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For the purposes of this chapter, the following definitions shall apply:
(a) "Adaptive control" means devices intended to actively regulate the switching, duration, and/or intensity of the light emitted by lighting systems. Adaptive controls include but are not limited to timers, dimmers, and motion sensors.
(b) "Building official" means the Director of Planning & Development Services and any person appointed or hired by the Director to administer and enforce this chapter.
(c) "Candela" is the standard unit of luminous intensity for the amount of light in a given direction, and is used for measuring the brightness of a lamp, luminaire, or sign.
(d) "Class I lighting" means outdoor lighting for an outdoor sales or eating area, vehicle fueling area, assembly or repair area, or other similar application, where color rendition is important for commercial or safety purposes.
(e) "Class II lighting" means outdoor lighting for commercial, industrial, and residential walkways, roadways and parking lots, equipment yards, outdoor security, and entrance lighting.
(f) "Class III lighting" means outdoor lighting used for decorative effects such as architectural illumination, monument lighting, flags other than state or federal flags, and landscape lighting.
(g) "Close of business" means the time when the business no longer allows entry to members of the public, or when the primary purpose of the business has concluded, whichever is later.
(h) "Correlated color temperature (CCT)" means the color of light produced by a particular light source as compared to a reference object such as a blackbody radiator and measured on the kelvin (K) temperature scale. For example, incandescent light sources are usually 2,700K (also known as "soft white"), halogen and warm LED sources are usually 3,000K (also known as "warm white"), and some metal halide and cool LED are 4,000K-6,500K (also known as "cool white").
(i) "Entrance luminaire" means an exterior luminaire mounted on a building required by the California Electrical Code or California Building Code to illuminate an outdoor entrance or exit.
(j) "Fuel canopy" means a structure that is erected over fueling pumps and to which lighting is normally attached.
(k) "Fully shielded" means a luminaire constructed in a manner such that all light emitted by the luminaire, either directly from the light source or a diffusing element, or indirectly by reflection or refraction from any part of the luminaire, is projected below the horizontal plane, as determined by photometric test or certified by the manufacturer. Any structural part of the luminaire providing this shielding shall be permanently affixed so that light is unable to be emitted above the horizontal plane and is focused to minimize light spill into the night sky or adjacent properties. Luminaires mounted under an opaque canopy such that no light is allowed above the horizontal plane in any direction shall be considered fully shielded for the purpose of this chapter.
(l) "Holiday decoration" means an outdoor luminaire that is used only for temporary decorative purposes, to celebrate a specific holiday.
(m) "Illuminance" means the quantity of light falling upon a surface, measured in footcandles (lumens/foot2 or lm/ft2) or in lux (lumens/meter2 or lm/m2). Illuminance can be measured vertically or horizontally, depending upon the orientation of the task surface.
(n) "Illuminating Engineering Society (IES)" refers to the recognized authoritative body on the science and application of lighting that publishes and promotes recommended practices for a variety of specific lighting applications.
(o) "Initial lumen value" means the initial lumen output of a new light source or luminaire before it has undergone any depreciation due to material or environmental issues.
(p) "Lamp" means the easily removeable/ replaceable light source portion of a luminaire whereas "light engine" refers to an integrated system such as LED modules and drivers.
(q) "Light emitting diode" (LED) means an electrical semiconductor device that produces optical radiation when proper voltage and current are applied. Most LEDs in non-theatrical luminaires utilize a blue or violet LED chip that is covered by a clear protective bubble. Different phosphor coatings are applied to the interior of the bubble, and result in the wide range of different CCTs of "white" light (2,700K-6,500K) available with most luminaires.
(r) "Lighting assembly" means a single luminaire or group of luminaires mounted in a single location.
(s) "Light trespass" means the unwanted, wasted illumination produced by a lighting system that enters the night sky or crosses a nearby property line. Light trespass is calculated and measured as vertical illuminance facing into the site and at a height of 5 feet above grade.
(t) "Low pressure sodium (LPS)" means a discharge lamp in which light is produced by radiation from sodium vapor operating at a relatively low partial pressure of 0.1 to 0.5 pascals. LPS lamps are generally very large, produce a monochromatic amber-colored light that has a CCT of ~1,800K, and are the discharge light source preferred by astronomers.
(u) "Lumens" is the unit of luminous flux used for rating the output of non-directional light sources and luminaires (whereas "candela" is used with directional light sources and luminaires), and is used in luminance and illuminance calculations.
(v) "Luminaire" means a complete lighting unit, including a light source, fixture housing, optical components, and electric or gas components, etc., that is used to produce visible light.
(w) "Luminous tube lighting" means gas-filled glass tubing which, when subjected to high voltage, becomes luminescent in a color characteristic of the particular gas used, e.g., neon, argon, or cold-cathode.
(x) "Maintained lumens" or "maintained illuminance level" means the mean or maintained lumen output or illuminance level after depreciation due to material and environmental issues. For the purpose of this chapter, maintained values shall only be used for recreation, sport court, and athletic field illuminance calculations.
(y) "Narrow spectrum amber LED" means a type of LED that appears amber in color, as it produces its peak spectral intensity within a narrow range of approximately 589 to 595 nanometers. Narrow spectrum amber LEDs are different from other amber LEDs (which are generally used for sensitive ecological applications), and are considered to be a viable alternative to LPS as they produce approximately the same reduced impact upon the night sky.
(z) "Nit" means a metric for directional luminance (luminous intensity) equal to one candela per square meter.
(aa) "Off-premises sign" means any sign that is not defined herein as an on-premises sign, including electronic billboards.
(bb) “On-premises sign" means a sign located on the premises of a facility that is open to the public, and which advertises the name of the facility, product or service offered by the facility, the facility's hours of operation, way-finding information, and/or some other fact related to the facility.
(cc) "Outdoor luminaire" means a luminaire (as defined by this ordinance) that is installed outdoors, whether permanent or portable.
(dd) "Outdoor recreation, sport court, and athletic field lighting" means lighting designed and installed specifically to illuminate large outdoor areas or sports fields and courts that often require high-intensity, high color-rendering illumination, and are used for practice and competitive events.
(ee) "Zone A" means the area within a 15-mile radius of the Palomar Observatory and the area within a 15-mile radius of the Mount Laguna Observatory.
(ff) "Zone B" means all areas within the unincorporated area of the county not included in Zone A or Zone C.
(gg) "Zone C" means any Community Planning Area that is eligible for certification as an International Dark Sky Community based on the standards set forth in this chapter. Zone C is limited to the boundaries of:
(1) Julian Community Planning Area.
(2) Borrego Springs Community Planning Area.
(Added by Ord. No. 9974 (N.S.), effective 4-3-09; amended by Ord. No. 10224 (N.S.), effective 10-25-12; amended by Ord. No. 10691 (N.S.), effective 12-18-20)