(a)   General Provisions.
      (1)   Purpose. These standards are to foster commercial and industrial development that is consistent with community standards for natural resource protection and quality design.
      (2)   Applicability. These standards shall apply to all development in Districts 6 and 8. To avoid duplication, the following sections of the Land Development Code are not rewritten into this section, but the following sections continue to apply to development in Districts 6 and 8.
         A.   Section 1207.10, Performance Standards.
         B.   Section 1207.15, Telecommunication Facilities.
         C.   Section 1207.16, Dish-Type Satellite Antennas.
         D.   Section 1207.17, Signs.
         E.   Section 1207.19, Special Development Standards.
      (3)   Goals and Objectives.
         A.   Preservation. It is the goal of these standards to preserve both the existing character and the natural environment of the City of Hudson to the maximum extent feasible. These standards define basic principles that, if followed, will create high quality commercial and industrial development while protecting fragile environmental conditions that presently exist.
         B.   Predictability. These standards also provide review criteria that are predictable for the developer, planning staff, boards and commissions. They are not meant to be exhaustive but to provide a firm foundation for an integrated design process.
         C.   Flexibility. These standards provide the framework for all types of development. They do not discriminate against, nor do they advocate for a certain type of development. They exist to guide all types of development on all types of sites.
         D.   Timeliness. Early plan coordination with the Community Development Department is encouraged to make the review, approval, and permitting time as short as possible.
   (b)   Natural Resource Protection.
      (1)   Purpose. The City encourages site design techniques that promote, preserve, and enhance the important aesthetic, biological, hydrologic, recreational, educational, and energy saving functions that its stream corridors, wetlands, and wooded areas provide.
      (2)   Maximum impervious surface coverage.
         A.   The maximum impervious surface coverage for commercial, industrial, and institutional uses shall be determined on a case-by-case basis, but in no case shall the maximum impervious surface coverage exceed seventy-five percent of the total gross area of the underlying lot or lots.
         B.   Planned developments. The maximum impervious surface coverage, including parking areas and accessory buildings and structures, shall be determined on a case-by-case basis based on the criteria set forth in division (b)(3) of this section.
      (3)   Limits of disturbance shall be established for each development to minimize site disturbance to the maximum extent feasible. The following criteria shall be considered when establishing these limits:
         A.   Minimize visual impacts from and to the development and protect scenic views.
         B.   Preserve significant trees or vegetation.
         C.   Erosion prevention and control including protection of steep slopes and natural drainage channels.
         D.   Protect aquifer recharge areas, and in particular areas lying within the one-mile and five-mile time of travel limits for the City of Hudson's designated Wellhead Protection Area.
         E.   Stream corridor and wetland protection and buffering.
         F.   Preserve wildlife habitat.
         G.   Avoid areas within the two highest quality ecological integrity classifications for any of the individual metrics or composite Index of Ecological Integrity.
      (4)   Limits of disturbance-development standards and guidelines.
         A.   Construction activity permitted inside the limits of disturbance. All construction activity shall be contained within the approved limits of disturbance. No construction activity shall be permitted prior to the approval of the required erosion and sedimentation control plan for the development.
         B.   Construction activity permitted in protected areas beyond the limits of disturbance.
            1.   Restoration of previously disturbed or degraded areas.
            2.   Utility installations and emergency public safety activities when such activities and installations cannot reasonably be contained within the limits of disturbance or other nearby developed areas.
            3.   Construction of a multi-purpose trail that will provide public access for recreational purposes when such trail cannot reasonably be contained within the limits of disturbance or other nearby developed area.
            4.   Enhancement of the habitat values and/or other natural resource values of an identified natural area.
            5.   Landscaping including vegetation clearing, planting of lawns, and tree removal may occur in protected areas beyond the limits of disturbance with two exceptions: 1) trees with a diameter of nine inches or more at fifty-four inches above the ground shall not be removed and 2) trees and vegetation may not be removed in stream corridors and wetland setbacks, unless excepted under tree and vegetation protection below.
            6.   Installation of bufferyard areas as required along the perimeter of a lot that are outside the established limits of disturbance.
         C.   Standards for protection during construction. Approved limits of disturbance shall be shown on the final site plan or subdivision plan. Limits of disturbance shall be designated in the field prior to commencement of excavation, grading, or construction with orange fencing or other methods approved by City staff.
      (5)   Tree and vegetation protection.
