SECTION 13.4 ACCESS CONTROL REGULATIONS
In order to promote greater safety of passage between highway and land; improve the convenience and ease of movement of travelers on the highway; permit reasonable speeds and economy of travel; and increase and protect the capacity of the highway, the location and design of access points shall be in accordance with the following access control requirements. These requirements shall apply to all arterial and collector type streets, as identified in the adopted comprehensive plan:
   A.   Coordination of Access Points: Major access points on opposite side of the arterial and collector streets shall be located opposite each other, otherwise turning movement restrictions may be imposed by the Planning and Zoning Commission or Zoning Administrator, whichever is applicable. In addition, in order to maximize the efficient utilization of access points, and make possible the coordination of access with and between adjacent properties developed (present or future) for similar uses. As a condition of approval for construction, use, or reuse of any access road, the zoning administrator may require that unobstructed and unencumbered access, in accordance with the provisions of this ordinance, be provided from any such access point to adjacent properties.
   B.   Spacing Restrictions for Signalized Access Points: Access points which will warrant signalization shall be spaced a minimum distance of one quarter mile apart. The exact location of the signal light shall be determined by a traffic engineering study, which shall at least account for the following variables:
      1.   Speed;
      2.   Traffic signal phasing;
      3.   Traffic signal cycle length;
      4.   Roadway geometrics; and
      5.   Accident experience.
      Provision for all turning movements to maintain the design capacity of the roadway shall be required.
   C.   Sight Distance: The location of access points shall comply with safe sight distance requirements as provided in Table 13. The centerline of all access points shall intersect as nearly at a ninety (90) degree angle as possible but in no case shall the angle of intersection be less than seventy five (75) degrees or greater than one hundred five (105) degrees, unless approved by the Planning and Zoning Commission or Zoning Administrator, whichever is applicable, due to certain exceptional conditions.
   D.   Location of Unsignalized Access Points:
      1.   Unsignalized access points shall be spaced a minimum distance of two hundred (200) feet apart. Turning restriction may be required.
      2.   Two access points per 400 feet of street frontage will be permitted; however, if the spacing requirements for a direct access point onto an arterial street (as provided in D, 1, above) cannot be met, then an access point may be located on a frontage road or on an intersection local street, or share a common driveway that meets the spacing requirements. In order for the intersecting local street or frontage road to function properly, access onto them should be controlled as follows:
         (a)   Access points onto local streets, intersections, and arterial street shall be spaced a minimum distance of fifty (50) feet, measured from point of curb return to point of curb return, from arterial street.
         (b)   In areas zoned to permit commercial, industrial, or multi family residential use, access points from adjacent properties onto frontage roads, shall be no less than fifty (50) feet measured from point of curb return to point of curb return from intersections of the frontage road with local or collector streets.
         (c)   If a tract of land has no means of access that would meet the requirements of this section of the ordinance, one access point shall be provided. However, all such access points shall be considered a temporary right of way and may be terminated, reduced, limited to certain turning movements or caused to be relocated by the zoning administrator at such time as the particular use served by the access point changes and/or the property is otherwise provided an alternate means of access via a frontage road or an intersection, local street, or sharing of a common driveway. Provisions for the construction of a frontage road, restricted turning movements, or other improvements, may be required, as a condition to approval, in order to minimize the number of access points and congestion to the adjacent street. In all cases where said access points are classified as "temporary", such designation shall be duly noted on the plot plan or site plan submitted for a zoning permit and also upon the deed of the property in question.
   E.   Width of Access Points:
      1.   In residential zones, no access point width shall be less than nine (9) feet, nor more than twenty (20) feet. In all other zones, access points shall not be less than twelve (12) feet, nor more than forty eight (48) feet in width. The width shall be as measured from the point of curb return to point of curb return (or edge of pavement if no curb exists) excluding the curb radius.
      2.   The zoning administrator may modify (enlarge or reduce) the width to provide for a more efficient and safe channelization and/or flow of traffic.
   F.   Exceptions to Access Points Requirements: Where situations develop that may require special treatment, the requirements as provided in Section 13.3, A G, may be varied by the Planning and Zoning Commission provided that a traffic engineering report is prepared by a qualified traffic engineer, establishing that the special treatment will have no adverse effects on the roadway safety and capacity.
   G.   Access Point Problem Areas:  If after special study, it is determined that the type of use or activity proposed would have an adverse effect on the safety and capacity of the adjacent roadway, the access point spacing requirements as contained in this section, may have to be increased in order to adequately solve the traffic movement.
   H.   Approval of Access Points and Curb Cuts Required: As regulated by SECTION 9.19 of this Ordinance, Plans for all access points and modifications thereto, (including plans to use existing access points and where a change of use for any tract of land would generate more traffic than the previous use) shall be submitted to the zoning administrator at a scale not less than 1 inch = 100 feet. Such plans shall show the location of all access points, and access points within 600 feet in either direction. The proposed access point shall include typical cross sections of pavement, the base and subbase, proposed grade and storm drainage and such other information or plans as the circumstances may warrant. If such access points are being located in conjunction with off street parking and/or loading and unloading facilities, then said plans shall also include parking and off street loading and/or unloading plans, in accordance with SECTIONS 13.0 and 14.0 of this Ordinance.
   I.   Approval of Access Points Along State Maintained Routes by Kentucky Department of Transportation: A copy of the plan for all access points to be constructed along a state maintained route shall also be submitted to the Kentucky Department of Transportation for review and approval during the same time as plans are submitted to the zoning administrator, as provided for in Section 13.4. No access point plans shall be approved or permits issued for construction by the zoning administrator, until said access point plans have been approved by the Kentucky Department of Transportation.