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The following language is adopted as a new Appendix S:
“APPENDIX S. OPTIONAL SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS
S101.1 Scope and purpose.
This appendix applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems where they are installed. Where smoke control systems are proposed as an alternative to other requirements of this code, they shall be approved by the Committee on Standards and Tests in accordance with Section 1004 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions. The purpose of this appendix is to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of operations or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated by this appendix serve a different purpose than the smoke- and heat-removal provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the Chicago Mechanical Code.
S101.2 General design requirements.
Buildings, structures or parts thereof required by this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section S101 and the generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to adequately describe the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied by sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions.
S101.3 Special inspection and test requirements.
In addition to the ordinary inspection and test requirements that buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section S101 shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed condition. The design submission accompanying the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, based on published standards for the particular testing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section shall be conducted under the same terms in Section 1704.
A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, their methods of operation, the systems supporting them and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the submitted construction documents and shall include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections S101.4.1 through S101.4.7.
S101.4.1 Stack effect.
The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used.
S101.4.2 Temperature effect of fire.
Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section S101.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities.
S101.4.3 Wind effect.
The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with the wind- loading provisions of Chapter 16.
S101.4.4 HVAC systems.
The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the HVAC systems.
The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage.
S101.4.6 Duration of operation.
All portions of active or engineered smoke control systems shall be capable of continued operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated egress time, whichever is greater.
S101.4.7 Smoke control system interaction.
The design shall consider the interaction effects of the operation of multiple smoke control systems for all design scenarios.
S101.5 Smoke barrier construction.
Smoke barriers required for passive smoke control and a smoke control system using the pressurization method shall comply with Section 709. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:
1. Walls A/Aw = 0.00100
2. Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways: A/Aw = 0.00035
3. Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150
4. Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050
A = Total leakage area, square feet (m2).
AF = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).
Aw = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet m2).
The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to gaps around doors and operable windows. The total leakage area of the smoke barrier shall be determined in accordance with Section S101.5.1 and tested in accordance with Section S101.5.2.
S101.5.1 Total leakage area.
Total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps around doors and operable windows.
S101.5.2 Testing of leakage area.
Compliance with the maximum total leakage area shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control systems utilizing the pressurization method. Compliance with the maximum total leakage area of passive smoke control systems shall be verified through methods such as door fan testing or other methods, as approved by the fire code official.
S101.5.3 Opening protection.
Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 716.
1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.
3. In Group I-1, Condition 2; Group I-2; and ambulatory care facilities, where a pair of opposite-swinging doors are installed across a corridor in accordance with Section S22.214.171.124, the doors shall not be required to be protected in accordance with Section 716. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have a center mullion or undercuts in excess of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm), louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops and astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and, where permitted by the door manufacturer’s listing, positive-latching devices are not required.
4. In Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where such doors are special-purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies installed in accordance with Section 1010.1.4.3 and are automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 7126.96.36.199.
5. Group I-3.
6. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.
S188.8.131.52 Group I-1, Condition 2; Group I-2; and ambulatory care facilities.
In Group I-1, Condition 2; Group I-2; and ambulatory care facilities, where doors are installed across a corridor, the doors shall be automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 7184.108.40.206 and shall have a vision panel with fire-protection-rated glazing materials in fire protection- rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested.
S220.127.116.11 Ducts and air transfer openings.
Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper complying with Section 717.
S101.6 Pressurization method.
The primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke control zone of fire origin.
S101.6.1 Minimum pressure difference.
The pressure difference across a smoke barrier used to separate smoke zones shall be not less than 0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings.
In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences not less than two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.
S101.6.2 Maximum pressure difference.
The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1010.1.3. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:
F = Fdc + K(WAΔP)/2(W-d) (Equation S-1)
A = Door area, square feet (m2).
d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).
F = Total door opening force, pounds (N).
Fdc = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).
K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).
W = Door width, feet (m).
ΔP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).
S101.6.3 Pressurized stairways and elevator hoistways.
Where stairways or elevator hoistways are pressurized, such pressurization systems shall comply with Section S101 as smoke control systems, in addition to the requirements of Sections S101.20 of this code and the entire Chicago Fire Prevention Code.
S101.7 Airflow design method.
Where approved by the fire code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently open position, which are located between smoke control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects. Smoke control systems using the airflow method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92.