         A.   There may be areas on a development site either inside or outside of the limits of disturbance where trees are to be preserved. These areas are known as tree preservation areas. Trees and groups of trees to be preserved within the limits of disturbance or within six feet of the limits of disturbance shall be protected during the entire construction period with orange fencing of a minimum height of four feet, secured with metal T-posts, no closer than six feet from the trunk of any tree or one-half the drip line, whichever is greater or other methods approved by City staff. The applicant shall be responsible for maintenance of the fencing at all times.
         B.   Prohibited activities within tree preservation areas.
            1.   Disturbance of soil, clearing, grubbing, grading, and stock-piling of soil or any other materials or equipment, or disposal of any fluids or other materials that may be harmful to the tree(s) or vegetation is prohibited.
            2.   Change in site grade greater than six inches within the drip-line of protected trees, or within three feet of protected vegetation, such that drainage flows into or collects near protected tree(s) and vegetation is prohibited.
         C.   Limits on excavation near preserved trees. The installation of utilities, irrigation lines, or any underground fixture requiring excavation deeper than six inches shall be accomplished by boring under the root system of protected existing trees at a minimum depth of twenty-four inches. The auger distance shall be as set forth in the chart below:
Tree Diameter at Breast Height (Inches)
Auger Distance From Face of Tree (Feet)
Over 19
         D.   Exceptions. The following trees and vegetation shall be exempt from the requirements of this tree and vegetation protection section:
            1.   Dead, dying, or naturally fallen trees or vegetation as determined by the City.
            2.   Trees or vegetation that are determined by the City to substantially obstruct clear visibility at driveways and intersections.
            3.   Tree species that constitute a nuisance to the public such as Corkscrew Willow, Flowering Pear, Weeping Willow, Colorado Blue Spruce, and Austrian Pine.
            4.   Trees that are removed from a large stand of trees or forests that are overly dense as part of a plan approved by a qualified forester and the City for the purpose of maintaining the health and viability of the stand of trees or forest.
      (6)   Wetland and stream corridor protection.
         A.   Boundary delineation. Stream corridor and wetland area delineation shall be performed by a qualified professional that has demonstrated experience necessary to conduct site analysis. Delineations shall be subject to the approval of the City staff.
         B.   Stream corridor boundaries. Stream corridors shall be delineated at the ordinary high-water mark as defined in Chapter 1213.  Stream corridors shall not include ditches that are commonly known to be irrigation ditches and that do not contribute to the preservation and enhancement of fisheries and wildlife.
         C.   Prohibited activities. No person shall engage in any activity that will disturb, remove, fill, drain, dredge, clear, destroy, or alter any area, including vegetation within stream corridors, wetlands, and their setbacks except as approved by the federal or state government, or the Planning Commission in the case of non-jurisdictional wetlands.
         D.   Compliance with applicable federal or state wetlands laws or regulations. The City shall not issue a zoning certificate for any development or activity, including subdivisions, in a wetland that falls within the federal or state government's jurisdiction until all necessary federal approvals and permits have been obtained.
         E.   Setbacks.
            1.   Stream corridors. All buildings, accessory structures, parking lots, grading and clearing shall be set back from the ordinary high-water mark of stream corridors. The minimum setback distances on each side of all streams are:
               a.   Seventy-five feet on streams draining an area greater than 0.5 square miles (320 acres) and up to twenty square miles, or
               b.   Fifty feet on streams draining an area greater than 0.05 square miles (thirty-two acres) up to 0.5 square miles (320 acres), or
               c.   Thirty feet on streams draining an area less than 0.05 square miles (thirty-two acres).
            2.   Wetlands.
               a.   All buildings, accessory structures, parking areas or lots, and other paved areas shall be setback a minimum distance of 100 feet from the delineated edge of any Category II or III wetlands. Such 100-foot setback shall remain undisturbed except that in order to accommodate exceptional site conditions, the Planning Commission may permit limited grading, on a case-by-case basis, to within a distance of fifty feet from the delineated edge of any wetlands. All disturbed areas shall be restored with native plantings and landscaping. A setback is not required from a Category I wetland.
