18.75.040   Development standards.
   A.   Scope. This section provides general criteria and requirements for the development of off-street parking areas. Specific design standards are provided to ensure sound engineering and aesthetic design for the development of off-street parking.
   B.   Site Improvement Standards.
      1.   Slope and Grading. The finished slope and grade of off-street parking and loading facilities shall conform with county standards inclusive of the requirements of Chapter 18.81 (Grading) and the Manual.
      2.   Drainage. In addition to county drainage requirements, stormwater shall be considered a resource and be designed to benefit landscaped areas on the development site. Erosion control measures shall be designed and implemented to control drainage flow from hard-surfaced areas onto abutting soil surfaces.
      3.   Landscaping. In accordance with the requirements of Chapter 18.73 (Landscaping Standards):
         a.   A minimum of ten percent of the gross parking area shall be devoted to amenity landscaping (refer to Chapter 18.73, Landscaping Standards);
         b.   Landscaping planters no less than four feet wide shall be placed at the ends of parking rows to define driveways with at least one canopy tree per parking aisle and appropriate ground cover.
         c.   Signage, landscaping and screening materials shall not obstruct sight distances or vehicle turning movements.
         d.   When single parking rows occur, canopy trees shall be placed every four un-shaded parking stalls. When double aisles of parking occur, canopy trees shall be placed every eight un-shaded parking stalls.
         e.   When the placement of trees in the required location among single or double row parking stalls is made impracticable by the location of a building, access area, drainage area or similar site constraint, the required parking area trees in the problem area may be reduced to one tree for every ten spaces in a four-foot wide median planter the length of the parking spaces. The remainder of the required trees may be placed within the bufferyard, stormwater harvesting area, retention/detention area or other landscaped area of the site.
         f.   Parking canopy structures may be used for all parking stalls. All parking canopy structures must be constructed with a heat reflective roofing material. Where used, photo voltaic cells or other solar technology may substitute for the heat reflective roofing material.
      4.   Screening. Screening (refer to Chapter 18.73, Landscaping Standards) shall buffer parking areas from the following general land uses:
         a.   Residential Areas. Parking facilities adjacent to property zoned, planned or used for residential purposes shall be separated from such property by a minimum five-foot wide landscaped buffer, which shall consist of either a minimum six-foot high decorative masonry wall or fence, permanently maintained vegetation, earth berms, or a combination of these elements. An opaque screen is required to provide noise, light, and access barriers between the dissimilar uses. If a wall or fence is used, at least fifty percent of the required vegetation shall be maintained on the external side of the wall or fence to provide visual relief when viewed from the residential side. Refer to Chapter 18.73 (Landscaping Standards) for specific requirements.
         b.   Streets. Parking facilities containing ten or more spaces, any of which abut a public right-of-way, shall be separated from the street right-of-way by a minimum five-foot wide landscaped buffer, as listed above, consisting of a minimum three and one-half foot high wall, earth berms, plant material or combination thereof. Refer to Chapter 18.73, Landscaping Standards, for specific requirements. The objective of this screening is visual relief; a fifty percent visual screen is acceptable. Landscaping within public rights-of-way requires a use permit and license agreement from the department of transportation and flood control district prior to installation.
         c.   Screening areas for off-street parking may use the landscape bufferyard stormwater harvesting option found in Section 18.73.030(C).
      5.   Any lights used to illuminate parking spaces and drives shall be in accordance with the county outdoor lighting code (Title 15).
      6.   Emergency and Service Vehicle Access. All parking areas shall be designed to permit free access by emergency and service vehicles commonly in use by public and private emergency and service operators.
      7.   Shading. Required landscape planters, and canopy trees in particular, should be designed and installed with an emphasis on maximizing shading of paved surfaces. Linear planters should be installed as near as possible to north-south orientation to maximize shade.
   C.   Entrance Drives.
      1.   Drives are to be located and designed in conformance with the requirements of the Manual and the following provisions to permit adequate ingress and egress:
         a.   Curbs, walls, berms, landscaping, or other barriers shall be provided to prevent ingress or egress at any point other than at designated entrance or exit drives.
         b.   Signage shall be allowed at entrance or exit drives in accordance with Chapter 18.79 (Sign Standards).
         c.   Parking areas shall not be designed to require or encourage vehicles to back into a street, pedestrian access way, or alley in order to leave the lot or maneuver out of a parking space.
   D.   Parking Lot Design.
      1.   Dimensions of Parking and Access Areas. In accordance with Section 18.75.030, and the Manual.
      2.   Passenger Drop-off Points. Drop-off points, separated from street traffic and readily accessible without hazardous maneuvering, shall be provided in conjunction with the uses described in the manual.
      3.   Car Pools. Off-street parking provided for commercial office and industrial facilities requiring eighty or more spaces shall provide at least ten percent of the total parking area as designated for use by car pools, and be clearly signed and managed to that end.
      4.   Emergency and Service Vehicle Access. All parking lots shall provide unrestricted access by emergency and service vehicles in conformance with the Manual.
   E.   Parking Lot Improvements Standards.
      1.   Pavement Marking. Parking spaces in paved parking areas shall be permanently marked with striping in accordance with the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
      2.   Barriers.
         a.   Parking areas and spaces shall be provided with bumper barriers, wheel stops or wheel stop curbing, designed in conformance with the manual to prevent parked vehicles from extending beyond the property lines, damaging walls or buildings, or overhanging sidewalk areas. Wheel stops or wheel stop curbing shall be located three feet from the front of the parking space.
         b.   Landscape planters shall be provided with a protective barrier (wheel stops, bollards, non-continuous curbing, or similar hardscaping) to prevent vehicles from damaging landscaping.
      3.   Paving. All open parking areas shall be paved with a durable asphalt, concrete, stone, tile or brick surface, in conformance with the manual and consistent with pavement design principles and engineered according to soil conditions and wheel loads.
   F.   Stormwater Harvesting Option.
      1.   Stormwater harvesting in off-street parking. Landscape planters for stormwater harvesting in off-street parking areas shall meet requirements in Section 18.07.030(S)(2), and shall also have:
         a.   At least the same number, area and dimensions, and density of canopy trees and other vegetation as landscape planters required in Section 18.75.040(B)(3);
         b.   Surface gradually depressed a minimum of six inches below the surrounding paved grade;
         c.   Protected edges, headers or other means slopes to prevent undermining and erosion by in-flowing stormwater; and
         d.   Curbing with inlets, scuppers, notches or cuts, depressed curbing, wheel stops, bollards, or similar non-continuous protective barrier to prevent vehicles from damaging landscaping and allow the flow of stormwater into planters.
      2.   When at least three-quarters of site's required parking area landscape planters and screening areas meet stormwater harvesting requirements in Section 18.75.040(F)(1):
         a.   The length of walls required for screening in Section 18.75.040(B)(4) may be reduced by half, provided walls are spaced intermittently and strategically placed to provide needed screening.
(Ord. 2015-7 § 6, 2015; Ord. 2011-2 § 18, 2011; Ord. 2008-93 § 2, 2008; Ord. 2005-35 § 5 (part), 2005; Ord. 2003-32 § 1 (part), 2003; Ord. 2001-165 § 1 (part), 2001; Ord. 1986-187 § 1 (part), 1986; Ord. 1985-112 § 1 (part), 1985; Ord. 1985-82 (part), 1985)