§ 151.03  DEFINITIONS.
   For the purpose of this chapter, the following definitions shall apply unless the context clearly indicates or requires a different meaning. Words used in the present tense include the future; words in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural the singular. Where terms are not defined in this section, they shall have their ordinarily accepted meanings or such as the context may imply.
   ACCESSIBLE, READILY. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal or inspections, without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders, chairs and the like.
   ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor or height of a building or structure.
   AIR CONDITIONING. The treatment of air so as to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanness and distribution to meet the requirements of a conditioned space.
   AIR GAP. An air gap in a water-supply system is the unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture or other device and the flood-level rim of the receptacle.
   ALLEY. Any public space or thoroughfare 20 feet or less in width which has been dedicated or deeded for public use.
   ALTER or ALTERATION. Any change or modification in construction or occupancy.
   AMPACITY. The current in amperes a conductor can carry continuously under the conditions of use without exceeding its temperature rating.
   APARTMENT. A room, or suite of two or more rooms, in a residence building occupied as the home or residence of an individual, family or household.
   APARTMENT HOUSE. Any building or portion thereof used as a multiple dwelling for the purpose of providing three or more separate dwelling units which may share means of egress and other essential facilities.
   APPLIANCE. Utilization equipment, normally built in standardized sizes or types, which is installed or connected as a unit to perform one or more functions such as clothes washing or drying, food mixing, cooking and the like.
   APPLICABLE GOVERNING BODY. A city, county, state, state agency or other political government subdivision or entity authorized to administer and enforce the provisions of this code, as adopted or amended.
   APPROVED. Approved by the Building Official or other authority having jurisdiction.
   AREA BUILDING. The maximum horizontally projected area of the building at or above grade, exclusive of court and vent shafts.
   AREA (GROSS FLOOR). The area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls with no deduction for corridors, stairs, closets, thickness of walls, columns or other features, exclusive of court and vent shafts.
   AREA (NET FLOOR). The area actually occupied not including accessory unoccupied area such as corridors, stairs, closets, thickness of walls, columns, toilet room, mechanical area or other features.
   ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top habitable story and the roof rafters.
   ATTIC STORY. Any story situated wholly or partly in the roof, so designated, arranged or built as to be used for business, storage or habitation.
   AUTOMATIC. Self-acting, operation by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration. (See NON-AUTOMATIC.)
   BACKFLOW. The flow of water or the liquids, mixtures or substances into the distributing pipes of a potable supply of water from any source or sources other than its intended source.
   BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent backflow into the potable water system.
   BALCONY (EXTERIOR). A platform that projects from the wall of a building or structure and is enclosed by a parapet or railing no less than 42 inches in height.
   BASEMENT. A story of a building or structure having one-half or more of its clear height below grade. Also see STORY. A BASEMENT used as habitable space shall be considered a story.
   BEAM. A primary structural member supporting secondary structural members, floor, roof, joists and the like.
   BOILER. A heating appliance intended to supply hot water or steam.
   BONDING. The permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrically conductive path which will assure electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct safely any current likely to be imposed.
   BRANCH CIRCUIT. The circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet(s).
   BRICK. A solid masonry unit having a shape approximately a rectangular prism, usually not larger than 12 inches by four inches by four inches. A BRICK may be made of burned clay or shale, of fire clay or mixtures thereof, of lime and sand, of cement and suitable aggregates or of other approved materials.
   BUILDING. Any structure built for the support, shelter or enclosure of persons, animals, chattels or property of any kind which has enclosing walls for 50% of its perimeter. The term BUILDING shall be construed as if followed by the words “or part thereof”. (For the purpose of this chapter, each portion of a building separated from other portions by a fire wall shall be considered as a separate BUILDING.)  For the purpose of area and height limitations, this definition shall be applicable to sheds and open sheds.
   BUILDING DRAIN. The part of the lowest piping of a drainage system which receives the discharge from soil waste, and other drainage pipes inside the walls of the building connecting with the main soil stack or vent stack which shall be located at the group or battery of fixtures where the greatest fixture unit load occurs, and conveys it to the building (house) sewer beginning ten feet outside the building wall. A cleanout shall be installed at that point and extended to finish grade.