               b.   The Planning Commission may modify wetland setback regulation upon finding all of the following, as applicable:
                  i.   A parcel existing at the time of the effective date of this Code is made unbuildable or cannot be put to reasonable use without the modification;
                  ii.   The requested modification does not impair the flood control, soil erosion control, sediment control, water quality protection, or other functions of the wetland area, through the use of best management practices. This determination shall be based on technical and scientific data;
                  iii.   Practical alternatives to the proposed activity are not available;
                  iv.   No decrease in stormwater infiltration into the soil or wetland area will occur;
                  v.   The modification will not increase the likelihood for flood or erosion damage to either the applicant's property or to other properties; and
                  vi.   Culverting of watercourses is avoided.
               c.   Exceptions. The following structures and necessary grading may be excepted from these setback requirements provided construction and the area disturbed minimizes impact to the maximum extent feasible: 1) bridges over streams and the setback area, 2) stormwater management wet basins within the setback area when native plants are used, and 3) utility crossings.
               d.   Private open space/landscaping credit. All setback areas shall be credited toward any relevant private open space set-aside requirements or landscaping requirements.
   (c)   Landscaping.
      (1)   Purpose. The purpose of these regulations is to provide minimum standards involving the development of land to provide attractive views from roads and adjacent properties; to screen from view visually unattractive uses; to require screening between incompatible land uses and to protect the health, safety, and welfare of the community through the reduction of noise, air, and visual pollution, and headlight glare.
      (2)   Applicability.
         A.   New property development. Landscaping requirements shall apply to all new property development.
         B.   Expansions of existing buildings and parking areas. Landscaping requirements are required only to the extent that the site improvement is visible from roads or adjacent property and will be based proportionately on the area of the footprint of the improvement, not the area of the total resulting footprint.
      (3)   Plan review. The applicant shall submit a landscape plan to the City for approval as part of the site plan review or subdivision review process. Landscape plans shall be prepared by a landscape design professional practicing within the professional's area of competence. No site plan, subdivision plat, or other development plan shall receive final approval unless a landscaping plan meeting the requirements of this section has been approved. No zoning certificate shall be issued unless the installation pursuant to such a plan has been secured by a letter of credit, cash escrow, or other instrument acceptable to the City Solicitor, in an amount equal to 110 percent of the City-approved estimated cost of such installation.
      (4)   General landscaping. The landscape plan provides an opportunity to create and preserve an identity for the specific site and community as a whole. The plan shall show general landscaping of ground cover, shrubs, and trees to make the site attractive in addition to meeting specific enumerated standards.
      (5)    Bu fferyard.  A landscape buffer shall be installed along the side and rear boundaries of the developmen t lot or parcel adjacent to residentially zoned or used property. The landscape buffer must be Bufferyard "D" as depicted in Figure 1, unless the proposed use is industrial then the landscaping must be Bufferyard "E". No structure shall be permitted within a required bufferyard other than a wall, fence, or earth berm. A driveway in the side yard that connects a paving area on the lot to the street shall not encroach into the bufferyard.
Figure 1: Bufferyard D - Substantial
Figure 2: Bufferyard E - Major
         B.   The bufferyard may include walls, fences, or earth berms. Where the minimum bufferyard depth is met and a four- to six-foot wall, fence, or earth berm is installed as part of the bufferyard, the required plant material may be reduced by no more than fifteen percent in addition to reductions due to increasing the bufferyard depth.
      (6)   Street trees. The planting of street trees shall be required at the time landscaping is installed. The tree species, spacing and location shall be planned in consultation with the City Arborist.
         A.   Generally tall trees, those reaching sixty feet or more at maturity, will be planted fifty feet apart, medium trees, those reaching between twenty and sixty feet at maturity, will be planted forty feet apart, and small trees, those reaching twenty feet or less at maturity, will be planted thirty feet apart.
         B.   The tree location shall be at least thirty feet from an existing stop sign or from the standard location of a stop sign at street intersections and ten feet from fire hydrants and utility poles.
         C.   A small tree shall be used when planting under or within ten lateral feet of overhead utility wires. A medium tree shall be used when planting within twenty lateral feet of overhead utility wires.
      (7)   Landscaping roadway frontages. The space between the building and adjacent public or private street must be landscaped with a mixture of trees, shrubs, planting beds and/or perennials in an area totaling at least ten percent of the minimum required front setback area.
      (8)   Landscaping for parking lots.
         A.   Interior landscaping.
            1.   For all land uses except industrial, parking lots containing more than 6,000 square feet of area or twenty or more vehicular parking spaces shall provide interior landscaping.
