§ 22-407. Streets.
   1.   Street Classification.
      A.   The State highway system includes all public streets and highways operated and maintained by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.
      B.   The Township Street System includes all public streets and roads maintained by Lamar Township. Subdividers proposing public dedication of streets within a subdivision shall submit road design and construction plans which meet the minimum specifications of the Township. A deed which dedicates to the Township the land to be used as a public street shall be recorded with the final plan.
      C.   Private streets include all streets not dedicated, accepted and maintained as public streets. Private streets may be permitted where the following conditions can be met:
         (1)   A survey of the centerline of the private right-of-way shall be shown on the plot plans along with a notation identifying the street and right-ofway as being private.
         (2)   The subdivider shall provide a right-of-way use and maintenance agreement in each deed, lease or conveyance prescribing a right-of-way width and location and setting forth an arrangement between the subdivider and buyer or lessee for improvement and maintenance of the private right-of-way.
         (3)   Where an existing private right-of-way is proposed to provide access to a new subdivision, the subdivider shall provide a right-of-way use and maintenance agreement signed by all property owners using the rightof-way if such an agreement has not been previously included in the existing deeds. This agreement shall be recorded with the final plan and prescribe a road right-of-way width and location and set forth arrangements for and level of maintenance of the private right-of-way.
         (4)   Private roads shall comply with dimensional requirements of Table 2.
         (5)   An all-weather surface shall be provided with a minimal base of 6 inches of 2A compacted aggregate.
   2.   Street Definitions.
      PRIVATE - a road whose function is to provide access to no more than three abutting properties. It is not dedicated, accepted or maintained as a public street. It conforms to the conditions of § 22-407(1)(C) of this Chapter.
      LOCAL - a street whose sole function is to provide access to abutting proprieties. It serves or is designed to serve no more than 25 dwelling units and can handle approximately 200 trips per day.
      COLLECTOR - a street whose principal function is to carry traffic between local and arterial streets but that may also provide direct access to abutting properties. It is designed to carry 200 to 800 trips per day.
      ARTERIAL - a major street that serves as an avenue for traffic into and out of the Township and carries high volumes of traffic.
      CUL-DE-SAC -a street that terminates in a vehicular turnaround.
   3.   Access.
      A.   Any new driveway accessing a municipal road shall conform to the standards in § 22-407(4).
      B.   In order to protect the public safety, the Planning Commission may restrict access onto a public street or highway to specific locations shown on the plot plan.
      C.   Any subdivision or land development plan proposing any new public or private streets or any new driveway(s) accessing a state highway shall contain a notice that a highway occupancy permit must be issued by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) before construction of access onto the state highway can be initiated. Additionally, the subdivider must submit to the Township Planning Commission a copy of the permit issued by PennDOT prior to subdivision approval.
      D.   Subdividers or developers proposing any new public or private streets or any new driveway(s) accessing onto a municipal road shall obtain a zoning permit from the Township Zoning Officer before construction of access onto the municipal road can be initiated. Additionally, the subdivider must submit to the Township Planning Commission a copy of the access permit prior to subdivision approval.
   4.   Driveways.
      A.   All proposed lots or land development shall be situated in such a fashion so that safe driveway access onto a public or private road can be provided. Driveway access shall be defined as that portion of a property on which a driveway could be constructed in accordance with the minimum guidelines contained in Table 1.
      B.   In a situation where significant safety hazards exist, such as excessive slope or areas of extremely limited sight distance, the Township may require, prior to granting final approval, that the subdivider construct the driveway access in strict accord with the guidelines contained in Table 1 or that a deed restriction be placed on the lot requiring the guidelines be complied with when a driveway is proposed for construction.
      C.   Drainage of driveways shall be designed and engineered in accordance with provisions of the Fishing Creek Stormwater Management Plan in effect or hereinafter adopted. Stormwater shall not discharge from any driveway on to the access road.