   BUILDING LINE. The line, established by law, beyond which a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by law.
   BUILDING SEWER. The part of the horizontal piping of a drainage system which extends from the end of the building drain and which receives the discharge of the building drain and conveys it to a public sewer, private sewer or individual sewage-disposal system.
   CELLAR. The portion of a building, the ceiling of which is entirely below grade or less than four feet six inches above grade. (See STORY.)
   CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY/COMPLIANCE. A document issued by the Housing Inspector certifying compliance with all applicable state and local laws, including all terms of an approved zoning permit, and authorizing occupancy of a building or structure.
   CHIMNEY. One or more passageways, vertical or nearly so, for conveying flue gases to the outside atmosphere.
   CHIMNEY CONNECTOR. The pipe which connects a fuel burning appliance to a chimney.
   CIRCUIT BREAKER. A device designed to open and close a circuit by non-automatic means and to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overcurrent without injury to itself when properly applied within its rating.
   COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. A material which cannot be classified as non-combustible or limited- combustible in accordance with that definition.
   COMMON-PROPERTY LINE. A line dividing one lot from another when the lots are not of one ownership.
   CONCRETE. A mixture of portland cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water.
   CONDOMINIUM DWELLING UNIT. For the purpose of this chapter, is an “apartment”, as defined in this chapter.
   CONDUCTOR, BARE. A conductor having no covering or electrical insulation whatsoever.
   CONDUCTOR, COVERED. A conductor encased within material of composition or thickness that is not recognized by the National Electrical Code as electrical insulation.
   CONDUCTOR, INSULATED. A conductor encased within material of composition and thickness that is recognized by the National Electrical Code as electrical insulation.
   CROSS-CONNECTION. Any physical connection or arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, one of which contains potable water and the other water of unknown or questionable safety, whereby water may flow from one system to the other, the direction of flow depending on the pressure differential between the two systems.
   DECK. A raised platform extending from an exterior building wall and supported by piers, columns, pilings or foundation.
   DETERIORATED. A dwelling is unfit for human habitation and can be repaired, altered or improved to comply with all the minimum standards established by this chapter, at a cost not in excess of 50% of its value, as determined by findings of the Inspector.
   DILAPIDATED. A dwelling is unfit for human habitation and cannot be repaired, altered or improved to comply with all the minimum standards established by this chapter, at a cost not in excess of 50% of its value, as determined by findings of the Inspector.
   DISCONNECTING MEANS. A device, or group of devices, or other means by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from their source of supply.
   DRAIN. Any pipe which carries waste water or water-borne wastes in a building drainage system.
   DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmission of air which, in addition to ducts, may include duct fittings, dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air handling equipment that may be part of the building construction.
   DWELLING. Any building, structure, manufactured home or mobile home, or part thereof, used and occupied for human habitation or intended to be so used (whether occupied or vacant), and includes any outhouses and appurtenances belonging thereto or usually enjoyed therewith, except that it does not include any manufactured home or mobile home which is used solely for a seasonal vacation purpose. Temporary family health care structures, as defined in G.S. 160A-383.5, shall be considered dwellings, provided that any minimum square footage requirements shall not apply to such structures. temporary housing, as hereinafter defined, shall not be regarded as a dwelling. “Dwelling” shall be understood to include any and all types of dwellings and dwelling units (defined below) and combinations thereof unless the context specifically indicates otherwise.
   DWELLING, SINGLE-FAMILY. A detached dwelling consisting of a single dwelling unit only.
   DWELLING, TWO-FAMILY. A dwelling or combination of dwellings on a single lot consisting of two dwelling units.
   DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons including permanent provisions for living facilities for one or more persons; including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.
   ENGINEER. Within the meaning of this chapter, shall be deemed to be a duly registered and licensed engineer.
   EXTERMINATION. The control and elimination of insects, rodents or other pests by eliminating their harborage places; by removing or making inaccessible materials that may serve as their food, by poisoning, spraying, fumigating, trapping or by other recognized and legal pest elimination methods approved by the Inspector.
   FAMILY. One or more persons living together, whether related to each other by birth or not, and having common housekeeping facilities.
