In the construction of this code and of all ordinances of the city, the following rules shall be observed, unless such construction would be inconsistent with the manifest intent of the city council or the context clearly requires otherwise:
   CITY: The area within the territorial city limits of the city of Porterville and such territory outside of this city over which the city has jurisdiction or control by virtue of any constitutional provision or any law.
   CODE: The Porterville city code.
   COMPUTATION OF TIME: The time in which any act provided by law is to be done is computed by excluding the first day and including the last, unless the last day is a holiday and then it is also excluded.
   COUNCIL: The city council of the city of Porterville.
   COUNTY: The county of Tulare of this state.
   DAY: The period of time between any midnight and the midnight following.
   DAYTIME, NIGHTTIME: "Daytime" is the period of time between sunrise and sunset. "Nighttime" is the period of time between sunset and sunrise.
   DEPARTMENT, BOARD, COMMISSION, AGENCY, OFFICER OR EMPLOYEE: When used herein shall mean a department, board, commission, agency, officer or employee of the city of Porterville.
   GENDER: The masculine gender includes the feminine and neuter.
   IN THE CITY: Shall mean and include all territory over which the city now has, or shall hereafter acquire, jurisdiction for the exercise of its police powers or other regulatory powers.
   JOINT AUTHORITY: All words giving a joint authority to three (3) or more persons or officers shall be construed as giving such authority to a majority of such persons or officers.
   MONTH: A calendar month.
   NUMBER: The singular number includes the plural, and the plural the singular.
   OATH: Includes affirmation.
   OFFICIAL TIME: Whenever certain hours are named herein, they shall mean Pacific Standard Time or daylight saving time whichever may be in current use in the city.
   OR, AND: "Or" may be read "and", and "and" may be read "or", if the sense requires it.
   OWNER: Applied to a building or land, shall include any part owner, joint owner, tenant in common, tenant in partnership, joint tenant or tenant by entirety, of the whole or of a part of such building or land.
   PERSON: A natural person, firm, corporation, organization, company, association, business trust, joint stock company, partnership, joint venture, club, or the agent, servant, manager, officer, employee or lessee of any of them.
   PERSONAL PROPERTY: Includes every species of property, except "real property", as defined in this section.
   PRECEDING, FOLLOWING: Next before and next after, respectively.
   PROCESS: Includes a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings of either a civil or criminal nature.
   PROPERTY: Shall include real and personal property.
   REAL PROPERTY: Shall include lands, tenements and hereditaments.
   ROADWAY: That portion of a highway improved, designed or ordinarily used for vehicular travel.
   SHALL, MAY: "Shall" is mandatory and "may" is permissive.
   SIGNATURE OR SUBSCRIPTION: Includes a mark when the signer or subscriber cannot write, such signer's or subscriber's name being written near the mark by a witness who writes his own name near the signer's or subscriber's name; but a signature or subscription by mark can be acknowledged or can serve as a signature or subscription to a sworn statement only when two (2) witnesses so sign their own names thereto.
   STATE: The state of California.
   TENANT OR OCCUPANT: Applied to a building or land, shall include any person holding a written or oral lease of, or who occupies the whole or a part of, such building or land, either alone or with others.
   TENSES: The present tense includes the past and future tenses; and the future, the present.
   WEEK: Seven (7) consecutive days.
   WRITING: Includes any form of recorded message capable of comprehension by ordinary visual means. Whenever any notice, report, statement or record is required or authorized by this code, it shall be made in writing in the English language, unless it is expressly provided otherwise.
   WRITTEN: Includes printed, typewritten, mimeographed or multigraphed.
   YEAR: A calendar year, except where otherwise provided.
The provisions of sections 13 and 1645 of the Civil Code of the state are hereby adopted in the interpretation of words and phrases, unless otherwise provided in this code.
Words and phrases used in this code and not specifically defined shall be construed according to the context and approved usage of the language. (1963 Code)