      D.   All driveways shall have a maximum grade of 15%.
      E.   All driveways shall provide a stopping or leveling area which extends 20 feet beyond the edge of the road cartway. This leveling area shall not exceed a maximum of 5% in grade nor intersect the shoulder of roads so as to produce a change in grade exceeding 8%. The leveling area shall intersect the street or road at an angle of no less than 50°.
      F.   Driveways proposed in the village center (VC) zoning district shall have a reduced dimension, if necessary, in order to be consistent with existing driveway scale in the village area.
   5.   Street Pattern.
      A.   All subdivision plans shall extend or continue existing rights-of-way at a width required by the adopted minimums, as specified by this Chapter.
      B.   New streets in the village center (VC) zoning districts shall be compatible in pattern and scale to existing streets in the village.
      C.   Local streets within a new development or subdivision shall be laid out to discourage through traffic. However, cul-de-sacs are prohibited in the village areas (VC zoning districts) where a traditional grid layout is appropriate.
 
TABLE 1. Driveway Design Guidelines
Type of Development
Minimum Width 1
Maximum Grade
Minimum Intervals 2
Minimum Sight Distance 3
Single Unit 4
10 ft.
15%
40 ft.
150 ft.
Multi-Unit Residential 5
15 ft.
12%
50 ft.
200 ft.
Non-Residential
15 ft.
8%
50 ft.
300 ft.
 
1 Driveway widths apply to intersections with 90° angles. Where a driveway forms less than a 90 °angle with the access street, a wider driveway width will be required.
2 The minimum interval shall apply between an intersection and the first driveway.
3 Minimum sight distance shall be measured from the point of intersection of the driveway and the street cartway centerline. No significant obstructions or plantings higher than 30 inches or tree limbs lower than 8 feet shall be permitted within this area.
4 Single unit driveways located in the village center (VC) zoning district may comply with reduced dimensions in order to be compatible with existing village scale.
5 For the purposes of driveway design, the multi-unit residential design criteria shall be used for driveways providing access to five or more dwelling units. All other dwelling units shall meet the driveway requirements for single-family residential use.
      D.   Local streets shall generally not provide access to more than 25 lots, shall be laid out to discourage short cuts to streets or property beyond the subdivision and shall minimize traffic speeds using appropriate posting. However, provision for the extension and continuation of collector streets into and from adjoining areas shall be required.
      E.   Where a subdivision or land development abuts or contains an existing or proposed collector street, the Planning Commission may require marginal access streets, reverse frontage lots or such other treatment as will provide protection for abutting properties, reduction in the number of intersections with the arterial street and separation of local and through traffic.
      F.   If the lots in a development are large enough for resubdivision, or if a portion of the tract is not subdivided, suitable access and street openings for such an eventuality shall be provided.
   6.   Street Design.
      A.   Minimum construction standards for public and private streets serving residential, commercial, institutional and industrial development are shown on Table III and are further detailed in the following sub-sections:
         (1)   All streets proposed for dedication to the Township shall meet the requirements set forth in Table III, for Local or Collector streets at the time of dedication;
         (2)   Streets shall be surfaced to the grades and dimensions shown on plans, profiles and cross-sections submitted by the sub-divider or developer and approved by the Township. Before finalizing street installation, the sub-divider shall install any required utilities and provide adequate drainage facilities for the street in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 22 of the Lamar Township Code of Ordinances;
         (3)   The pavement sub-base, base and wearing surface shall be constructed to the specifications contained in Table III. (see also PADOT's Publication 70, Guidelines for the Design of Local Roads and Streets, or most current standards.) All components of the pavement structure shall meet the requirements specified in the most current version of PADOT's Publication, form 408;
         (4)   Where low volumes of traffic are anticipated, the Township Supervisors may authorize the use of the alternate standards for construction of local streets as set forth in Table III. At a minimum, all such streets shall meet the specifications of the State's Dirt and Gravel Roads Program and shall be reviewed and inspected by the Clinton County Conservation District prior to consideration of acceptance by the Township;
