Appendix F of the Pinehurst Development Ordinance
Reference of Plant Species Native to the Sandhills and/or Included in Water Conserving Requirements
Listed on the following pages are plant species specifically native to the Sandhills of North Carolina, their soil moisture and light requirements, their benefit to wildlife, and example of leaf foliage.  Many of these plant species can be found on lots previous to clearing and can be transplanted by the owner if their location is threatened by development. Otherwise, check with a local nursery for their availability.
Latin Name
Common Name
Soil Moisture/Light (1)
Wildlife Value(2)
Latin Name
Common Name
Soil Moisture/Light (1)
Wildlife Value(2)
Tall Trees (> 30') (Canopy)
Acer floridanum
Southern Sugar Maple
M/F-S
S
Acer rubrum
Red Maple
W-D/F-P
S
Betula nigra
River Birch
W-D/F
S,L
Carya glabra
Pignut Hickory
D/F-S
S,L
Carya ovata
Shagbark Hickory
M-D/F-S
S
Carya tomentosa or C. alba
Mockernut Hickory
D/F-S
S,L
Celtis laevigata
Sugarberry
M/F-S
F,L
Chamaecyparis thyoides
Atlantic White Cedar
W-M/F-P
C,L
Diospyros virginiana
Persimmon
M-D/F-P
F,
Fagus grandifolia
American Beech*
M/P-S
S
Ilex opaca
American Holly*
W-D/F-S
C,F,N,L
Juniperus virginiana
Eastern Redcedar*
D/F
C,F,L
Liquidambar styraciflua
Sweetgum
W-M/F-P
S
Liriodendron tulipifera
Yellow Poplar
M/F-P
S,H,N,L
Magnolia grandiflora
Southern Magnolia
M/P-S
C,S
Magnolia virginiana
Sweetbay
W-M/F-P
S,L
Nyssa sylvatica
Blackgum
D/F-P
F
Oxydendrum arboreum
Sourwood
D/F-S
N
Pinus echinata
Shortleaf Pine
D/F-P
C,S,L
Pinus palustris
Longleaf Pine
M-D/F
C,S
 
Latin Name
Common Name
Soil Moisture/Light (1)
Wildlife Value(2)
Latin Name
Common Name
Soil Moisture/Light (1)
Wildlife Value(2)
Tall Trees (> 30') (Canopy)
Pinus serotina
Pond Pine
W-M/P
C,S
Pinus taeda
Loblolly Pine
W-D/F
C,S,L
Platanus occidentalis
Sycamore
W-M/F-P
S
Quercus alba
White Oak
M-D/F-P
S,L
Quercus coccinea
Scarlet Oak
D/F-P
S,L
Quercus falcate
Southern Red Oak
M-D/F-P
S,L
Quercus michauxii
Swamp Chestnut Oak
M/F-P
S,L
Quercus nigra
Water Oak
M-D/F-P
S,L
Quercus phellos
Willow Oak
W-M/F-P
S,L
Quercus rubra
Red Oak
M/F-P
S,L
Quercus velutina
Black Oak
M-D/F-P
S,L
Tilia Americana
Basswood
M/F-S
S,N,L
Small Trees/Shrubs (10-30 ft)  (Understory)
Aesculus pavia
Red Buckeye*
M/P
H
Aesculus sylvatica
Painted Buckeye*
M/P
H
Alnus serrulata
Alder
W-M/F-P
S,L
Amelanchier arborea
Serviceberry
M-D/F-S
F,N,L
Amelanchier canadensis
Juneberry
W-D/F-P
F,N,L
Aralia spinosa
Devil's Walking Stick*
M/F-P
F,N
Asimina triloba
Pawpaw*
M/F-S
F,L
Carpinus caroliniana
Ironwood
W-M/P-S
S,L
Castanea pumila
Chinquapin
D/F-P
S
Celtis laevigata
Hackberry
D/F-P
F,L
Cercis canadensis
Eastern redbud
M-D/F-P
S,N
Cornus floridana
Flowering Dogwood
M-D/F-P
F,N,L
Cyrilla racemiflora
Titi
W-M/F-S
C,N
Halesia carolina
Carolina Silverbell
M/P-S
N
Hamamelis virginiana
Witch-hazel
M/F-S
S
 