S101.7.1 Prohibited conditions.
This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. Airflow toward the fire shall not exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). Where the calculated airflow exceeds this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.
S101.8 Exhaust method.
Where approved by the fire code official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such as in atriums, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92.
S101.8.1 Smoke layer.
The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above a walking surface that forms a portion of a required egress system within the smoke zone.
S101.9 Design fire.
The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section S101.4 and this section.
S101.9.1 Factors considered.
The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects included by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady.
S101.9.2 Design fire fuel.
Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spacing and configuration.
S101.9.3 Heat-release assumptions.
The analysis shall make use of best available data and shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material.
S101.9.4 Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions.
A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation.
Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers, shall be suitable for its intended use and suitable for the probable exposure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates.
S101.10.1 Exhaust fans.
Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:
Ts= (Qc / mc) + (Ta) (Equation S-2)
c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, Btu/lb°F (kJ/kg • K).
m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).
Qc = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).
Ta = Ambient temperature, °F (K).
Ts = Smoke temperature, °F (K).
Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.
Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section S101.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the Chicago Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.
Exception: Flexible connections, for the purpose of vibration isolation, complying with the Chicago Mechanical Code and that are constructed of fire-resistance-rated materials.
S101.10.3 Equipment, inlets and outlets.
Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard.
S101.10.4 Automatic dampers.
Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of recognized standards.
In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty, with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer’s fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 16.
Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts), as determined from measurement of actual current draw, and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.
S101.11 Standby power.
Smoke control systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 2702.
S101.11.1 Equipment room.
The standby power source and its transfer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal power transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly to and from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
S101.11.2 Power sources and power surges.
Elements of the smoke control system relying on volatile memories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary power interruption. Elements of the smoke control system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means.
S101.12 Detection and control systems.
Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.
Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override and the presence of power downstream of all disconnects. A preprogrammed weekly test sequence shall report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. The preprogrammed weekly test shall operate all devices, equipment and components used for smoke control.
Exception: Where verification of individual components tested through the preprogrammed weekly testing sequence will interfere with, and produce unwanted effects to, normal building operation, such individual components are permitted to be bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly testing, where approved by the fire code official and in accordance with both of the following:
1. Where the operation of components is bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test, presence of power downstream of all disconnects shall be verified weekly by a listed control unit.
2. Testing of all components bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test shall be in accordance with the Chicago Fire Prevention Code.
In addition to meeting requirements of the Chicago Electrical Code, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.
Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with this section.
S18.104.22.168 Pressurization, airflow or exhaust method.
Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control.
S22.214.171.124 Passive method.
Passive smoke control systems actuated by spot-type detectors listed for releasing service shall be permitted.
S101.12.4 Automatic control.
Where completely automatic control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual controls provided with ready access for the fire department and any smoke detectors required by engineering analysis.
S101.13 Control air tubing.
Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action.
Control-air tubing shall be hard-drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B42, ASTM B43, ASTM B68, ASTM B88, ASTM B251 and ASTM B280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type in accordance with ASME B16.18 or ASME B16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP-5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquids below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.
Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices provided that all of the following conditions are met:
1. Tubing shall comply with the requirements of the Chicago Mechanical Code.
2. Tubing and connected devices shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint- grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No. 22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or Teflon or by suitable brass compression to male barbed adapter.
3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.
4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within the enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinets and doors or moveable devices shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing connected to devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.
S101.13.2 Isolation from other functions.
Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system.
Control air tubing shall be tested at three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final connection to devices.
S101.14 Marking and identification.
The detection and control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses and terminations.
S101.15 Control diagrams.
Identical control diagrams showing all devices in the system and identifying their location and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the fire code official.
S101.16 Fire fighter’s smoke control panel.
A fire fighter’s smoke control panel for fire department emergency response purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual control or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be part of the fire command center in high-rise buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly seating. In all other buildings, the fire fighter’s smoke control panel shall be installed in a location adjacent to the fire alarm control panel. The fire fighter’s smoke control panel shall comply with Sections S101.16.1 through S101.16.3.
S101.16.1 Smoke control systems.
Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire fighter’s control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone, and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:
1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status – WHITE.
2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status – RED.
3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status – GREEN.
4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status – YELLOW/AMBER.
S101.16.2 Smoke control panel.
The fire fighter’s control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke control system equipment within the building as follows:
1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.
