(A)   Purpose and findings.
      (1)   The purpose of these regulations is to provide specific criteria so that new buildings blend into the historic architectural framework of the city.
      (2)   These criteria are not intended to restrict imagination, innovation or variety, but rather to assist in focusing design principles, which can result in creative solutions that will develop a satisfactory visual appearance within the city; preserve taxable values; and promote the public health, safety and general welfare.
      (3)   These standards:
         (a)   Provide a physical and visual connection between the living area of the residence and the street;
         (b)   Enhance public safety by allowing people to survey their neighborhood from inside their residences, places of work or shopping areas;
         (c)   Provide a more pleasant pedestrian environment by preventing large expanses of blank facades along streets;
         (d)   Ensure that the location and amount of the living area of the residence, as seen from the street, is more prominent than the garage;
         (e)   Prevent garages from obscuring the main entrance from the street and ensure that the main entrance for pedestrians, rather than automobiles, is the prominent entrance;
         (f)   Provide for a more pleasant pedestrian environment by preventing garages and vehicle areas from dominating the views of the neighborhood from the sidewalk;
         (g)   Enhance public safety by preventing garages from blocking views of the street from inside the residence;
         (h)   Supplement the zoning regulations applied to site-built, modular and manufactured homes, with additional standards and procedures that will promote a satisfactory living environment for residents of single-family homes and that will permit a mix of homes and other types of housing within the city;
         (i)   Permit greater diversity in the types of housing communities;
         (j)   Ensure that all new single-family dwellings are compatible with other forms of housing; and
         (k)   Ensure the provision of single-family housing opportunities for persons or families of low or moderate income by providing for design standards that ensure compatibility among various types of housing units as an alternative to exclusionary zoning.
   (B)   Single-family residential dwellings.
      (1)   Applicability.
         (a)   Types of dwelling units. Unless otherwise specified in this chapter, this section applies to:
            1.   Any single-family dwelling unit;
            2.   Any duplex; and
            3.   Any triplex.
         (b)   Design elements required. The combination of design elements, as shown in Table 153.0999(A) below, is required for any dwelling unit subject to this section.
Table 153.0999(A): Applicability of Single-Family Design Regulations
Zoning District or Use
Table 153.0999(A): Applicability of Single-Family Design Regulations
Zoning District or Use
Subsection (B)(3), Main Entrance, of this section
Subsection (B)(4), Garages, of this section
Subsection (B)(5), Roofs, of this section
Subsection (B)(6), Foundations, of this section
Subsection (B)(7), Exterior Finish Materials, of this section
Subsection (B)(8), Windows and Entryways, of this section
RE = Residential Estate;
RP = Resource Protection;
NS = Neighborhood Suburban;
NU = Neighborhood Urban;
D = Downtown;
TND = traditional neighborhood development;
PD = Planned Development;
M = the standard is mandatory; and
O = the standard is optional.
Single-family dwellings subject to this section must comply with at least two of the optional standards.
      (2)   Size limitations. No single-family dwelling unit, duplex, or triplex shall exceed 8,000 square feet in size, nor exceed a floor area ratio (FAR) of 0.60. The total area of all dwellings and accessory structures shall not exceed a FAR of 0.75.
      (3)   Main entrance.
         (a)   Location of main entrance. The main entrance of each primary structure must face the street. On corner lots, the main entrance may face either of the streets or be oriented to the corner. With buildings that have more than one main entrance, only one entrance must meet this requirement. A building must include a front porch or stoop at all main entrances that face a street. The porch or stoop shall adjoin the main entrance and the main entrance shall be accessible from the porch.
         (b)   Porches.
            1.   Porches shall be covered by a solid roof. The roof shall not be located more than 12 feet above the floor of the porch. If the roof of a required porch is developed as a deck or balcony, it may be flat.
            2.   The porch shall have minimum dimensions of six feet by six feet. For single-family dwellings, the covered area provided by the porch must be at least 48 square feet and a minimum of eight feet wide. If the main entrance is for more than one dwelling unit, the covered area provided by the porch must be at least 63 square feet and a minimum of nine feet wide.
         (c)   Covered balconies. The covered area provided by the balcony must be at least 48 square feet, a minimum of eight feet wide and no more than 15 feet above grade. The covered balcony must be accessible from the interior living space of the house.
         (d)   Openings between porch floor and ground. Openings of more than one foot between the porch floor and the ground must be covered with a solid material or lattice.