            2.   For every ten parking spaces, the applicant shall provide not less than 160 square feet of interior landscaped parking lot areas with a minimum planting width of nine feet.
            3.   Each landscape area shall contain at least one tree and four shrubs. (See Figure 3)
Figure 3: Interior Landscape Requirements
            4.    No individual landscape area shall be larger than 500 square feet in size in parking areas less than 30,000 square feet and no individual area shall be larger than 2,000 square feet in parking areas over 30,000 square feet. Individual landscape areas that are larger are permitted, but the area in excess of the maximum permitted in these areas may not be included in the total area required.
         B.    Perimeter landscaping.
            1.   Parking lots shall have perimeter landscaping in the front yards of all land uses between parking areas and adjacent streets and property lines.
            2.   The perimeter landscaping shall be a minimum width of ten feet and contain sufficient plant material that will achieve an effective, opaque screen of a height of at least three feet within two years of installation. The perimeter plantings shall also contain deciduous trees.
            3.   Perimeter landscaping is not required in addition to a required bufferyard. (See Figure 4)
   Figure 4: Landscaping for Parking Lots
         C.    Vehicle overhang.
            1.   Parked vehicles may hang over landscape areas no more than two and one-half feet. Concrete or other wheel stops shall be provided to ensure no greater overhang into the landscaped area. (See Figure 5)
            2.   Where parked vehicles will overhang, a four-foot minimum spacing shall be provided from the edge of pavement to all trees.
      (9)   Screening of service structures and equipment. Screening shall be provided for service areas, trash receptacles, ground or roof mounted mechanical equipment, storage areas, ancillary equipment, loading and unloading areas, and other similar accessory structures and uses. Walls, parapet walls, fencing, berms, and planting material, or a combination of these screening materials and methods can accomplish an effective all-season enclosure.
      (10)   Landscape materials and specifications.
         A.   Landscaping shall be installed within six months of the completion of construction.
         B.   When walls, fences, or earth berms are used to fulfill screening requirements, they shall be detailed on the landscaping plan.
         C.   All plants are to be living and among the acceptable plants list identified in Appendix C: Recommended Planting List and Planting Specifications.
         D.   Minimum plant sizes at the time of planting:
            1.   Large/medium sized deciduous trees shall have a minimum DBH of at least two inches when installed. Small sized deciduous trees shall have a minimum DBH of at least one and one-fourth inches.
            2.   Evergreen trees shall be a minimum of six feet in height.
            3.   Shrubs and hedges shall be at least eighteen inches in height or twenty-four inches in spread.
         E.   Any landscape material that fails to meet the minimum requirements of this section at the time of installation shall be removed and replaced with acceptable materials. All unhealthy or dead material shall be replaced within two years.
      (11)    Clear sight lines. To insure that landscape materials do not constitute a driving hazard, a clear sight triangle shall be observed at all street and access drive intersections. Ground cover and trees with at least eight feet of limbless trunk shall be permitted within the sight distance triangle. In the case of a City street intersection, the sight triangle shall consist of the area between points twenty feet along both intersecting streets from their respective edge of pavements. (See Figure 6)
Figure 5: Vehicle Overhang
Figure 6: Clear Sight Lines
   (d)   Stormwater Management, Drainage, Stormwater Pollution Prevention, Utilities. All development in Districts 6 and 8 must conform to stormwater management, drainage, stormwater pollution prevention, and utility standards set forth at Sections 1207.07 , 1207.09 , and 1207.11 and in the City's Engineering Standards for Infrastructure Construction.
   (e)   Off-Street Parking and Loading.
      (1)   Purpose. The purpose of this section is to prevent or alleviate the congestion of public streets, to minimize any detrimental effects of vehicular use to adjacent properties, to enhance vehicular use areas with landscape elements, and to promote the safety and welfare of the public.
      (2)   Applicability. Any building, structure or use of land, when erected or enlarged, shall provide for off-street parking and loading spaces for vehicles in accordance with the following provisions.
            A parking and loading plan shall be submitted for all uses as part of the application for site plan review.
         A.   Whenever a building or use constructed or established is changed or enlarged such as to create a need for an increase of ten percent to fifty percent in the number of existing parking spaces, additional spaces shall be provided for the enlargement or change.
         B.   Whenever an existing building or use is enlarged to the extent of fifty percent or more in floor area or in the area used, then the vehicular use area shall comply with the off-street parking requirements as set forth in this section for the resulting building or use size.
