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(a) (1) No person shall start a vehicle which is stopped, standing, or parked until the movement can be made with reasonable safety.
(2) Before backing, operators of vehicles shall give ample warning, and while backing they shall exercise vigilance not to injure person or property on the street or highway.
(3) No person shall back a motor vehicle on a freeway, except:
A. In a rest area;
B. In the performance of public works or official duties;
C. As a result of an emergency caused by an accident or breakdown of a motor vehicle.
(b) Except as otherwise provided in this division, whoever violates this section is guilty of a minor misdemeanor. If, within one year of the offense, the offender previously has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to one predicate motor vehicle or traffic offense, whoever violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor of the fourth degree. If, within one year of the offense, the offender previously has been convicted of two or more predicate motor vehicle or traffic offenses, whoever violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor of the third degree.
(c) If the offender commits the offense while distracted and the distracting activity is a contributing factor to the commission of the offense, the offender is subject to the additional fine established under § 408.02(b).