   FIRE PARTITION. A partition of construction which subdivides a building to restrict the spread of fire or to provide areas of refuge, but is not necessarily continuous through all stories nor extended through the roof and which has a fire-resistance rating as required by the State Building Code.
   FIREPLACE. A hearth, fire chamber or similarly prepared place and a chimney.
      (1)   FACTORY-BUILT FIREPLACES. A fireplace composed of listed factory-built components assembled in accordance with the terms of their listing and form the completed fireplace.
      (2)   MASONRY FIREPLACE. A hearth and fire chamber of solid masonry units such as bricks, stones, listed masonry units or reinforced concrete, provided with a suitable chimney.
   FIREPLACE STOVE. A chimney-connected, solid fuel-burning stove having part of its fire chamber open to the room.
   FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The time in hours that the material or construction will withstand the standard fire exposure as determined by a fire test made in conformity with the Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, ASTM E119.
   FIRE WALL. A fire resistive wall, having protected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation to or through the roof.
   FIXTURE UNIT. A quantity in terms of which the load-producing effects on a plumbing system of different kinds of plumbing fixtures are expressed on some arbitrarily chosen scale.
   FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface.
   FLAME SPREAD RATING. The numerical value assigned to a material tested in accordance with Method of Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, ASTM E84.
   FLOOD-LEVEL RIM. The top edge of the receptacle from which water overflows.
   FLOODED. A fixture is flooded when the liquid therein rises to the flood-level rim.
   FLOOR AREA. The total area of all habitable rooms in a building or structure.
   FRONT OF LOT. The front boundary line of a lot bordering on the street; and, in the case of a corner lot, may be either frontage.
   FURNACE, CENTRAL, WARM-AIR. A self-contained appliance designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces remote from or adjacent to the appliance location.
      (1)   FORCED-AIR TYPE. A central furnace equipped with a fan or blower which provides the primary means for circulation of air.
      (2)   GRAVITY TYPE. A central furnace depending primarily on circulation of air by gravity.
   FUSE. A safety device for protecting electrical apparatus against the effect of excess current or to prevent overloading a circuit. It consists of a short length of conducting metal which melts at a certain heat and thereby breaks when an excess current flows through it. Most FUSES cannot be reused if burned out (blown). Some are renewable, however.
   GARAGE. A building or structure or a portion thereof, in which a motor vehicle containing a flammable fluid in its fuel storage tank is stored, housed, kept, repaired or serviced.
   GARBAGE. The animal and vegetable waste resulting from the handling, preparation, cooking and consumption of food.
   GRADE. A reference plane representing the average of finished ground level adjoining the building at all exterior walls. With reference to lumber, means the division of sawn lumber into quality classes with respect to its physical and mechanical properties as defined in published lumber manufacturers standard grading rules.
   GROUND. A conduction connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
   GROUND-FAULT CIRCUIT-INTERRUPTER. A device intended for the protection of personnel that functions to de-energize a circuit or portion thereof within an established period of time when a current to ground exceeds some predetermined value that is less than that required to operate the overcurrent protective device of the supply circuit.
   GROUNDED. Connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
   GROUNDED CONDUCTOR. A system or circuit conductor that is intentionally grounded.
   GROUNDING CONDUCTOR. A conductor used to connect equipment or the grounded circuit of a wiring system to a grounding electrode or electrodes.
   HABITABLE ROOM. A room occupied by one or more persons for living, eating or sleeping; and includes kitchens serving apartments or individual households, but does not include bathrooms, toilet compartments, laundries, serving and storage pantries, corridors, basement and other spaces that are not used frequently or during extended periods.
   HEIGHT. As applied to a building, the vertical distance from average grade to the highest finished roof surface in the case of flat roofs or to a point at the average height of pitched roofs; HEIGHT of building in stories.
   HEREAFTER. After the time that this code becomes effective.
   HORIZONTAL SEPARATION. A permanent open space between the building wall under consideration and the lot line or the center line of a facing street, alley or public way. Where two or more buildings are on a lot, the HORIZONTAL SEPARATION of the wall under consideration shall be measured from an imaginary line drawn at a distance from the facing wall equal to the HORIZONTAL SEPARATION required for that wall. This definition is for the purpose of this code only and in no way implies relief from the town’s Zoning Ordinance.