      (3)   General design standards.
         A.   Buildings shall be set back from the edge of parking areas to provide for a sidewalk and landscape treatment in front of the building wall.
         B.   Where a sidewalk exists in a public right-of-way adjacent to a site, or is required to be constructed as part of development approval, a pedestrian connection shall be constructed from the building to the sidewalk in compliance with standards set forth in the American with Disabilities Act.
         C.   Driveways shall not be used as points of ingress and egress for individual parking spaces. Driveways shall be placed such that loading and unloading activities will not hinder vehicular ingress or egress. To the maximum extent feasible, provisions for circulation between adjacent parcels shall be provided through coordinated or joint parking systems to minimize curb cuts along the street.
         D.   Curb definitions shall be maintained, prohibiting continuous access along the frontage of the site.
         E.   Parking lots shall provide for adequate snow storage in areas that will not damage required landscaping or reduce the number of required parking spaces.
         F.   Land-banking of parking areas for potential future use is encouraged.
      (4)   Parking space requirements.
         A.   Each land use shall provide the minimum number of off-street parking spaces based on the requirements set forth below or the requirements set forth in the Parking Generation Manual (Institute of Transportation Engineers, 3rd Edition). The method of calculating off-street parking requirements shall be established by City staff during initial review of a development application.
Land Use
Parking Requirement
Automotive Repair Stations
Two spaces for each service bay, plus one space per employee
Automotive Service Stations
One space per fuel pump, plus one space for each 1.5 employee
Automotive Dealers
One space for each 400 square feet of floor area plus one for each employee
Banks and Other Financial Institutions
One space for each 400 square feet of floor area plus sufficient stacking space at drive-up facilities to accommodate the number of automobiles equal to five times the number of teller windows
Commercial Nursery or Greenhouse
One space per 1,000 square feet of floor area plus one space per 2,000 square feet of land area
Convalescent Care Facility/Assisted Living
One space for every six beds plus one space for every two employees
Convention or Conference Center
One space for each three seats
Day Care Center
One space for each 500 square feet of floor area plus one space for each employee
One space for each two beds
One space for each employee on the shift with the highest number of employees
One space for each sleeping room plus one space for each 400 square feet of public meeting area and/or restaurant space
Medical Clinics
One space for each 100 square feet of floor area
One space for each 400 square feet of floor area as the minimum parking space requirement and one space for each 250 square feet of floor area as the maximum permitted parking
Personal or Business Services
One space for each 200 square feet of floor area
Religious Places of Worship
One space for each four seats in the place of assembly
Public Buildings
One space for each 200 square feet of floor area
Recording, Radio, or TV Studios
One space per 400 square feet of floor area
Recreation, Noncommercial
One space for each two participants at maximum utilization
Recreation, Commercial
Once space for each three persons at capacity
Research and Development Laboratories
One space for each 500 square feet of floor area
One space for each two seats of seating capacity
Retail Business
One space for each 250 square feet of floor area
One space for each 1,000 square feet
         B.   Where building floor area is designated as the standard for determining parking space requirements, floor area shall be the sum of the gross leasable horizontal area of all floors.
         C.   Fractional numbers shall be increased to the next highest whole number.
         D.   At least one off-street parking space shall be provided on all premises.
      (5)   Location of required parking spaces.
         A.   Off-street parking. Required off-street parking spaces for any use shall be located on the same parcel as the use they are intended to serve, except where these regulations allow shared parking between uses on different lots pursuant to division (e)(6) of this section.
         B.   Residential parking. No residential parking area shall be utilized for commercial vehicle parking.
         C.   Parking of inoperable or abandoned vehicles. The parking or storage of inoperable, abandoned, or unlicensed vehicles is prohibited outdoors in all zone districts.
      (6)   Joint or collective parking facilities. Shared parking facilities are strongly encouraged to reduce the number of curb cuts and the amount of parking. The applicant shall have the burden of proof for a reduction in the total number of required off-street parking spaces, and documentation shall be submitted substantiating their reasons for the requested parking reduction. Shared parking may be approved if:
         A.   A sufficient number of spaces are provided to meet the highest demand of the participating uses;
         B.   Evidence to the satisfaction of the Planning Commission, has been submitted by the parties operating the shared parking facility, describing the nature of the uses and the times when the uses operate so as to demonstrate the lack of potential conflict between them; and
         C.   Additional documents such as an easement, lease, deed restriction, or other agreement as may be deemed necessary by the Planning Commission are executed to assure that the required parking spaces provided are maintained and uses with similar hours and parking requirements as those uses sharing the parking facility remain for the life of the development.