2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are controlled from other sources within the building.
3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire fighter’s control panel.
1. Complex systems, where approved, where the controls and indicators are combined to control and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit.
2. Complex systems, where approved, where the control is accomplished by computer interface using approved, plain English commands.
S101.16.3 Control action and priorities.
The fire-fighter’s control panel actions shall be as follows:
1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire fighter’s control panel, automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall not contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment including, but not limited to, duct freezestats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices, such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire fighter’s control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire fighter’s control panel switch position shall prevail. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.
Exception: Power disconnects required by the Chicago Electrical Code.
2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position fire-fighter’s control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire fighter’s control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described in Section S101.16.1. Where directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.
S101.17 System response time.
Smoke-control system activation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropriate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes of smoke control, the fire fighter’s control panel response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action initiated from any other building control point. The total response time, including that necessary for detection, shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke condition. The system response time for each component and their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required rational analysis and verification of their installed condition reported in the required final report.
S101.18 Acceptance testing.
Devices, equipment, components and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall consist of determination of function, sequence and, where applicable, capacity of their installed condition.
S101.18.1 Detection devices.
Smoke or fire detectors that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. Where applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions.
Ducts that are part of a smoke control system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to determine actual air quantities.
Dampers shall be tested for function in their installed condition.
S101.18.4 Inlets and outlets.
Inlets and outlets shall be read using generally accepted practices to determine air quantities.
Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per minute (rpm) and belt tension shall be made.
S101.18.6 Smoke barriers.
Measurements using inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring devices shall be made of the pressure differences across smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for each possible smoke control condition.
Each smoke zone equipped with an automatic-initiation device shall be put into operation by the actuation of one such device. Each additional device within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the system, including verification of override from the fire fighter’s control panel and simulation of standby power conditions.
S101.18.8 Testing for smoke control.
Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector in accordance with Section 1705.18.
S126.96.36.199 Scope of testing.
Testing shall be conducted in accordance with the following:
1. During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.
2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification.
Approved agencies for smoke control testing shall have expertise in fire protection engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as air balancers.
A complete report of testing shall be prepared by the approved agency. The report shall include identification of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, measured values and identification tag or mark. The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered design professional and, when satisfied that the design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered design professional shall sign, seal and date the report.
S188.8.131.52.1 Report filing.
A copy of the final report shall be filed with the fire code official and an identical copy shall be maintained in the building.
S101.18.9 Identification and documentation.
Charts, drawings and other documents identifying and locating each component of the smoke control system, and describing its proper function and maintenance requirements, shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the report required by Section S184.108.40.206. Devices shall have an identifying tag or mark on them consistent with the other required documentation and shall be dated indicating the last time they were successfully tested and by whom.
S101.20 Smokeproof enclosures.
Where provided, a smokeproof enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with this section. A smokeproof enclosure shall consist of an interior exit stairway or ramp that is enclosed in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 1023 and an open exterior balcony or ventilated vestibule meeting the requirements of this section. Where access to the roof is required by the Chicago Fire Prevention Code, such access shall be from the smokeproof enclosure where a smokeproof enclosure is required.
Access to the stairway or ramp shall be by way of a vestibule or an open exterior balcony. The minimum dimension of the vestibule shall be not less than the required width of the corridor leading to the vestibule but shall not have a width of less than 44 inches (1118 mm) and shall not have a length of less than 72 inches (1829 mm) in the direction of egress travel.
The smokeproof enclosure shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Openings are not permitted other than the required means of egress doors. The vestibule shall be separated from the stairway or ramp by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The open exterior balcony shall be constructed in accordance with the fire-resistance rating requirements for floor assemblies.
S220.127.116.11 Door closers.
Doors in a smokeproof enclosure shall be self- or automatic closing by actuation of a smoke detector in accordance with Section 718.104.22.168 and shall be installed at the floor-side entrance to the smokeproof enclosure. The actuation of the smoke detector on any door shall activate the closing devices on all doors in the smokeproof enclosure at all levels. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
S101.20.3 Natural ventilation alternative.
The provisions of Sections S22.214.171.124 through S126.96.36.199 shall apply to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by natural means.
S188.8.131.52 Balcony doors.
Where access to the stairway or ramp is by way of an open exterior balcony, the door assembly into the enclosure shall be a fire door assembly in accordance with Section 716.