      (4)   Garages.
         (a)   Generally. Garages shall either be detached or shall be facing the side or rear lot line. A garage wall may not be closer to the street lot line than the front of the porch.
         (b)   Detached garages. These standards encourage detached garages as an alternative to front-loaded attached garages.
            1.   Detached garages are permitted in any zoning district. Detached garages shall be located in the rear or side yard. The footprint for the garage structure shall not exceed 26 by 30 feet or 780 square feet. The garage walls, measured from the eave to the adjacent grade, shall not exceed 15 feet in height or the height of the principal structure, whichever is less.
            2.   A detached garage that is non-conforming due to its location in a setback may be rebuilt on its existing foundation if it was originally constructed legally. An addition may be made to these types of garages if the addition complies with the standards of this section, or if the combined size of the existing foundation and any additions are no larger than 12 feet wide by 18 feet deep. The garage walls shall not exceed ten feet in height.
         (c)   Street-facing garage walls.
            1.   Applicability. This section applies to garages that are accessory to single-family dwelling units, manufactured homes, duplexes or triplexes. Where a proposal is for an alteration or addition to existing development, the standard applies only to the portion being altered or added. Garages that are accessory to attached houses, development on flag lots or development on lots that slope up or down from the street with an average slope of 20% or more, are exempt from this standard.
            2.   Maximum length and size. The length of that portion of a garage wall facing the street shall not exceed 50% of the length of the street-facing building facade. Garage doors may not exceed 80 square feet in area. There may be no more than two individual garage doors per side. On corner lots, only one street-facing garage wall must meet this standard. Where the street-facing facade of the building is less than 24 feet long, the garage wall facing the street may be up to 12 feet long if there is one of the following:
               a.   Interior living area above the garage; or
               b.   A covered balcony above the garage that is at least the same length as the street-facing garage wall, at least six feet deep and accessible from the interior living area of the dwelling unit.
         (d)   Street lot line setbacks. A garage wall that faces a street shall be located at least 20 feet behind the plane of the front facade. A street-facing garage wall may adjoin the front facade or be located within the area described above, where:
            1.   The street-facing garage wall does not exceed 30% of the length of the building facade; and
            2.   The interior living area is located above the garage. The living area must be set back no more than four feet from the street-facing garage wall, or shall include a covered balcony above the garage that is at least the same length as the street-facing garage wall, at least six feet deep, and accessible from the interior living area of the dwelling unit.
         (e)   Street-facing garage walls prohibited in “D” (Downtown) District or traditional neighborhood development (TND). Garage walls facing the street or extending beyond the front elevation of a dwelling unit are prohibited in the “D” District or a TND use pattern or district.
      (5)   Roofs.
         (a)   Slope. Principal structures must have a roof that is sloped, with a pitch that is no flatter than six units of horizontal run to 12 units of horizontal rise.
         (b)   Architectural features. The roof of a principal structure shall include either or both of the following architectural details:
            1.   At least one dormer facing the street. If only one dormer is included, it shall be at least five feet wide and shall be centered horizontally between each end of the front elevation. If more than one dormer is provided, a dormer at least four feet wide must be provided on each side of the front elevation; or
            2.   A gable end, or gabled end of a roof projection, facing the street.
         (c)   Roof eaves. Roof eaves must project from the building wall at least 12 inches, measured horizontally, on at least the front and side elevations.
      (6)   Foundation. The ground level of the first floor, including the lowest elevation of any point of the front facade, shall be elevated at least three feet from the horizontal surface of the street or sidewalk. Plain concrete block or plain concrete may be used as foundation material if the foundation material is not visible by more than three feet above the finished grade level adjacent to the foundation wall.
      (7)   Exterior finish materials.
         (a)   Plain concrete block, plain concrete, corrugated metal, plywood and sheet pressboard are not allowed as exterior finish material. Composite boards manufactured from wood or other products, such as hardboard or hardiplank, may be used when the board product is less than six inches wide.
         (b)   Where wood products are used for siding, the siding must be shingles or horizontal siding and not shakes.
         (c)   Where horizontal siding is used, it must be ship-lap or clapboard siding composed of boards with a reveal of three to eight inches, or vinyl or aluminum siding that is in a clapboard or shiplap pattern where the boards in the pattern are eight inches or less in width.
      (8)   Windows and entryways.
         (a)   At least 15% of the area of a street-facing facade must include windows or main entryways.