Latin Name
Common Name
Soil Moisture/Light (1)
Wildlife Value(2)
Latin Name
Common Name
Soil Moisture/Light (1)
Wildlife Value(2)
Small Trees/Shrubs (10-30 ft)  (Understory)
Ilex deciduas
Possumhaw*
W-D/F-P
F,N,L
Ilex verticillata
Winterberry*
W-M/F-S
F,N,L
Ilex vomitoria
Yaupon*
W-D/F-S
C,F,N,L
Morus rubra
Red Mulberry*
M-D/F-S
F,L
Myrica cerifera
Wax Myrtle
W-D/F-P
C,F,L
Ostrya virginiana
Hophornbeam
M-D/F-S
F,L
Prunus angustifolia
Chickasaw Plum*
D/F
F,N,L
Prunus caroliniana
Carolina Laurel Cherry*
M-D/F-P
C,F,N
Rhus copallina
Winged Sumac
M-D/F-P
F,N,L
Sambucus canadensis
Elderberry*
W-M/F-P
F
Sassafras albidum
Sassafras
M-D/F-P
F,L
Symplocos tinctoria
Sweetleaf
M-D/F-S
S,N,L
Viburnum rufidulum
Rusty Blackhaw
D/F-S
F,L
Vines
Ampelopsis arborea
Peppervine*
W-M/F-P
F
Bignonia capreolata
Crossvine
M-D/F-P
H
Campsis radicans
Trumpetcreeper*
M-D/F-P
H
Centrosema virginianum
Spurred Butterfly Pea
D/F-P
S,N,L
Clitoria marina
Butterfly Pea
D-F-P
S,N,L
Desmodium nudiflorum
Naked Tick-trefoil
D/F-P
S,N,L
Desmodium strictum
Pine Barren Tick-trefoil
D/F-P
S,N,L
Desmodium tortuosum
Tick-trefoil
D/F-P
S,N,L
Gelsemium sempervirens
Carolina Jessamine*
M/F-P
H,N
Lonicera sempervirens
Coral Honeysuckle
M/F-P
H
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Virginia Creeper*
M-D/F-S
F
Passiflora incarnata
Passionflower
M-D/F-P
H,N,L
Smilax spp.
Greenbrier
W-D/F-P
C,F
Vitis spp.
Grape
W-D/F-P
F
 
Latin Name
Common Name
Soil Moisture/Light (1)
Wildlife Value(2)
Latin Name
Common Name
Soil Moisture/Light (1)
Wildlife Value(2)
Ferns
Polystichum acrostichoides
Christmas Fern
M/S-P
C
Osmunda cinnamomea
Cinnamon Fern
W-M/S-P
C,L
Herbs and Wildflowers
Apocynum cannabinum
Hemp Dogbane*
M-D/F-P
N
Aquilegia canadensis
Columbine
M-D/P-S
S,H,N
Arisaema triphyllum
Jack-in-the-Pulpit*
W-M/P-S
F
Asclepias amplexicaulis
Clasping Milkweed
D/F-P
N,L
Asclepias incarnata
Swamp Milkweed*
W-M/F-P
N,L
Asclepias tomentoss
Sandhills Milkweed
D/F-P
N,L
Asclepias tuberosa
Butterfly Weed*
D/F-P
N,L
Asclepias variegata
White Milkweed*
M-D/F-P
N,L
Baptisia tinctoria
Yellow Wild Indigo*
D/F-P
L
Carphephorus bellidifolius
Sandy-woods Chaffhead
D/F-P
N,L
Ceanothus americanus
New Jersey Tea
M-D/F-P
S,N,L
Chamaecrista fasciculata
Partridge Pea*
M-D/F
S,L
Cirsium horridulum
Yellow Thistle
M-D/F
S,H,N,L
Cirsium repandum
Sandhills Thistle
M-D/F-P
S,H,N,L
Coreopsis angustifolia
Narrow-leaved Coreopsis
M/F-P
S,N
Coreopsis auriculata
Eared Coreopsis
M/F-P
S,N
Coreopsis lanceolata
Lance-leaved Coreopsis
D/F
S,N
Coreopsis verticillata
Threadleaf Coreopsis
D/F-P
S,N
Desmodium spp.
Beggarlice
M-D/F-P
S,L
Eupatorium fistulosum
Joe-pye-weed
M/F
S,N,L
Euphorbia corollata
Flowering Spurge
M-D/F-P
S,N
Gentiana autumnalis
Pine Barrens Gentian
D/F-P
N
Helianthus angustifolius
Swamp Sunflower
W-M/F
S,N
Heliopsis helianthoides
Ox-eye
M-D/F-P
S,N
Hibiscus moscheutos
Rose Mallow
M/F-P
H,N
 