S184.108.40.206 Vestibule doors.
Where access to the stairway or ramp is by way of a vestibule, the door assembly into the vestibule shall be a fire door assembly complying with Section 716. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stairway shall have not less than a 20-minute fire protection rating complying with Section 716.
S220.127.116.11 Vestibule ventilation.
Each vestibule shall have a minimum net area of 16 square feet (1.5 m2) of opening in a wall facing an outer court, yard or public way that is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) in width.
S101.20.4 Mechanical ventilation alternative.
The provisions of Sections S18.104.22.168 through S22.214.171.124 shall apply to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by mechanical means.
S126.96.36.199 Vestibule doors.
The door assembly from the building into the vestibule shall be a fire door assembly complying with Section 7188.8.131.52. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stairway or ramp shall not have less than a 20-minute fire protection rating and shall meet the requirements for a smoke door assembly in accordance with Section 7184.108.40.206. The door shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 105.
S220.127.116.11 Vestibule ventilation.
The vestibule shall be supplied with not less than one air change per minute and the exhaust shall be not less than 150 percent of supply. Supply air shall enter and exhaust air shall discharge from the vestibule through separate, tightly constructed ducts used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enter the vestibule within 6 inches (152 mm) of the floor level. The top of the exhaust register shall be located at the top of the smoke trap but not more than 6 inches (152 mm) down from the top of the trap, and shall be entirely within the smoke trap area. Doors in the open position shall not obstruct duct openings. Duct openings with controlling dampers are permitted where necessary to meet the design requirements, but dampers are not otherwise required.
S18.104.22.168.1 Engineered ventilation system.
Where a specially engineered system is used, the system shall exhaust a quantity of air equal to not less than 90 air changes per hour from any vestibule in the emergency operation mode and shall be sized to handle three vestibules simultaneously. Smoke detectors shall be located at the floor-side entrance to each vestibule and shall activate the system for the affected vestibule. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
S22.214.171.124 Smoke trap.
The vestibule ceiling shall be not less than 20 inches (508 mm) higher than the door opening into the vestibule to serve as a smoke and heat trap and to provide an upward-moving air column. The height shall not be decreased unless approved and justified by design and test.
S126.96.36.199 Stairway or ramp shaft air movement system.
The stairway or ramp shaft shall be provided with a dampered relief opening and supplied with sufficient air to maintain a minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) in the shaft relative to the vestibule with all doors closed.
S101.20.5 Stairway and ramp pressurization alternative.
Where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the vestibule is not required, provided that each interior exit stairway or ramp is pressurized to not less than 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and not more than 0.35 inches of water (87 Pa) in the shaft relative to the building measured with all interior exit stairway and ramp doors closed under maximum anticipated conditions of stack effect and wind effect.
S101.20.6 Ventilating equipment.
The activation of ventilating equipment required by the alternatives in Sections S101.20.4 and S101.20.5 shall be by smoke detectors installed at each floor level and at each entrance to the smokeproof enclosure. When the closing device for the stairway and ramp shaft and vestibule doors is activated by smoke detection or power failure, the mechanical equipment shall activate and operate at the required performance levels. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
S188.8.131.52 Ventilation systems.
Smokeproof enclosure ventilation systems shall be independent of other building ventilation systems. The equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall comply with one of the following:
1. Equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall be located exterior to the building and directly connected to the smokeproof enclosure or connected to the smokeproof enclosure by ductwork enclosed by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
2. Equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall be located within the smokeproof enclosure with intake or exhaust directly from and to the outside or through ductwork enclosed by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
3. Equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall be located within the building if separated from the remainder of the building, including other mechanical equipment, by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
1. Control wiring and power wiring located outside of a 2-hour fire barrier construction shall be protected using any one of the following methods:
1.1. Cables used for survivability of required critical circuits shall be listed in accordance with UL 2196 and shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.
1.2. Where encased with not less than 2 inches (51 mm) of concrete.
1.3. Electrical circuit protective systems shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. Electrical circuit protective systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing requirements.
S184.108.40.206 Standby power.
Mechanical vestibule and stairway and ramp shaft ventilation systems and automatic fire detection systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 2702.
S220.127.116.11 Acceptance and testing.
Before the mechanical equipment is put into operation, the system shall be tested in the presence of the fire code official to confirm that the system is operating in compliance with these requirements.