         (b)   Street-facing windows shall comply with the following requirements:
            1.   Each window must be square or vertical - at least as tall as it is wide; or
            2.   A horizontal window opening may be created subject to the following standards:
               a.   Two or more vertical windows are grouped together to provide a horizontal opening, and they are either all the same size or no more than two sizes are used. Where two sizes of windows are used in a group, the smaller window size must be on the outer edges of the grouping. The windows on the outer edges of the grouping must be vertical; the center window or windows may be vertical, square or horizontal;
               b.   There is a band of individual lights across the top of the horizontal window. These small lights must be vertical and must cover at least 20% of the total height of the window; or
               c.   Windows in rooms with a finished floor height four feet or more below grade are exempt from this standard.
   (C)   Duplexes, triplexes and quadraplexes.
      (1)   Generally. Duplexes shall include at least two of the following architectural elements, as described in this subsection (C):
         (a)   Dormers;
         (b)   Front porches;
         (c)   Bay windows; and
         (d)   Balconies.
      (2)   Covered balconies. Duplexes or triplexes may provide a covered balcony on the same facade as the main entrance instead of a front porch.
      (3)   Windows. Windows shall have a vertical-to-horizontal ratio of at least 1.5:1 and less than 3:1, which are recessed into the face of the building and broken up with smaller panes of glass.
      (4)   Roofs. The roof of each attached unit must be distinct from the other through either separation of roof pitches or direction, or other variation in roof design.
   (D)   Manufactured homes. Manufactured homes shall conform to the requirements of subsection (B) above and to the standards and criteria shown in subsections (B) through (D) herein.
      (1)   Zoning standards. Any manufactured home on an individual lot shall conform to the same building setback standards, side and rear yard requirements, standards for enclosures, access, vehicle parking and square-footage standards and requirements that would be applicable to a conventional, single-family residential dwelling on the same lot.
      (2)   Foundation. The dwelling shall be attached to a permanent foundation system in compliance with the currently adopted International Residential Code and State of Illinois Manufactured Home requirements, as may be amended, and the following requirements:
         (a)   All wheels, hitches, axles, transporting lights and removable towing apparatus shall be permanently removed prior to installation of the dwelling unit;
         (b)   The foundation shall be excavated and shall have continuous skirting or backfill leaving no uncovered open areas excepting vents and crawl spaces. The foundation shall either not be located above grade or shall include masonry skirting; and
         (c)   All manufactured homes shall be anchored to the ground by means of anchors attached both to the frame and with straps extending over the top and completely surrounding the sides and roof, consistent with building code requirements. In addition, test data giving certified results of pull tests in soils representative of the area in which the anchors are to be used shall be submitted to the Code Enforcement Officer. Minimum load in direct pull shall be 5,400 pounds. Anchors shall be marked so that, after installation, the identification is in plain view for inspection.
      (3)   Orientation. Manufactured homes that are narrower than 16 feet in width shall be oriented on the lot so that its long axis is parallel to the street.
   (E)   Multi-family dwellings.
      (1)   Applicability.
         (a)   Unless otherwise specified in this chapter, this section applies to any of the following where located on a lot exceeding 10,000 square feet:
            1.   Any townhouse or row house; and
            2.   Any building that includes multi-family dwelling units.
         (b)   For purposes of computing the number of dwelling units to determine applicability of the standards of this section, the number of existing or proposed dwelling units within any tract of land plus all existing or proposed multi-family dwellings on any adjacent property under common ownership shall be counted.
      (2)   Entryways. For developments of 40 or more dwelling units, a divided ingress-egress driveway with a landscaped median for all entrances from public streets shall be provided. Median design shall conform to the standards in §§ 153.1065 through 153.1078 of this chapter.
      (3)   Common open space. Common open space areas shall be required in accordance with §§ 153.1015 through 153.1023 of this chapter. The Code Enforcement Officer may waive up to 50% of the open space requirement if all units within the development are located within 1,000 feet of a public park as measured along a public sidewalk. The open space requirements of this section shall not apply to multi-family residential developments that are second-floor units above first-floor commercial development, or to any residential developments in the “D” (Downtown) Zoning District that are above the first floor. Open space provided pursuant to this requirement shall be accessible to all residents of the development and shall measure at least 30 feet across its narrowest dimension.