Latin Name
Common Name
Soil Moisture/Light (1)
Wildlife Value(2)
Latin Name
Common Name
Soil Moisture/Light (1)
Wildlife Value(2)
Herbs and Wildflowers
Houstonia caerulea
Bluets
M-D/F-S
N
Hypericum hypericoides
St. Andrew's Cross
D-M/F-P
S,N
Impatiens capensis
Jewelweed
W-M/P-S
H,N
Ipomea coccinea
Red Morning Glory
D/F
S,H,N
Ipomea purpurea
Common Morning Glory
D/F
S,H,N
Ipomopsis rubra
Standing Cypress
D/F
H,N
Iris cristata
Crested Iris*
M/P-S
H
Iris verna
Dwarf Iris
M-D/F-P
H
Liatris graminifolia
Grass-leaf Gayfeather
D/F-P
N,L
Liatris regimontis
Blue Ridge Gayfeather
D/F-P
N,L
Liatris spicata
Blazing Star
W-M/F
N
Lobelia cardinalis
Cardinal Flower*
W-M/F-S
H,N
Lobelia puberula
Blue Lobelia*
W-D/F-P
H,N
Mitchella repens
Partridgeberry
M/F-S
F
Monarda punctata
Horsemint
D/F-P
H,N
Oenethera fruticosa
Sundrops
M-D/F-P
S,H,N
Penstemon canescens
Hairy Beardtongue
M-D/F-P
H,N,L
Penstemon laevigatus
Smooth Beardtongue
M/F-S
H,N,L
Phlox Carolina
Carolina Phlox
W-D/F-P
N
Phlox divaricata
Blue Phlox
M/P-S
N
Phlox pilosa
Prairie Phlox
D/F-P
N
Phlox subulata
Moss Pink
D/F
N
Phytolacca americana
Pokeweed*
M-D/F
F,S
Rudbeckia fulgida
Orange Coneflower
M/F
S,N
Rudbeckia hirta
Black-eyed Susan
M-D/F
S,N
Salvia lyrata
Lyreleaf Sage
M-D/F-S
H,N
Silene virginica
Fire Pink
M-D/P-S
S,H,N
Solidago spp.
Goldenrod
M-D/F-P
S,N
Stillingia sylvatica
Queen's Root
D/F-P
S,N
Tephrosia virginiana
Goat's Rue
D/F-P
S,L
Vicia caroliniana
Wood Vetch
D/F-P
S,L
Viola pedata
Bird-foot Violet
D/F-P
L
Viola primulifolia
Primrose-leaved Violet
D/F-P
N,L
Grasses
Andropogon glomeratus
Brushy Bluestem
M/F
C,S,L
Andropogon ternarius
Splitbeard Bluestem
D/F
C,S,L
Aristida stricta
Wiregrass
D/F-P
C,S
Arundinaria gigantea
Switchcane
W-D/F-S
C,S,L
Panicum virgatum
Switchgrass
M/F-P
C,S,L
 
1 Soil moisture: W = wet; M = moist; D = dry/ Light requirements: F = full sun; P = partial shade; S = shade.
2 Wildlife Value: C = winter cover; F = fleshy fruit; S = hard mast, seed or catkin; H = Hummingbird nectar; N = butterfly and other insect nectar; L = butterfly larvae host plant.
* Leaves, twigs, stems, flowers, nectar, fruits or seeds mildly to severely toxic to humans if ingested.
(Ord. 14-35, passed 09-24-2014)