footing is based on a specified compressive strength, f'c, no greater than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17.2 MPa).
2. Continuous concrete footings supporting walls of buildings three stories or less above grade plane that are fully supported on earth or rock where:
2.1. The footings support walls of light-frame construction;
2.2. The footings are designed in accordance with LAMC Table 1809.7; or
2.3. The structural design of the footing is based on a specified compressive strength, f'c, not more than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17.2 MPa), regardless of the compressive strength specified in the approved construction documents or used in the footing construction.
3. Nonstructural concrete slabs supported directly on the ground, including prestressed slabs on grade, where the effective prestress in the concrete is less than 150 psi (1.03 MPa).
4. Concrete foundation walls constructed in accordance with CBC Table 1807.1.6.2.
5. Concrete patios, driveways and sidewalks on grade.
CONTINUOUS SPECIAL INSPECTION
PERIODIC SPECIAL INSPECTION
1. Inspect reinforcement, including prestressing tendons, and verify placement.
ACI 318: Ch. 20, 25.2,25.3, 26.6.1-26.6.3
2. Reinforcing bar welding:
a. Verify weldability of reinforcing bars other than ASTM A706;
b. Inspect single-pass fillet welds, maximum 5/16"; and
ACI 318: 26.6.4
c. Inspect all other welds.
3. Inspect anchors cast in concrete.
ACI 318: 17.8.2
4. Inspect anchors post-installed in hardened concrete members. b
a. Adhesive anchors installed in horizontally or upwardly inclined orientations to resist sustained tension loads.
ACI 318: 22.214.171.124
b. Mechanical anchors and adhesive anchors not defined in 4.a.
ACI 318: 17.8.2
5. Verify use of required design mix.
ACI 318: Ch. 19, 26.4.3, 26.4.4
1904.1, 1904.2, 1908.2, 1908.3
6. Prior to concrete placement, fabricate specimens for strength tests, perform slump and air content tests, and determine the temperature of the concrete.
ASTM C172 ASTM C31
ACI 318: 26.5, 26.12
7. Inspect concrete and shotcrete placement for proper application techniques.
ACI 318: 26.5
1908.6, 1908.7, 1908.8
8. Verify maintenance of specified curing temperature and techniques.
26.5.3 - 26.5.5
9. Inspect prestressed concrete for:
a. Application of prestressing forces; and
ACI 318: 26.10
b. Grouting of bonded prestressing tendons.
10. Inspect erection of precast concrete members.
ACI 318: 26.9
11. Verify in-situ concrete strength, prior to stressing of tendons in post-tensioned concrete and prior to removal of shores and forms from beams and structural slabs.
ACI 318: 26.11.2
12. Inspect formwork for shape, location and dimensions of the concrete member being formed.
ACI 318: 126.96.36.199(b)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Where applicable, see CBC Section 1705.12, special inspections for seismic resistance.
b. Specific requirements for special inspection shall be included in the research report for the anchor issued by an approved source in accordance with 17.8.2 in ACI 318, or other qualification procedures. Where specific requirements are not provided, special inspection requirements shall be specified by the registered design professional and shall be approved by the building official prior to the commencement of the work.
91.1705.3.1.2. Structural Inspection – Concrete. (Amended by Ord. No. 185,587, Eff. 7/16/18.) During the construction of all buildings over 160 feet (48.768 m) in height with concrete special moment-resisting space frames, a structural inspector under the supervision of the engineer responsible for the structural design shall be present to inspect the materials and workmanship for conformance with approved plans, specifications and change orders involved in construction of the ductile frames and shear walls. This inspection may be made by one or more structural inspectors, provided that at least one structural inspector is present during the placement of all concrete and reinforcement in the structural frame and shear walls.
The number of structural inspectors to be provided for each structure shall be determined by the engineer responsible for the structural design, provided that more than one structural inspector shall be provided where the magnitude of a structure prevents a single inspector from adequately performing the inspection.
The owner shall provide each structural inspector. Each structural inspector shall be paid by the owner directly or through the person responsible for the structural design. Each structural inspector shall be responsible to the person who prepared the structural design.
Prior to the issuance of the Certificate of Occupancy, each structural inspector shall submit a report in writing to the engineer and the Department certifying that the portions of the structural frame inspected by the inspector were constructed in accordance with the approved plans, specifications, change orders and Division 19, Article 1, Chapter IX of the LAMC.
91.1705.3.2. Material Tests. In the absence of sufficient data or documentation providing evidence of conformance to quality standards for materials in Chapters 19 and 20 of ACI 318, the Superintendent of Building shall require testing of materials in accordance with the appropriate standards and criteria for the material in Chapters 19 and 20 of ACI 318. Weldability of reinforcement, except that which conforms to ASTM A706, shall be determined in accordance with the requirements of Section 26.6.4 of ACI 318.
91.1705.6. Soils. Special inspections defined per LAMC Subsections 91.7008.2 and 91.7011.3 and tests for existing site soil conditions, fill placement and load-bearing requirements shall be as required by this section and LAMC Table 1705.6. The approved geotechnical report, and the construction documents prepared by the registered design professionals shall be used to determine compliance. During fill placement, the special inspector shall determine that proper materials and procedures are used in accordance with the provisions of the approved geotechnical report, as specified in CBC Section 1803.6.