         (5)   The sub-base shall extend six (6) inches beyond the required cartway width on each side of the proposed street in order to provide additional support and structural integrity for the cartway wearing surface. The sub-base shall be composed of shale, crushed stone (two (2) A or equivalent), or other material approved by the Township Supervisors and shall be constructed to the depth set forth in Table III;
         (6)   Street shoulders shall be constructed to a compacted depth equal to the depth of the base and wearing surface of the street. The finished surface elevation of the shoulder shall meet the finished elevation of the edge of the cartway;
         (7)   Private streets serving five (5) or more lots or dwelling units shall be constructed in accordance with the standards for Local Streets contained in Table III;
         (8)   All private streets being offered for dedication to the Township shall be constructed in accordance with the standards for Local Streets contained in Table III;
         (9)   Existing private streets proposed as access to a new subdivision or development must be constructed with a stabilized, all-weather driving surface in accordance with the standards of this ordinance. An independent engineering analysis, paid for by the sub-divider or developer, may be required by the Township to evaluate the capability of the existing road to accommodate the project addition use generated by the proposed development; and
         (10)   Where additional development is proposed utilizing an existing private street or right-of-way, the total number of lots or dwelling units served by the private roadway shall be determined by the applicable construction standards. It shall be the responsibility of the sub-divider or developer to improve the conditions of the existing private street where such improvement is deemed appropriate by the Township.
TABLE III
CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE STREETS
 
Street Type (1)
Course
Type of Material (2)
Depth of Material After Compaction (3),( 4)
Minor Collector Streets
Wearing Surface
Base/Binder Course
Sub-base
ID-2 or Equivalent Bituminous Concrete Sub-base (5)
1 1/2 Inches
3 Inches
8-12 Inches
Local Streets (Preferred)
Wearing Surface
Base/Binder Course
Sub-base
ID-2 or Equivalent Bituminous Concrete Sub-base (5)
1 Inch
2 Inches
8 Inches
Local Streets (Alternate) (6)
Wearing Surface
Base
Sub-base
----
2RC Stone or Equivalent Sub-base (5)
----
4 Inches
6 Inches
Private Streets (serving 3 or 4 lots or dwelling units) (7)
Wearing Surface
Base
Sub-base
----
2A Stone or Equivalent Sub-base (5)
----
4 Inches
6 Inches
 
(1)   Minor collector and arterial streets shall be designed and constructed in accordance with all applicable PADOT standards, For the purpose of determining appropriate construction standards, streets serving 20 or more lots or dwelling units shall be considered to be minor collector streets.
(2)   All components of the pavement structure shall meet the requirements specified in the most recent version of PADOT's Publication, Form 408. (See also Publication 70, Guidelines for the Design of Local Roads and Streets, most current version.)
(3)   Compaction shall be by 10 ton vibratory roller or equivalent.
(4)   The depth of all materials may be modified by the Township Supervisors based on the soil types and drainage patterns of the area. In wet or poorly-drained areas, the Township may also require a 4-inch pavement base drain.
(5)   The sub-base shall consist of shale, crushed aggregate, or other material approved by the Township Supervisors.
(6)   Where low volumes of traffic are anticipated, the Township Supervisors may authorize the use of these or other alternate construction standards, All streets constructed utilizing alternate standards shall however meet the specifications of the State's Dirt and Gravel Roads Program, and be reviewed and inspected by the County Conservation District.
(7)   Private streets serving 1 or 2 lots or dwelling units need not be constructed to meet specific standards. Private streets serving 5 or more lots or dwelling units shall be constructed to the standards set forth for local streets. All private streets being offered for dedication to the Township shall be constructed to the standards for local streets.
      B.   Where a proposed street is to remain private, the provisions of §22-407(l)(C) shall apply.
      C.   Minimum right-of-way and cartway widths are shown in Table 2. The following requirements shall also be applied.
         (1)   Provision for smaller street dimensions shall be approved in the village center (VC) zoning district and in districts directly abutting the VC district. Right-of-way width, cartway width and minimum radius shall be reduced in order to conform with the scale of existing village streets. If a hazard is demonstrated to exist, width and radius may be modified to address such hazard.