         D.   Shared parking spaces shall be located no more than 300 feet from the uses they are intended to serve.
      (7)   Parking lot design. Off-street parking must meet the handicapped, design, and paving requirements set forth at Section 1207.12 (j) through (o).
      (8)   Wheel stops and continuous curb. Wheel stops or continuous curb shall be provided to protect required screening devices, landscaping, and pedestrian ways from damage or encroachment of vehicles and to provide necessary traffic control in the parking area.
         A.   Placement. The wheel stop or continuous curb shall be located a minimum of four feet from any structures, buildings, walls, or plant material, excluding ground cover.
         B.   Stall dimensions. Where continuous curbs are used, the paved area of the required parking stall length may be reduced by two and one-half feet provided that the vehicle overhang will not encroach on pedestrian circulation or the required setback for desirable plant growth. Where wheel stops are used, the paved area of the required parking stall length shall not be reduce.
      (9)   Off-street loading requirements.
         A.   On the same lot with every building to be used for commercial/retail and industrial purposes, adequate space for standing, loading, and unloading of motor vehicles shall be provided to avoid interference with the public use of streets. Loading spaces shall not conflict with or overlap with the area used for off-street parking.
         B.   Plans and design standards.
            1.   One loading space shall be provided for all buildings having a gross floor area between 10,000 square feet to 20,000 square feet.
            2.   One additional loading space shall be provided for every additional 20,000 square feet of gross floor area, provided that no such loading space occupies any part of a public street, alley, driveway or sidewalk.
         C.   General standards for off-street loading. Every loading space shall be designed, constructed, and maintained in accordance with the following standards and requirements:
            1.   Location of required loading spaces. Loading spaces shall be located on the same lot as the building or structure to which they are accessory. No loading space shall be located in or extend into any front yard.
            2.   Dimensions. No required loading space shall be less than twelve feet in width or thirty-five feet in length or have a vertical clearance of less than fourteen feet.
            3.   Access. Loading spaces shall be designed and arranged to provide access to a street or alley in a manner that will create the least possible interference with traffic movement and parking lot circulation.
   (f)   Access, Circulation, and Pedestrian Linkage.
      (1)   Industrial vehicular circulation and access objectives.
         A.   Circulation. The street, access, and parking system in any development shall provide for safe and functional movement of traffic onto, off of, and within the site. In addition, the site plan should minimize the number of curb cuts, and all circulation should minimize the number of vehicular turning movements and points of vehicular conflict, particularly at points of access to and from the site.
         B.   Access. All new commercial and industrial development and changes in usage in non-residential structures shall refer to the "Guideline Manual for the Preparation of a Traffic Impact Study" on file at the City's Department of Community Development, and if required by the Manual, prepare and submit a traffic impact study in accordance with the provisions therein. All developments required to prepare a traffic impact study shall demonstrate compliance with following level of service standards:
            1.   Existing levels of service at peak hour are maintained on all arterial and collector roads and at all intersections within one-quarter mile of the site or that such level of service shall not fall below Level of Service (LOS) C as outlined in the Transportation Network Traffic Model Analysis dated November 4, 1996, or otherwise recommended pursuant to a traffic corridor study adopted by the City of Hudson. However, if the LOS on streets adjacent to the site or within one-quarter mile thereof is currently below LOS C, then the applicant shall demonstrate that the LOS will not fall below the current level.
            2.   All developments required to prepare a traffic impact study shall also provide an overall access management plan that demonstrates free-flowing access to the site and avoids unsafe congestion conditions on adjacent public roads and streets.
            3.   The Planning Commission may waive these requirements upon a showing by the applicant that the impact of the proposed development on roads and intersections will be de minimis.
            4.   An applicant or developer shall provide roadway improvements as required by the City to maintain or improve the level of service of an arterial or collector street shown by the traffic impact study to be adversely affected by the proposed development.
      (2)   Site access. Site access should be located to ensure the safest and most efficient service and shall meet the following guidelines, which shall be based upon, but not limited to, the results of a traffic impact study, and recommendations of the City Engineer.
