17.06.020 DEFINITIONS.
   For the purposes of this chapter, the words and phrases contained in this section shall, when used in this chapter, have the meanings respectively ascribed to them by this section unless the context clearly requires otherwise.
   "Approved," when referring to a method, means a method which the City Engineer finds will produce the results specified in this chapter.
   "Approved soil testing agency" means an agency which the City Engineer finds has technically qualified personnel and adequate facilities for making the required soil tests.
   "As-graded" is the surface conditions existing upon completion of grading.
   "Bedrock" is in-place solid rock.
   "Bench" is a relatively level step excavated into earth material on which fill is to be placed.
   "Borrow" is earth material acquired from an off-site location for use in grading on a site.
   "Certification" shall mean a written engineering or geological opinion concerning the progress and completion of the work.
   "Civil Engineer" means a person who practices or offers to practice civil engineering and who is licensed to do so by the Board of Registration for Civil and Professional Engineers of the State of California.
   "Civil engineering" shall mean the application of the knowledge of the forces of nature, principles of mechanics and the properties of materials to the evaluation, design and construction of civil works for the beneficial uses of mankind.
   "Compaction" is the densification of earth material by mechanical means.
   "Contour grading" is the transitional use of variable slopes and the blending of these slopes into contours compatible with the natural terrain with the toe or top of the slope varying from a straight line.
   "Crib wall" shall mean an earth retaining system constructed with precast reinforced concrete components which when finished shall have an open grid pattern for the planting of creeping and cascading foliage.
   "Earth material" is any rock, natural soil or fill and/or any combination thereof.
   "Engineering Geologist" shall mean a professional engineering geologist registered in the State of California to practice engineering geology.
   "Engineering geology" is the application of geologic knowledge, principles and techniques in the observation and evaluation of the influence of earth materials, including groundwater, in the planning, construction, and maintenance of earth slopes and engineering structures.
   "Erosion" is the wearing away of the ground surface as a result of the movement of wind, water and/or ice.
   "Excavation" shall mean any act by which earth, sand, gravel, rock or any other material is cut into, dug, quarried, uncovered, removed, displaced or relocated by any method or means, and shall include the conditions resulting therefrom.
   "Fill" means any act by which earth, sand, gravel, rock or any other material or any combination of the foregoing is deposited, placed, pushed, pulled or transported to a place and shall include the conditions resulting therefrom.
   "Grade" shall mean the vertical location of the ground surface.
   "Existing grade" is the grade prior to grading.
   "Rough grade" is the stage at which the grade approximately conforms to the approved plan.
   "Finish grade" is the final grade of the site which conforms to the approved plan.
   "Grading" means an excavation or fill, or any combination thereof, and shall include the conditions resulting from any excavation or fill.
   "Hillside area" is defined as an area within which the lot grading necessary to create a building pad would involve a cut or fill of three feet or more in vertical height below or above the natural ground or a summation of cut and fill which amounts to five feet or more or where the natural gradient of the site is five horizontal to one vertical or greater; together with such other areas as may be designated as "hillside areas" by the City Engineer.
   "Key" is a designed compacted fill placed in a trench excavated in earth material beneath the toe of the proposed fill slope.
   "Landslide" shall mean the downward and outward movement of soil, rock or fill or a combination thereof.
   "Massive landslide" shall mean a landslide too large to be stabilized by retaining methods or normal control methods.
   "Person" means any individual, firm, copartnership, joint venture, association, social group, fraternal organization, corporation estate, trust, business trust, receiver, trustee, syndicate or any other group or combination acting as a unit, except the United States of America, the State and any political subdivision of either thereof.
   "Retaining wall" shall mean an earth retaining system constructed with poured-in-place concrete or reinforced concrete, masonry block, brick, stone or other materials which when finished does not have an open grid pattern for planting.
   "Site" is any lot or parcel of land or contiguous combination thereof, under the same ownership, where grading is performed or permitted.
   "Slope" is an inclined ground surface the inclination of which is expressed as a ratio of horizontal distance to vertical distance.
   "Soil" is naturally occurring surficial deposits overlying bedrock.
   "Soil Engineer" means a person who is a registered Civil Engineer licensed by the State of California and practices in soil mechanics and the analysis of slope stability.
   "Soil engineering" shall mean the application of the principles of soil mechanics in the investigation, evaluation and design of civil works involving the use of earth materials and the inspection and testing of the construction thereof.
   "Terrace" is a relatively level step constructed in the face of a graded slope surface for drainage and maintenance purposes. (Ord. 3411 § 2 (part); April 1, 1975; Ord. 5108 § 1; March 27, 1990.)