   HOUSING INSPECTOR. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this chapter, or his or her duly authorized representative (sometimes, “Inspector”).
   IDENTIFIED. As applied to equipment, recognizable as suitable for the specific purpose, function, use environment, application and the like, where described in a particular code requirement.
   INCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Synonymous with NON-COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL.
   INFESTATION. The presence, within or around a dwelling, of any insects, rodents or other pests in numbers as to constitute a menace to the health, safety or welfare of the occupants or to the public.
   INSPECTION DEPARTMENT. Refer to BUILDING OFFICIAL.
   INSPECTOR. Refer to HOUSING INSPECTOR.
   LABELED. Equipment or materials to which has been attached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an organization acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with product evaluation, that maintains periodic inspection of production of LABELED equipment or materials and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner.
   LINTEL. The beam or girder placed over an opening in a wall which supports the wall construction above.
   LISTED. Equipment or materials included in a list published by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of production of LISTED equipment or materials, and whose listing states either that the equipment or materials meet nationally recognized standards or have been tested and found suitable for use in a specified manner. The means for identifying LISTED equipment may vary for each testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation, some of which do not recognize equipment as LISTED unless it is also labeled. The authority having jurisdiction should utilize the system employed by the listing organization to identify a listed product. (Note:  Refer to G.S. §§ 66-23 through 66-27, entitled Electrical Materials, Devices, Appliances and Equipment.)
   LOAD, DEAD. The weight of all permanent construction including walls, floors, roofs, partitions, stairways and of fixed service equipment.
   LOAD, LIVE. The weight superimposed by the use and occupancy of the building, not including the wind load, earthquake load or dead load.
   LOT. A parcel of land considered as a unit.
   LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or other public space.
   MANUFACTURED HOME. A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities. The term also includes park trailers, travel trailers and similar transportable structures placed on site for 180 consecutive days or longer and intended to be improved property.
   MASONRY. The form of construction, composed of stone, brick concrete, gypsum, hollow clay tile, concrete block or tile or other similar building units or materials or a combination of these materials laid up unit by unit and set in mortar. For the purpose of this chapter, plain monolithic concrete shall be considered as MASONRY.
      (1)   HOLLOW MASONRY UNIT. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is less than 75% of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.
      (2)   MASONRY OF HOLLOW UNIT. Masonry consisting wholly or in part of hollow masonry units laid contiguously in mortar.
      (3)   REINFORCED MASONRY. Unit masonry in which reinforcement is imbedded in such a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces.
      (4)   SOLID MASONRY. Masonry consisting of solid masonry units laid contiguously in mortar, or consisting of plain concrete.
      (5)   SOLID MASONRY UNIT. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the bearing surface is 75% or more of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.
   MOBILE HOME. A single portable manufactured housing unit, or a combination of two or more units connected on-site, that is designed to be used for living, sleeping, sanitation, cooking and eating purposes by one family only and containing independent kitchen and sleeping facilities; designed so that each housing unit can be transported on its own chassis; placed on a temporary or semi-permanent foundation; and is over 32 feet in length and over eight feet in width.
   MODULAR UNIT. A factory-fabricated transportable building designed to be used by itself or to be incorporated with similar units at a building site into a modular structure. The term is intended to apply to major assemblies and does not include prefabricated panels, trusses, plumbing trees and other prefabricated sub-elements.
   MULTI-FAMILY HOUSE. A building or portion thereof containing three or more dwelling units, including tenement house, apartment house or flat.
   MULTIPLE DWELLING. The same meaning as APARTMENT HOUSE.
   MUNICIPALITY. The governmental unit which has adopted this chapter under due legislative authority.
   NON-AUTOMATIC. Action requiring personal intervention for its control. (See AUTOMATIC.)
   NON-COMBUSTIBLE. As applied to a building construction material means a material which, in the form in which it is used, falls in one of the following groups in divisions (1) through (4) below. No material shall be classed as NON-COMBUSTIBLE which is subject to increase in combustibility or flame spread rating beyond the limits herein established, through the effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions, as for example, various types of treated wood. Flame spread rating, as used herein, refers to rating obtained according to the method for fire hazard classification of Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. For data on the ratings, see Underwriters Laboratories Fire Protection Equipment List under the heading Building Materials Hazard Classification (Fire) (40 U8).