S101.21 Elevator hoistway pressurization alternative.
Where elevator hoistway pressurization is provided in lieu of required enclosed elevator lobbies, the pressurization system shall comply with Sections S101.21.1 through S101.21.11.
S101.21.1 Pressurization requirements.
Elevator hoistways shall be pressurized to maintain a minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inch of water (67 Pa) with respect to adjacent occupied space on all floors. This pressure shall be measured at the midpoint of each hoistway door, with all elevator cars at the floor of recall and all hoistway doors on the floor of recall open and all other hoistway doors closed. The pressure differentials shall be measured between the hoistway and the adjacent elevator landing. The opening and closing of hoistway doors at each level must be demonstrated during this test. The supply air intake shall be from an outside, uncontaminated source located a minimum distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) from any air exhaust system or outlet.
1. On floors containing only Group R occupancies, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and a dwelling unit or sleeping unit.
2. Where an elevator opens into a lobby enclosed in accordance with Section 3007.6 or 3008.6, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and the space immediately outside the door(s) from the floor to the enclosed lobby.
3. The pressure differential is permitted to be measured relative to the outdoor atmosphere on floors other than the following:
3.1. The fire floor.
3.2. The two floors immediately below the fire floor.
3.3. The floor immediately above the fire floor.
4. The minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inch of water (67 Pa) with respect to occupied floors are not required at the floor of recall with the doors open.
S18.104.22.168 Use of ventilation systems.
Ventilation systems, other than hoistway supply air systems, are permitted to be used to exhaust air from adjacent spaces on the fire floor, two floors immediately below and one floor immediately above the fire floor to the building’s exterior where necessary to maintain positive pressure relationships as required in Section S101.21.1 during operation of the elevator shaft pressurization system.
S101.21.2 Rational analysis.
A rational analysis complying with Section S101.4 shall be submitted with the construction documents.
S101.21.3 Ducts for system.
Any duct system that is part of the pressurization system shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating as required for the elevator shaft enclosure.
S101.21.4 Fan system.
The fan system provided for the pressurization system shall be as required by Sections S22.214.171.124 through S126.96.36.199.
S188.8.131.52 Fire resistance.
Where located within the building, the fan system that provides the pressurization shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating required for the elevator shaft enclosure.
S184.108.40.206 Smoke detection.
The fan system shall be equipped with a smoke detector that will automatically shut down the fan system when smoke is detected within the system.
S220.127.116.11 Separate systems.
A separate fan system shall be used for each elevator hoistway.
S18.104.22.168 Fan capacity.
The supply fan shall be either adjustable with a capacity of not less than 1,000 cfm (0.4719 m 3/s) per door, or that specified by a registered design professional to meet the requirements of a designed pressurization system.
S101.21.5 Standby power.
The pressurization system shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 2702.
S101.21.6 Activation of pressurization system.
The elevator pressurization system shall be activated upon activation of either the building fire alarm system or the elevator lobby smoke detectors. Where both a building fire alarm system and elevator lobby smoke detectors are present, each shall be independently capable of activating the pressurization system.
Testing for performance shall be required in accordance with Section S101.18.8. System acceptance shall be in accordance with Section S101.19.
S101.21.8 Marking and identification.
Detection and control systems shall be marked in accordance with Section S101.14.
S101.21.9 Control diagrams.
Control diagrams shall be provided in accordance with Section S101.15.
S101.21.10 Control panel.
A control panel complying with Section S101.16 shall be provided.
S101.21.11 System response time.
Hoistway pressurization systems shall comply with the requirements for smoke control system response time in Section S101.17.
Smoke control systems shall be maintained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capable of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and Sections S101.22.1 through S101.22.6.
A routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be initiated immediately after the smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A written schedule for routine maintenance and operational testing shall be established.
Records of smoke control system testing and maintenance shall be maintained. The record shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replaced.
Operational testing of the smoke control system shall include all equipment such as initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows.
S101.22.4 Dedicated smoke control systems.
Dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence semiannually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.
S101.22.5 Nondedicated smoke control systems.
Nondedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence annually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.
S101.22.6 Components bypassing weekly test.
Where components of the smoke control system are bypassed by the preprogrammed weekly test required by Section S101.12.1, such components shall be tested semiannually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.”
(Amend Coun. J. 10-7-20, p. 21791, Art. II, § 35)