1109.04  ROADS.
   (a)   General Criteria.  In addition to relating roads to topography, as required in Chapter 1113: Storm Water, Grading, and Erosion, roads shall be designed according to the function served, the use of abutting land, and standards of width, intersections, maximum grades and curvatures, as set forth in the following subsections. The improvement standards and specifications shall be as provided in this Section and in the Engineering Construction Standards except that any variations or additional requirements, which may be required because of adverse site characteristics, will be determined by the City. See also Section 1116.06  Maintaining Level of Service Required.
   (b)   Roads Classified.
      (1)   Major Roads.  Major roads function primarily for the movement of large volumes of traffic through the City and between points of heavy traffic generation.  Intersections on major roads shall be as few as feasible.  Marginal access roads and drives shall be encouraged to minimize turning conflicts and to maintain a high level of service.  The following are major roads:
         A   State Route 43
         B.   State Route 306
         C.   State Route 82
      (2)   Secondary Roads.  Secondary roads generally function to collect traffic from local roads and distribute the traffic onto major roads. They typically have a large number of intersections with local roads and a few with major roads. Unless shown otherwise on the Master Plan or other plans adopted by the City, a secondary road system may be required wherever a residential neighborhood surrounded by major roads is designed to serve over 500 dwelling units. The following are secondary roads:
         A.   Treat Road
         B.   Aurora Lake Road
         C.   Bissell Road
         D.   Pioneer Trail Road
         E.   Aurora-Hudson Road
         F.   Old Mill Road
         G.   Mennonite Road
         H.   Lena Drive
         I.   Bartlett Road
         J.   Page Road
         K.   Eggleston Road
         L.   Parker Road
         M.   Winchell Road
         N.   Township Line Road
         O.   Crackle Road
         P.   Cochran Road
      (3)   Local Roads.  Local roads function to provide direct and full access to each lot and should be designed to discourage, but not necessarily prevent, through traffic.  The pattern of local roads should encourage convenient internal circulation within a residential area and convenient access to the secondary roads abutting the area.
A public road is a local road unless listed in (1) above as a major road or in (2) above as a secondary road.
      (4)   Cul-de-sac Roads.  "Cul-de-sac roads" means a local road, limited in length by these regulations, having one end open to motor traffic, the other end being permanently terminated by a vehicular turn-around.
      (5)   Private Roads.  It is the intent of these Regulations that all properties be served by and have access to public roads.  The City may approve private roads in limited circumstances where the spirit, purpose, and intent of these Regulations and of the Zoning Code will be served.  Private roads shall be constructed to the same standards as local roads except where the Planning Commission grants exceptions to the standards.
   (c)   Geometric Standards for Roads.
      (1)   Minimum Right-of-way and Pavement Widths.  The following minimum right-of-way and traveled pavement widths shall be provided for roads:
 
Road Classification
Minimum Public
Right- of-way Width
Minimum
Traveled Pavement Width
(no parking)
Major Road
80 feet
26 feet
Secondary Road
60 feet
24 feet
Local Road
60 feet
24 feet
Cul-de-sac
  (dead end road)
60 feet
22 feet
Private Road
Not applicable
Minimum pavement width twenty-two (22) feet;
   The measurement of pavement width includes the gutter, if any, but does not include the curb or shoulder.  Uncurbed streets shall require an additional 2-3 feet of paved shoulder area. The above-stated minimum pavement widths for secondary and local roads with no on-street parking shall only be approved if adequate provision is made within the subdivision for projected off-street parking needs.
   Where the Planning Commission finds that a narrower traveled pavement for a local road will meet the needs of the area served, including the access required by public safety forces, the Commission may approve an exception.
      (2)   Grades.
         A.   The minimum grade for all roads shall be five-tenths of one percent (0.5%). 
         B.   The maximum grade shall comply with ODOT Standards:
         C.   Roads shall level off to a grade not exceeding three percent (3%) for a distance of not less than seventy-five (75) feet from the right of way of an intersecting road.
         D.   All changes in grade shall be connected by vertical curves. The rate of change of grade of such curve shall comply with ODOT Standards.
      (3)   Curvature of Roads (Horizontal and Vertical). 
         A.   Angles in the horizontal alignment of center lines of roads shall be connected by a curve with a radius of not less than:
            1.   200 feet for local roads,
            2.   300 feet for secondary roads and
            3.   500 feet for major roads.
         B.   Between reverse curves there shall be a center line tangent of not less than 200 feet long on major and secondary roads and not less than 100 feet long on local roads.
         C.   The length of sag and crest curves for vertical alignment shall be suitably designed for the vehicular speed limit in accordance with the AASHTO "Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets."
      (4)   Intersections. 
         A.   Roads shall be designed to intersect as nearly at ninety degrees as possible.  No road shall intersect another at less than sixty degrees.
         B.   The intersection of more than two roads at one point shall not be permitted.
         C.   The center lines of two roads generally opposite, when intersecting a third road, shall be offset no less than 125 feet or shall have no offset.
         D.   Property lines at road intersections shall be rounded with a radius of not less than thirty feet for major roads, twenty-five feet for secondary roads and twenty-five feet for local roads unless determined otherwise by the City.
         E.   At intersections, the edge of pavement tangents shall be connected by curves (turn-outs) with a minimum radius of fifty-five feet in a commercial or industrial zoning district and thirty-seven feet in a residential zoning district.
      (5)   Sight distances for roads and intersections shall comply with ODOT standards.
 