      (1)   Materials no part of which will ignite and burn when subjected to fire. Examples:  asbestos fiber, brick, clay tile, concrete, glass, gypsum, iron, portland cement, slate, steel, stone.
      (2)   Materials having a structural base of non-combustible material, as defined in division (1) above, with a surface not over one-eighths-inch thick which has a flame spread rating not higher than 50. Examples:  certain types of protected steel sheets, gypsum wall board.
      (3)   Materials made up of non-combustible materials as defined in division (1) above, together with combustible components in a form that cross-sections of the material in any plane present a similar composition, and having a surface flame spread rating not higher than 25 without evidence of continued progressive combustion. Examples: certain insulation materials as, blocks of cellular glass, boards of glass fiber, slabs of wood excelsior impregnated with portland cement.
      (4)   Materials, other than as described in division (2) above, made up of layers with no layer having a surface flame spread rating higher than 25 without evidence of continued progressive combustion. Examples: certain sandwich-type materials.
   OCCUPANCY. The purpose for which a building, or part thereof, is used or intended to be used.
   OCCUPANT. Any person over one year of age, living, sleeping, cooking or eating in, or having actual possession of a dwelling unit or rooming unit.
   OCCUPIED. As applied to a building, shall be construed as though followed by the words “or intended, arranged or designed to be occupied”.
   OPENABLE AREA. The part of a window or door which is available for unobstructed ventilation and which opens directly to the outdoors.
   OPERATOR. Any person who has charge, care or control of a building, or part thereof, in which dwelling units or rooming units are let.
   OUTLET. A point on the wiring system at which current is taken to supply utilization equipment.
   OVERCURRENT. Any current in excess of the rated current of equipment or the ampacity of a conductor.
   OVERLOAD. Operation of equipment in excess of normal, full-load rating, or of a conductor in excess of rated ampacity which, when it persists for a sufficient length of time, would cause damage or dangerous overheating. A fault, such as a short circuit or ground fault, is not an OVERLOAD. (See OVERCURRENT.)
   OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a legal or equitable interest in the property.
   PARTIES IN INTEREST. All individuals, associations and corporations who have interest of record in dwelling or any who are in possession thereof; or shall have charge, care or control of any dwelling or dwelling unit, as owner or agent of the owner, or as executor, executrix, administrator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of the estate of the owner. Any person thus representing the actual owner shall be bound to comply with the provisions of this chapter, and of rules and regulations adopted pursuant thereto, to the same extent as if he or she were the owner.
   PARTITION. An interior wall, other than folding or portable, that subdivides spaces within any story, attic or basement of a building.
   PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the authority having jurisdiction authorizing performance of a specified activity.
   PERSON. A natural person, his or her heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.
   PIPING. Refers to either pipe or tubing, or both.
      (1)   PIPE. Refers to a rigid conduit of iron, steel, copper, brass, aluminum or semi-rigid polybutylene.
      (2)   TUBING. Refers to semi-rigid conduit of copper, steel, aluminum or polybutylene.
   PLENUM. An air compartment.
   PLUMBING. The practice, materials and fixtures used in the installation, maintenance, extension, and alteration of all piping, fixtures, appliances and appurtenances in connection with any of the following: sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities, the venting system and the public or private water-supply systems, within or adjacent to any building, structure or conveyance; also the practice and materials used in the installation, maintenance, extension or alteration of storm water, liquid waste or sewage, and water-supply systems of any premises to their connection with any point of public disposal or other acceptable terminal.
   PLUMBING FIXTURES. Installed receptacles, devices or appliances which are supplied with water or which receive or discharge liquids or liquid-borne wastes, with or without discharge into the drainage system with which they may be directly or indirectly connected.
   PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water-supply and distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; soil, wastes and vent pipes; building drains and building sewers, including their respective connections, devices and appurtenances within the property lines of the premises; and water-treating or water-using equipment.
   POTABLE WATER. Water which is satisfactory for drinking, culinary and domestic purposes, and meets the requirements of the Health Authority having jurisdiction.
   PREMISES.
      (1)   A lot, plot or parcel of land including the buildings or structures thereon; and
      (2)   A structure or part of a structure used as a unit for residential or commercial purposes.