      (4)   Pedestrian facilities. Sidewalks shall be constructed within the interior of the development to link residential buildings with other destinations, such as, but not limited to, parking, adjoining streets, mailboxes, trash disposal, adjoining sidewalks or greenways and on-site amenities, such as recreation areas. These interior sidewalks shall be constructed in accordance with the standards for sidewalks in §§ 153.1065 through 153.1078 of this chapter. Sidewalks shall be provided adjacent to all public streets that provide access to the development.
      (5)   Building design. Building design for multi-family buildings shall:
         (a)   Provide interesting and aesthetically attractive multi-family developments;
         (b)   Avoid monotonous, “barracks”-style buildings;
         (c)   Ensure that multi-family buildings have a multi-faceted exterior form in which articulated facades are combined with window and door placements as well as other detailing; and
         (d)   Create an interesting and attractive architectural design. These standards limit flat walls with minimal features.
      (6)   Building design standards. The following standards shall apply to building design:
         (a)   Buildings shall not exceed 150 feet in length;
         (b)   Facades greater than 50 feet in length, measured horizontally, shall incorporate wall plane projections or recesses. Ground-floor facades that face public streets shall have arcades, windows, entry areas, awnings or other such features for at least 60% of their horizontal length;
         (c)   Buildings shall be arranged so that they are aligned parallel to a sidewalk or around common open space, such as courtyards, greens, squares or plazas; and
         (d)   Entryways shall face a street, sidewalk or common area. Buildings shall not face the rear of other buildings on the same lot or parcel.
      (7)   Utilities. All utility lines shall be located underground. Outdoor area lighting shall be provided for security. Such lighting shall be shielded to direct light downward and not into dwelling units on, or adjacent to, the multi-family site. Lighting shall be provided to illuminate the intersections of primary interior driveways and building entryways.
   (F)   Commercial buildings.
      (1)   Purpose and findings. These standards are designed to:
         (a)   Promote a quality, urban streetscape;
         (b)   Promote a pedestrian-friendly environment;
         (c)   Establish a variety of mixed uses in the core of the community;
         (d)   Provide an orderly development pattern;
         (e)   Maintain a supply of developable land while preserving the compact development;
         (f)   Improve traffic circulation and promote alternatives to automobile travel;
         (g)   Provide housing opportunities within walking distances of employment, service and retail opportunities;
         (h)   Maintain an overall design theme;
         (i)   Preserve a human scale for new buildings;
         (j)   Provide economic development opportunities through clean industry, office and commercial uses; and
         (k)   Provide for the daily needs and services of the community. These standards are not intended to restrict imagination, innovation or variety. See Figure 153.0999(A) below for orientation of commercial design elements.
Figure 153.0999(A): Commercial Design Elements
      (2)   Applicability. Unless otherwise specified in this chapter, this section applies to any commercial building or structure.
      (3)   Floor area. In order to implement the goals and objectives of the Comprehensive Plan related to the impacts of large-scale development upon neighborhoods, the need for walk-ability and viable mixed-use communities to enhance the air quality, reduce traffic congestion, promote safety from traffic accidents, and enhance the land-use plans of the downtown and commercial corridors or centers, no commercial building or structure used for retail shall have a gross floor area (GFA) of 40,000 square feet or greater, or store or display lumber, or building materials outside of a completely enclosed building, except where located in a corridor commercial overlay zoning district, or downtown commercial district, where the GFA ratio may not exceed 60,000 gross square feet per building or structure and outside storage or display shall be subject to a special use permit. Every commercial building used for retail or wholesale sales that exceeds 25,000 square feet shall obtain a special use permit prior to obtaining any development approval under the UDC. The special use permit shall require a written finding by the Board of Appeals that:
         (a)   The building intensity and use is consistent with the applicable comprehensive, area or neighborhood plan goals, objectives, policies and strategies;
         (b)   The building contains mixed uses of commercial, office and residential;
         (c)   The building meets all of the other standards of the UDC, and particularly that of Division 2 of this chapter; and
         (d)   The building will not create excessive on-or off-site traffic, environmental, aesthetic, storm drainage, fiscal or non-compatibility impacts upon adjoining properties and neighborhoods. The applicant for the special use permit shall provide to the Board of Appeals or legislative body a traffic fiscal impact report and an environmental impact assessment, along with the application for the special use permit. This documentation shall provide substantial competent evidence to support the findings in subsections (F)(3)(a) through (d) above.
      (4)   Building structure.