         (2)   Provision for a modified street right-of-way may be required by the Commission for public safety and convenience, or access to off-street parking in commercial and industrial areas and in areas of high density residential development.
         (3)   Where agricultural uses abut an existing street, the right-of-way widths shown on Table 2 shall be maintained for purposes of road stabilization. Agricultural activities shall be prohibited in the right-of-way area adjacent to the cartway.
         (4)   Where a subdivision abuts an existing street of inadequate width, additional right-of-way shall be required in conformance with the ultimate right-of-way widths required under Table 2 of this Chapter.
   7.   Intersections.
      A.   Streets shall be laid out as to intersect as nearly as possible at right angles, and no street shall intersect any other at less than 60°.
      B.   Intersecting private and public streets located on a slope shall have a leveling area of 25 foot length with a maximum grade of 4%.
      C.   Property lines at intersections shall be rounded with radii at 35 feet for local streets and 50 feet for collector streets.
 
TABLE 2. Design Standards for Private and Public Streets
Collector Streets
Local Streets 6
Private Streets 7
Right-of-Way Width 8
50 ft
50 ft
50 ft
Cartway Width 8
24 ft.
20 ft.
16 ft.
Maximum Grade
8%
10%
12%
Minimum Radius at Centerline for Horizontal Curves 8
300 ft.
175 ft
Minimum Sight Distance
300 ft.
150 ft.
Cul-de-Sacs:
   Diameter of Turnaround Right-of-Way
100 ft.
80 ft.
   Diameter of Turnaround Cartway
80 ft
60 ft.
6 If alleys or service drives are proposed, they shall have a minimum right-of-way width of 20 feet.
7 Private streets shall serve no more than three lots or dwelling units.
8 Minimum cartway width and radii may be reduced in the village center (VC) district and in districts immediately contiguous with the VC district to correspond to existing street dimensions.
      D.   Streets entering opposite sides of another street shall be laid out directly opposite each other; or if necessary, or where encouraged by the Commission, they shall be separated by at least 150 feet between centerlines, measured along the intersected thoroughfare.
      E.   Multiple intersections involving the junction of more than two streets shall be avoided whenever possible. Intersections along collector and arterial streets shall be located not less than 800 feet apart between centerlines.
      F.   At all street. intersections no obstruction to vision (including signs but not an existing building, post, column, fence or tree) exceeding 30 inches in height above the established grade of the street at the property line shall be permitted or tree limbs lower than 10 feet on any lot within a triangle formed by a line drawn between points along adjacent street centerlines located 75 feet distant from their point of intersection.
   8.   Cul-de-sac Streets.
      A.   All dead-end streets require cul-de-sacs or turnarounds.
      B.   Cul-de-sac streets shall not exceed 600 feet in length or serve more than 20 lots or dwelling units, whichever is less.
      C.   The cul-de-sac turnaround shall be graded and surfaced in the same manner as the street and shall have a minimum right-of-way diameter of 100 feet.
      D.   Innovative alternatives to the standard turnaround may be permitted by the Township where an equivalent turnaround area is provided. However, the use of any innovative alternative may jeopardize eligibility for PennDOT liquid fuels tax reimbursement for the cul-de-sac street.
      E.   Any street dead-ended because of authorized staged development shall be provided with a temporary all-weather turnaround.
   9.   Street Names and Signs.
      A.   The Planning Commission shall approve street names at the time of preliminary plan approval. The local Postmaster shall be consulted in this regard. Names shall be different in sound and in spelling from other road names in the Township so as not to cause confusion. A road which is planned as a continuation of an existing road shall bear the same name.
      B.   The subdivision or land development shall be provided with street name signs at all intersections. Such signs shall conform to Township specifications and shall be installed by the subdivider or developer at his expense in a manner specified by the Township.
(Ord. 3/9/1993A, §406; as amended by Ord. 06-05-2018-C, 6/5/2018, §I)