EXCEPTION: Special inspection is not required during placement of controlled fill having a total depth of 12 inches (305 mm) or less and where the fill is not used for graded slopes or for support of footings or foundations.
1.1. A contiguous grading area exceeding 60,000 square feet (5574 m 2 ).
1.2. An excavated or filled slope steeper than 2 horizontal in 1 vertical (50% slope). (Amended by Ord. No. 185,587, Eff. 7/16/18.)
1.3. An excavated slope exceeding 40 feet (12,192 mm) in height and the top of which is within 20 feet (6096 mm) of a property line coterminous with improved private property or a public way.
1.4. Foundation excavations below a 1 horizontal in 1 vertical plane inward and down from the property line.
EXCEPTION: The Department may waive continuous inspection where minor areas or heights are involved and no unusual hazards exist. (Amended by Ord. No. 185,587, Eff. 7/16/18.)
VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION TASK
CONTINUOUS DURING TASK LISTED
PERIODICALLY DURING TASK LISTED
1. Verify materials below shallow foundations are adequate to achieve the design bearing capacity.
2. Verify excavations are extended to proper depth and have reached proper material.
3. Perform classification and testing of compacted fill materials.
4. Verify use of proper materials, densities and lift thicknesses during placement and compaction of compacted fill.
5. Prior to placement of compacted fill, observe subgrade and verify that site has been prepared properly.
a. Frequency of special inspections to be determined by the registered design professional responsible for the project.
91.1705.7. Driven Deep Foundations and Connecting Grade Beams. Special inspections and tests shall be performed during installation and testing of the driven deep foundation elements as specified by CBC Table 1705.7. The approved geotechnical report, required by CBC Section 1803.6 and the construction documents prepared by the registered design professionals shall be used to determine compliance. Special inspections for connecting grade beams shall be in accordance with LAMC Section 91.1705.3.
91.1705.8. Cast-in-Place Deep Foundations and Connecting Grade Beams. Special inspections and tests shall be performed during installation and testing of cast-in-place deep foundation elements as specified by CBC Table 1705.8. The approved geotechnical report, required by CBC Section 1803.6 and the construction documents prepared by the registered design professionals shall be used to determine compliance. Special inspections for connecting grade beams shall be in accordance with LAMC Section 91.1705.3.
91.1705.12.1. Structural Steel. Special inspection for seismic resistance shall be in accordance with CBC Sections 1705.12.1.1 or 1705.12.1.2, as applicable and during the fabrication and erection of buildings over 160 feet (48,768 mm) in height with structural steel moment resisting frames. A registered deputy inspector shall be present during the performance of all structural welding or the installation of all high-strength bolts whether in a fabricator's shop or at the job site.
1. Single-pass fillet welds not exceeding 5/16-inch (7.9 mm) in size.
2. Floor and roof deck welding.
91.1705.12.1.1.1. Certification. For buildings exceeding 160 feet (48,768 mm) in height, the engineer responsible for the structural design and the general contractor responsible for the construction, or their competent authorized representatives, shall make periodic inspections of the work at the site to verify general compliance with the approved plans, specifications and change orders. The engineer and general contractor shall submit a statement in writing to the Department stating that they know from personal knowledge that the materials installed and the structural work performed is in compliance with the approved plans, specifications and change orders.
The phrase "personal knowledge" as used above in reference to the engineer and general contractor means the knowledge resulting from the general observation by the engineer and the general supervision by the contractor of the work, as required by both in the superintendence of the building's construction, and as distinguished from the continuous personal superintendence of the special inspector and/or deputy inspector who are continuously at the site during the progress of the work. The exercise of reasonable diligence to obtain the facts is required and anyone who intentionally remains unaware may be charged with knowledge. The interpretation of personal knowledge as it applies to the special inspector and/or deputy inspector is that the inspector(s) must have actual personal knowledge that the requirements of the plans and specifications are being carried out, which is obtained by the inspector's continuous observation of the work of construction at the site in all stages of its progress.
EXCEPTION: Special inspections of structural steel in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C that are not specifically detailed for seismic resistance, with a response modification coefficient, R, of 3 or less, excluding cantilever column systems.
91.1705.13.1. Structural Steel. Testing for structural steel shall be in accordance with the quality assurance requirements of AISC 341 and the additional requirements in this Section. Nondestructive testing shall be performed by an approved agency and the written report, including the test results, shall be submitted for evaluation by the Superintendent of Building. The acceptance criteria for nondestructive testing shall be as required in AWS D1.1 as specified by the registered design professional.
Base metal thicker than 1.5 inches (38 mm), where subject to through-thickness weld shrinkage strains, shall be ultrasonically tested for discontinuities behind and adjacent to those welds after joint completion. Any material discontinuities shall be accepted or rejected on the basis of ASTM A 435 or ASTM A 898 (Level 1 criteria) and criteria as established by the registered design professional(s) in responsible charge, and the construction documents.