   PRIVATE SEWER. A sewer directly controlled by public authority.
   PUBLIC AREAS. An unoccupied open space adjoining a building and on the same property that is permanently maintained accessible to the Fire Department and free of all encumbrances that might interfere with its use by the Fire Department.
   PUBLIC SEWER. A common sewer directly controlled by public authority.
   RAIL (GUARD). A bar extending from one post or support to another and serving as a guard or barrier.
   RAIL (HAND). A narrow rail for grasping with the hand as a support.
   READILY ACCESSIBLE. See ACCESSIBLE, READILY.
   RECEPTACLE. A contact device installed at the outlet for the connection of a single attachment plug.
   RECEPTACLE OUTLET. An outlet where one or more receptacles are installed.
   REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance.
   REQUIRED. Required by some provision of this chapter.
   RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCY. Buildings in which families or households live or in which sleeping accommodations are provided. The buildings include, among others, the following: dwellings, multiple dwellings and lodging houses, and all dormitories.
   ROOF. The roof slab deck with its supporting members.
   ROOF STRUCTURE. An enclosed structure on or above the roof of any part of a building.
   ROOFING. The covering applied to the roof for weather resistance, fire resistance or appearance.
   ROOMING HOUSE. Any dwelling, or that part of any dwelling containing one or more rooming units, in which space is let by the family of the owner or operator.
   ROOMING UNIT. A room or group of rooms forming a single habitable unit used or intended to be used for living and sleeping, but not for cooking or eating purposes.
   RUBBISH. Combustible and non-combustible waste materials except garbage, and the term shall include ashes, paper, rags, cartons, boxes, wood, excelsior, rubber, leather, tree branches, yard trimmings, tin cans, metals, mineral matter, glass, crockery and dust.
   SANITARY SEWER. A pipe which carries sewage and excludes storm, surface and ground water.
   SELF-CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other opening, means normally closed and equipped with an approved device which will ensure closing after having been opened for use.
   SEPTIC TANK. A watertight receptacle which receives the discharge of a drainage system or part thereof, and is designed and constructed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter through a period of detention, and allow the liquids to discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a system of one-joint or perforated piping, or disposal pit. For additional information see State Division of Health Services Bulletin 519 for tanks of 3,000 gallons capacity or less. Above 3,000 gallons capacity refer to State Department of Water and Air Resources guidelines.
   SERVICE. The conductors and equipment for delivering energy from the electricity supply system to the wiring system of the premises served.
   SERVICE CABLE. Service conductors made up in the form of a cable.
   SERVICE CONDUCTORS. The supply conductors that extend from the street main or from transformers to the service equipment of the premises supplied.
   SERVICE DROP. The overhead service conductors from the last pole or other aerial support to and including the splices, if any, connect to the service-entrance conductors at the building or other structure.
   SERVICE EQUIPMENT. The necessary equipment, usually consisting of a circuit breaker or switch and fuses, and their accessories, located near the point of entrance of supply conductors to a building or other structure, or an otherwise defined area, and intended to constitute the main control and means of cutoff of the supply.
   SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution, and may include liquids containing chemicals in solution.
   SHAFT. A vertical opening extending through one or more stories of a building, of elevators, dumbwaiter, light, ventilation or similar purpose.
   SHALL. The act referred to is mandatory.
   SMOKE DETECTOR. An approved listed detector sensing either visible or invisible particles or combustion.
   SPRINKLERED. Equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system properly maintained.
   STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs and the necessary landings and platforms connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one story to another in a building or structure.
   STORY. The portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and upper surface of the floor or roof next above. The basement of a building shall be considered a STORY if it is used for purposes other than storage or heating.
   STREET. Any public thoroughfare (street, avenue, boulevard, park) or space, more than 20 feet in which has been dedicated or deeded to the public for public use.
   STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.
   SUPPLIED. Paid for, furnished or provided by, or under control of the owner or operator.
   SUPPORTS. Supports, hangers and anchors are devices for supporting and securing pipe and fixtures to walls, ceilings, floors or structural members.
   TEMPORARY HOUSING. Any tent, trailer or other structure used for human shelter which is designed to be transportable and which is not attached to the ground, to another structure or to any utilities system on the same premises for more than 30 consecutive days.