         (a)   Base, middle and cap. Buildings exceeding two stories shall incorporate a base, a middle and a cap described as follows:
            1.   The base shall include an entryway with transparent windows as set forth in the ground-floor design standards (division (F)(6) below), and a molding or reveal placed between the first and second stories or over the second story. The molding or reveal shall have a depth of at least two inches and a height of at least four inches;
            2.   The middle may include windows and/or balconies; and
            3.   The cap shall include the area from the top floor to the roof of the building, and shall include a cornice or a roof overhang.
         (b)   Alignment. Windowsills, moldings, and cornices shall align with those of adjacent buildings. The bottom and top line defining the edge of the windows (the “windowsill alignment”) shall vary not more than two feet from the alignment of surrounding buildings. If the adjoining buildings have a windowsill alignment that varies by more than two feet from one another, the proposed building shall align with one of the adjoining buildings.
      (5)   Facade size.
         (a)   FACADE SIZE refers to the length multiplied by the width of any facade that faces or is parallel to a public or private street. FACADE means the exterior side of a building and includes the entire building walls, including wall faces, parapets, fascia, windows, doors, canopy and visible roof structures of one complete elevation. The sum total of the facade areas on a lot may exceed the maximum facade size described in this section by dividing the buildings into two or more buildings, or into distinct “modules” that incorporate visible changes in the facade elevation through the use of wall plane projections, piers, columns, colonnades, arcades or similar architectural features that create a distinct facade elevation (see Figure 153.0999(A) above).
         (b)   Each module shall have separate windows and entryways. The modules for a single, continuous facade shall not exceed an average of 30 feet in width. No module shall exceed 50 feet in width. (See Figure 153.0999(B) below.)
Figure 153.0999(B): Form-Based Zoning
Modules are useful in developing form-based zoning.
      (6)   Ground-floor design.
         (a)   All buildings subject to this section shall have their principal entrance opening to a street, square, plaza or sidewalk. The principal entrance shall not open onto a parking lot. Pedestrian access from the public sidewalk, street right-of-way or driveway to the principal structure shall be provided through an improved surface.
         (b)   The ground floor of the entryway shall align with the sidewalk elevation. Sunken terraces or stairways to a basement shall not constitute entryways for purposes of this section. It is not the intent of this section to preclude the use of below-grade entryways; provided, however, that, such entryways shall not constitute a principal entryway and shall not be used to satisfy the distancing requirements of subsection (F)(8) below.
      (7)   Street wall. Where a maximum front setback has been established, the front building wall or courtyard shall adjoin the sidewalk. The side setback shall be a minimum of zero feet and a maximum of ten feet.
      (8)   Windows and entryways.
         (a)   Windows above the ground floor shall have a minimum ratio of height to width of 2:1.
         (b)   The ground floors of all buildings shall be designed to encourage and to complement pedestrian-scale activity by the use of windows and doors arranged so that the uses are visible from and/or accessible to the street on at least 50% of the length of the first-floor street frontage. At least 60%, nor more than 90%, of the total surface area of the front elevation shall be in public entrances and windows (including retail display windows). Where windows are used, they shall be transparent.
         (c)   Solid walls shall not exceed 20 feet in length.
         (d)   All street-level retail uses with sidewalk frontage shall be furnished with an individual entrance and direct access to the sidewalk in addition to any other access that may be provided. This standard shall not apply to any lot with a street frontage of less than 24 feet.
         (e)   Doors shall be recessed into the face of the building to provide a sense of entry and to add variety to the streetscape. An entryway shall not be less than one square foot for each 1,000 square feet of floor area, and in all cases shall not be less than 15 square feet.
         (f)   The maximum setback requirements may be waived by the Code Enforcement Officer for an area not to exceed 90% of the frontage in order to accommodate courtyards.
         (g)   Canopies, awnings, and similar appurtenances may be constructed at the entrance to any building, subject to the criteria established in the currently adopted International Building Code.
      (9)   Mechanical equipment. Mechanical equipment, electrical meter and service components, and similar utility devices, whether ground level, wall mounted or roof mounted, shall be screened from view at the front property line. Exterior screening materials shall be the same as the predominant exterior materials of the principal building. In cases where the front property line is higher than the roof line of the subject building, no screening shall be required for a line of sight exceeding five feet six inches above the finished elevation of the property at the front property line.
   (G)   Civic buildings. Civic buildings shall include columns, arcades or colonnades in lieu of the ground-level design requirements of this section.
(Ord. 3020, passed 9-10-2013, § 5.13; Ord. 3160, passed 1-9-2018)