1115.05  LANDSCAPING STANDARDS FOR SITE DEVELOPMENTS.
   (a)   Parking Lot Landscaping
      (1)   Parking Lot Interior. Off-street parking areas containing five (5) or more spaces shall provide interior landscaping areas which will provide visual and climatic relief from broad expanses of pavement and for the purpose of defining specific areas for pedestrian and vehicular circulation.
         A.   Interior vehicular use areas shall be considered to be all vehicular use areas except those parking spaces contiguous to a perimeter for which a landscape screen is required or parking spaces that are directly served by an aisle abutting and running parallel to this perimeter.
         B.   Parking lots containing fifty (50) or fewer spaces shall be required to have a minimum of five percent (5%) of the total area of the parking lot landscaped. Lots containing one hundred (100) to two hundred (200) spaces shall be required to have ten percent (10%) of the total area in landscaping, with a proportionate increase of five percent (5%) per additional fifty (50) spaces in excess of two hundred (200) spaces. Each interior landscaped area shall be planted with shade trees having a clear trunk height of at least six (6) feet. Low shrubs and/or ground cover may be planted in addition to trees.
         C.   Interior landscaped areas shall be dispersed in order to define aisles and break up expanses of paving. Unbroken rows of parking shall be limited to a maximum of one hundred (100) feet. Each interior landscaped area shall be no less than one hundred (100) square feet.
         D.   The Planning Commission shall have the authority to relocate and/or consolidate proposed landscaped areas on the site plan if, in its opinion, the overall functional and aesthetic characteristics of the site would be improved.
      (2)   Parking Lot Perimeter.    Perimeter landscaping shall be required along any side of a parking lot that abuts adjoining property that is not a public right-of-way. Perimeter landscaping materials shall be installed to provide a minimum of fifty percent (50%) winter opacity and a seventy percent (70%) summer opacity, between one (1) foot above finished grade level to the top of the required planting, hedge, fence, wall or earth mound within four (4) years after initial installation. A landscaped strip eight (8) feet  in width shall be located between the parking area and the abutting property lines. One (1) large deciduous or two (2) small deciduous trees  shall be planted in the landscaping strip for each forty (40) feet of its length.  Trees need not be planted forty (40) feet on center or be spaced forty (40) feet apart, but shall be placed as approved in the landscape plan.  A wall, fence, or other similar structure shall not be constructed within the parking strip; however, such structures may be constructed on the edge of the landscape strip. Deciduous trees shall be a minimum of ten (10) feet in overall height with a minimum caliper of one-and-three quarter (1.75) inches at time of planting.
      (3)   Parking Lot Road Frontage.  In addition to the above requirements, a landscape strip ten (10) feet in width shall be located between the abutting sidewalk or proposed right-of-way line and the parking lot, except where a driveway or other opening may be required. The ten (10) foot strip shall be landscaped open space free of any wall, fence, embankment and/or walkway. The wall or fence may be constructed at the end of the landscaped strip, one (1) large or two (2) small deciduous trees shall be planted for each forty (40) feet of the landscaped area. The requirements of this section shall not apply where planting is required for screening pursuant to Section 1115.05 (b).  Grass, ground cover or shrubs not over twenty-four (24) inches in height shall be planted in the landscape area. Deciduous tree species shall be a minimum of ten (10) feet overall height and one-and one- half (1.5) inches minimum caliper at time of planting. The minimum height and caliper requirements of this section may vary depending upon the presence of overhead power lines and sidewalks, and visibility considerations.  Coniferous trees may also be utilized if deemed to be aesthetically more appropriate.
            In areas where a parking lot is located adjacent to a public right-of way, vegetative means of reducing the visual impact of the lot should be implemented which should consist of but not necessarily be limited to the following:
         A.   Landscaped setbacks. Provide at least a ten (10) foot  wide landscaped area exclusive of that required for sidewalks or utility easements, as specified in the Subdivision Regulations, between the right-of-way and the parking lot, to be planted with shade or ornamental trees, and at least a six foot (6')  high evergreen hedge.
         B.   Grade changes.  In cases where substantial grading is necessary that results in a parking lot lower in elevation than the surrounding or adjacent right-of-way, the resulting embankment should be planted with low shrubs and shade or ornamental trees. A minimum of ten (10) feet  of landscaping should be provided between the right-of-way and the parking lot.
         C.   Landscape berms.  Where feasible, create at least a two (2) foot high berm with slopes not to exceed twenty-five percent (25%) for lawn areas. Berms planted with ground cover and shrubs can be steeper; however, no slope should exceed fifty percent (50%).
         D.   Woodland preservation.  In cases where quality woodland exists, preserve existing trees between the parking lot and the right-of-way. Provide additional evergreen shrubs if needed to achieve an effective visual buffer. The vegetation should be saved. Care and oversight should be exercised during clearing and/or construction activities to avoid damage to existing trees through compaction, elevation changes or other careless use of equipment. The City may perform on-site inspections during and following construction activities to evaluate tree conditions.
      (4)   Parking Lot Landscaping Design Criteria. 
         A.   The primary landscaping materials used in parking lots shall be trees which provide shade or are capable of providing shade at maturity.
         B.   Shrubbery, hedges, and other live planting material may be used to complement the tree planting scheme or landscape design but shall not be the sole components of the landscaping. Avoid tall shrubs or low branching trees that will restrict visibility.
         C.   Effective use of earth berms and existing topography is also encouraged as a component of the landscape plan
         D.   For planting islands that are parallel to spaces, islands should be a minimum of nine (9) feet  wide to allow doors to open. For planting islands that are perpendicular to spaces, islands should be a minimum of eight (8) feet  wide to allow for overhang of parked cars. If parking is only on one side of the island, an eight (8) foot  width is still required.