         A.   The operator of a vehicle approaching an intersection should have an unobstructed view of both the intersection and all the intersecting roads;
         B.   Curb cuts and new intersections for development along arterial and collectors streets should be a minimum of 400 lineal feet from any intersection.
         C.   All intersecting roads should meet at or near ninety-degree angles.
         D.   The number of drive openings and curb cuts should be kept to a minimum.
         E.   Road improvements including right-in/right-out only and acceleration/deceleration lanes that could ease traffic congestion on public right-of-way may be required.
      (3)   Emergency access. Provision for adequate emergency access must be provided as set forth at Section 1207.12 (c)(9)J.
      (4)   Pedestrian walkways. Pedestrian walkways, including lanes that allow for safe passage through parking lots, should be provided and clearly defined. Definition may be made by landscaping or pavement changes.
   (g)   Exterior Lighting.
      (1)   Purpose. The intent of this section is to ensure that the functional and security needs of the project are met in a way that does not adversely affect the adjacent properties or neighborhood.
      (2)   Applicability.
         A.   All nonresidential development shall submit for approval an exterior lighting plan.
         B.   Nonresidential development of less than 5,000 square feet of gross floor area and parking lots or parking lot expansions of less than twenty-five percent or twenty parking spaces, whichever is less, is exempt from the lighting levels of Table 1207.14(c) provided each light fixture has a maximum 100 watts for pole heights of sixteen feet or less and a maximum 250 watts for pole heights of sixteen to twenty-five feet. The exemptions for outdoor recreational uses at Sections 1207.14(b)(5) also apply.
      (3)   Lighting levels.
         A.   Lighting used to illuminate buildings, parking lots, walkways, or the landscape, shall be evaluated during the site plan review process.
         B.   The amount of nuisance glare (light trespass) projected onto a residential use from another property shall not exceed 0.1 vertical foot-candles at the property line.
         C.   The horizontal illumination as measured horizontally as average foot-candles shall not exceed the limits specified in the following table. All standards are maximums unless otherwise stated.
Location or Task
Horizontal Illumination
Active Use Areas
5.0 foot-candles
Loading Areas
10.0 foot-candles
Parking Lots
0.2 foot-candles minimum
Drive Approaches
1.5 foot-candles
Service Station Pump Areas
15 foot-candles
Inactive Use Areas
3.0 foot-candles
      (4)   Design standards.
         A.   Glare shall be controlled at all times through proper equipment selection, careful aiming, and limits on brightness.
            1.   Full cutoff, cutoff, or semi-cutoff light fixtures shall direct light toward the ground. The light source shall not be visible from the property line.
            2.   Non-cut-off light fixtures shall limit the maximum initial lumens generated by each fixture not to exceed 2,000 lumens.
            3.   Building facade lighting shall be located, aimed and shielded to direct light only onto the building facade.
         B.   Light fixtures shall be mounted on concrete or painted metal poles no higher than forty-five feet.
   (h)   Building Design.
      (1)   General. Along with the site plan, the design of the structure establishes not only the overall appearance of the development, but also the development's contribution to the character of the City. The design for the structure should have elements which are interrelated and ordered. This order relates the structure to the site, to neighboring sites, and to the City as a whole.
      (2)   Massing and proportions.
         A.   Efforts must be made to reduce the overall visual impact for large industrial structures. This may be accomplished by utilizing topography in the form of berming, landscaping, or architectural solutions that give the illusion of an apparently smaller mass.
         B.   The size and proportion of window and wall openings in a structure should be related to one another and the spaces between them within the overall development of the facade.
      (3)   Viewscapes and materials.
         A.   Structures should be designed as single architectural entities rather than a collection of unrelated facades. Architectural character and detailing should be provided for all sides of the structure in the public view (both existing and potential).
         B.   Additions and accessory structures should be designed to be compatible with the main structure.
         C.   All exterior finished materials, including windows and doors, shall be of architectural grade with long term maintenance characteristics.
         D.   Materials handling and loading/unloading areas should be located away from public view to the greatest extent practicable.
         E.   Any structure or equipment that cannot be screened with walls, roof forms, and/or landscaping (e.g., water towers, HVAC facilities, cranes, outdoor storage, etc.) should be located and/or stored in a location on the site that minimizes the visual and noise effects to neighboring properties.
(Ord. 16-57, § 5.  Passed 12-20-2016; Ord. 16-148, § 13.  Passed 2-21-17; Ord. 18-93.  Passed 10-15-19.)