   THERMOSTAT. An automatic control actuated by temperature change to maintain temperatures between predetermined limits.
   TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a series or group of attached units with property lines separating the units.
   UNFIT FOR HUMAN HABITATION. Defined by § 151.17 herein and G.S. § 160A-441.
   UTILIZATION EQUIPMENT. Equipment which utilizes electric energy for mechanical, chemical, heating, lighting or similar purposes.
   VALUATION OR VALUE. As applied to a building, means the estimated cost to replace the building in kind.
   VENEER. A facing attached to a wall for the purpose of providing ornamentation, protection or insulation, but not counted as adding strength to the wall.
   VENT PIPE. Vent system.
   VENT SYSTEM. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of air to or from a drainage system or to provide a circulation of air within the system to protect trap seals from siphonage and back pressure.
   VENTILATED. Provided with a means to permit circulation of air sufficient to remove an excess of heat, fumes or vapors.
   VENTILATION. The process of supplying and removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space.
   VERTICAL OPENING. An opening through a floor or roof.
   VOLTAGE, NOMINAL. A nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (as 120/240, 480y/277, 600 and the like).
   VOLTAGE TO GROUND. For grounded circuits, the voltage between the given conductor and that point or conductor of the circuit that is grounded; for ungrounded circuits, the greatest voltage between the given conductor and any other conductor of the circuit.
   WALL, BEARING. A wall supporting any vertical load in addition to its own weight.
   WALL, CAVITY. A wall built of masonry units or of plain concrete, or a combination of these materials, so arranged as to provide an air space within the wall, and in which the inner and outer parts of the wall are tied together with metal ties.
   WALL, CURTAIN. A non-bearing wall between columns or piers and which is not supported by girders or beams, but is supported on the ground.
   WALL, FACED. A wall in which the masonry facing and backing are so bonded as to exert common action under load.
   WALL, EXTERIOR. A wall, bearing or non-bearing, which is used as an enclosing wall for a building, but which is not necessarily suitable for use as a party wall or fire wall.
   WALL, FOUNDATION. A wall below the first floor extending below in the adjacent ground level and serving as support for a wall, pier, column or other structural part of a building.
   WALL OF MASONRY, HOLLOW. A wall built of masonry units so arranged as to provide an air space within the wall, and in which the inner and outer parts of the walls are bonded together with masonry units or steel.
   WALL, NON-BEARING. A wall which supports no load other than its own weight.
   WALL, PANEL. A non-bearing wall in skeleton or framed construction, built between columns or piers and wholly supported at each story.
   WALL, PARAPET. The part of any wall entirely above the roof line.
   WALL, PARTY. A wall on an interior lot line, used or adapted for joint service between two buildings.
   WALL, RETAINING. A wall designed to prevent the lateral displacement of soil or other material.
   WALL, VENEERED. A wall having a facing which is not attached and bonded to the backing so as to form an integral part of the wall for purposes of load bearing and stability.
   WASTE PIPE. A pipe which conveys only liquid waste, free of fecal matter.
   WATER-DISTRIBUTING PIPE. In a building or premises, a pipe which conveys water from the water-service pipe to the plumbing fixtures and other water outlets.
   WATER HEATER. An appliance for supplying hot water for domestic or commercial purposes. It may be used for space heating if the water temperature does not exceed 150°F.
   WATER MAIN. The water (street) main is a water-supply pipe for public or community use.
   WEATHERPROOF. So constructed or protected that exposure to the weather will not interfere with successful operation.
   WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION. Construction in which the exterior bearing and non-bearing walls and partitions, floors and roofs and their supports are wholly or partly of wood or other approved materials. WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION may be either protected or unprotected.
   WRITING. Includes printing and typewriting.
   WRITTEN NOTICE. A notification in writing delivered in person to the individual or parties intended, or delivered at or sent by certified or registered mail to the last residential or business address of legal record.
   YARD. An unoccupied open space other than a court.
   ZONING ORDINANCE. A term applied to a town ordinance that divides the town into districts which may have different types of regulations that pertain to the use of land and type occupancies allowed in a particular area.
(Ord. passed 7-21-2016)