         E.   In large parking lots, separate pedestrian walkways should be provided to allow safe movement within the lots. These walkways should generally be oriented perpendicular to and between parking bays. Adjacent to the walks, trees should be planted. These plantings will aid in the identification of walkway locations within the lot and also aid in providing shade for the pedestrian. The following guidelines apply to the development of walkways within large parking lots.
            1.   One walkway can serve as a collector for up to four (4) bays of parked cars.
            2.   The walkways should be a minimum of four (4) feet wide, allowing an additional thirty (30) inches on each side for over-hanging of automobiles.
            3.   All walkways should be raised to a standard sidewalk height and should be constructed of different paving material than the parking lot.
      (5)   Access ways.  Necessary access ways through all landscaping shall be permitted but such access ways shall not be subtracted from the linear dimensions used to determine the minimum number of trees required in subsections (2) and (3) hereof.
      (6)   Vehicular Encroachment. A vehicle may encroach upon any landscaped area when such area is at least three (3) feet  in depth per abutting parking space and protected by wheel stops or curbing. A total of two (2) feet  of such landscaping may be part of the required depth of an abutting parking space.
      (7)   Vehicular Use Areas.  Vehicular use areas, other than parking spaces or parking lots, for all land uses require two (2) square feet of landscaped area for each one hundred (100) square feet of pavement or fraction thereof.
   (b)   Buffer Landscaping.
       (1)   The intent of this section is to establish provisions for a visual screen or buffer between incompatible uses and to reduce the effects of glare from automobile headlights, noise and other objectionable activities conducted on a given lot.
      (2)   Screening, as required by the provisions of these Regulations, shall be of such nature and density that will screen the activities on the lot from view from the normal level of a first story window on an abutting lot. The screening shall be twenty-five (25) feet  in width for lots in a  commercial district (as established in the Zoning Code), at least fifty (50) feet in width for lots in a manufacturing or industrial district  (as established in the Zoning Code), and at least fifty (50) feet in width for lots having an institutional use (as established in the Zoning Code). Such landscaping shall include at least fifty (50) feet in width for industrial lots. Such landscaping shall include at least one (1) tree for each thirty (30) linear feet. The Planning Commission may require additional shrubs, hedges, fences and/or walls be installed to effectively screen incompatible uses. Deciduous tree species shall be a minimum of ten (10) feet  overall height of a minimum caliper of one-and-three-fourths inches (1.75") at the time of planting. Evergreen trees shall be a minimum of six feet (6') high at time of planting.
      (3)   Screening shall be required along the common lot lines on every lot in  a commercial district or industrial district or which has an institutional use and which abuts a residential district. When any wall of a commercial, institutional, or industrial building faces or is across the road from a residential district, screening shall be installed along the full length of such road frontage. No screening shall be required when the commercial, institutional or industrial district lot is either not in use or is used for residential purposes.
      (4)   The Planning Commission may require screening, for the purpose of obscuring objectionable features such as parking lots, unsightly rear entrances, utility or maintenance structures, loading facilities, swimming pools and recreational areas as indicated below.
         A.   In areas zonedPD Planned Development where a multi-family or recreational site is located adjacent to a single-family site.
          B.   Where multi-family dwellings are adjacent to single family developments in all other zoning districts.
      (5)   Fences or plantings one (1) to six (6) feet in height may be required where it is desirable to partially screen any parking lot or loading area in any zoning district from any adjoining property or from property located across the road.
      (6)   All trash collection areas in conjunction with commercial, multi-family residential, institutional, and industrial uses shall be enclosed on at least three sides by a solid wall or fence one (1) foot  higher than the highest refuse container provided such area is not within an enclosed building or structure. Such wall shall be constructed of wood, brick, stone or shrubs.
   (c)   Interior Landscaping.  All new site developments regardless of type, as well as all alterations or expansions to existing site developments, shall provide interior landscaping in addition to the aforementioned interior and perimeter landscaping for parking lots and vehicular use areas. Interior landscaping shall consist primarily of new tree planting or preservation of existing trees or hedges within the development site.  Interior landscaping shall be provided as follows:
      (1)   Lots in the R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4, R-5, PD zoning districts. There shall be tree plantings equal to one-half (0.5) inch caliper for every one hundred fifty (150) square feet in ground coverage by a single-family  structure. This requirement may be waived  in its entirety, or in the alternative, varied at the discretion of  the City Arborist.
      (2)   Business and Community Shopping Uses Per Lot in the C-1, C-2 ,C-3, zoning districts.  In addition to the requirements for vehicular use areas, the following shall apply:  there shall be landscaped areas equal to twenty  (20) square feet for every one thousand (1000) square feet of building ground coverage area, or fraction thereof. Such landscaped areas shall contain trees, planting beds, hedges, fences, walls, earth mounds, benches or other materials designed and located in a manner complimentary to the overall architecture of the surrounding buildings.
      (3)   Office and Institutional Buildings in the C-1, C-2 ,C-3, and O-1 zoning districts.  In addition to the requirements for use areas, the following shall apply: there  shall be tree plantings equal to one inch in tree size for every 1,500 square feet of building ground  coverage, or fraction thereof.
      (4)   Lots in Industrial Districts.  In addition to the requirements for vehicular  use areas, the following shall apply: there shall be tree plantings equal to one (1) inch caliper for every (two thousand) 2,000 square feet of building ground  coverage, or fraction thereof.
         (Ord. 2004-013.  Passed 3-22-04.)