   (d)   Additional Standards for Special Road Types.
      (1)   Cul-de-sac Roads.  
         A.   Permanent dead-end local roads shall be constructed as cul-de-sacs and shall not be longer than 500 feet (measured from the center line of the intersecting road to the center of the turnaround).
         B.   A cul-de-sac road shall be provided at the closed end with:
            1.   In a commercial or industrial zoning district: A turnaround having an outside pavement diameter of 100 feet minimum and a right-of-way diameter of  150 feet minimum;
            2.   In a residential zoning district.  A turnaround having an outside pavement diameter of 100 feet minimum and a right-of-way diameter of 134 feet minimum;
         C.   The center area within a cul-de-sac shall be paved unless a landscaped area is approved with sufficient safety access and adequate provision is made, acceptable to city staff, for perpetual maintenance of the landscaped area.
      (2)   Half Streets.  Half streets, that is, streets for which the right-of-way is dedicated on only one side of the proposed road center line,  are prohibited.
      (3)   Marginal Access Roads.  Where a subdivision abuts or includes an existing or proposed major road, the City may require:
         A.    Marginal access roads;
         B.   Reverse frontage with screen planting contained in a reservation along the rear property line which prohibits access to the major road;
         C.   Such other treatment as may be necessary for adequate protection of residential properties and to afford separation of through and local traffic.
         D.   The City may require dedication and improvement of marginal access roads along major roads abutting commercial and industrial developments.
         E.   Where a subdivision borders on or contains a railroad right of way, the City may require a road approximately parallel to and on each side of such right of way,
         F.   Where a subdivision of one-family dwellings adjoins a major road, the City may require a plat and plans which incorporates marginal access roads or such other treatment as the fronting of lots on perpendicular local roads to protect the residential property from the movement of heavy traffic. Also, to eliminate driveways cutting into a major road, the City may require a setback of such depth that marginal roads can be constructed in the future.
      (4)   Roads serving Multi-family developments.  Except as otherwise approved by the Planning Commission and City Council on the basis of detailed traffic impact studies and the provision of adequate road facilities, public and private roads for multi-family developments shall be planned to connect only with major or secondary roads so large volumes of traffic will not be generated on local residential roads. Vehicular and pedestrian access shall be planned so a road, service drive, parking area or delivery area will be located not more than 100 feet from every main or service entrance of a building and will be available for each dwelling unit.
      (5)   Special standards for roads serving Business and Industrial Developments.  Roads for business and industrial developments shall be planned to connect only with major roads so large volumes of traffic will not be generated on local residential roads. The intersections of private roads (or access driveways to parking areas) with major roads shall be located to cause the least possible interference with the movement of traffic on the major roads. Access driveways (measured on center line) shall be located not less than fifty feet from the right-of-way line of the nearest intersecting road and spaced at not less than 130-foot intervals. Where possible, parking areas serving adjoining business establishments shall be interconnected by drives. The City may require the dedication and improvement of marginal service roads along major roads abutting such developments.
 
   (e)   Pavement, Curbs, and Gutters.
      (1)   Minimum Pavement Standards.  The following minimum pavement standards shall be design guidelines.  Variations from these standards may be approved by the Director of Engineering, Utilities and Inspection provided that the approved pavement meets the purpose and effect of the guidelines. (Ord. 2013-130.  Passed 1-27-14.)
         A.   Minimum pavement requirements shall be as follows:
 
ASPHALT ROADWAY
Major Road
Secondary Road
Local Road
Private Road
 
 
Industrial Roadway
   
ODOT 448-1½" Limestone Asphalt Concrete
ODOT 448-1½" Limestone Asphalt Concrete with special pavement reinforcing additive as required based on truck traffic and soils per City requirements.
Special pavement reinforcing fabric as required by the City.
ODOT 448-1¾" Limestone Asphalt Concrete
ODOT 448-1¾" Limestone Asphalt Concrete
ODOT  301-9" Bituminous Aggregate Base (3-3" lifts)
ODOT 301-6" Bituminous Aggregate Base (2-3" lifts )
ODOT 304-4" Limestone Aggregate Base
ODOT 304-4" Limestone Aggregate Base
Special Geogrid Tensar TX-140 or approved equal, or:
Special Geogrid Tensar TX-140 or approved equal, or:
ODOT 204 - Subgrade compaction and proof rolling with zero deflection using a 35 ton loaded tandem truck with ticket.  Cement stabilization of the subgrade shall be required where the subgrade CBR value is less than 6.
ODOT 204 - Subgrade compaction and proof rolling with zero deflection using a 35 ton loaded tandem truck with ticket.  Cement stabilization of the subgrade shall be required where the subgrade CBR value is less than 6.
Seal the interface between the roadway and curb and around all castings, grates, etc.
Seal the interface between the roadway and curb and around all castings, grates, etc.
 
 
 
CONCRETE ROADWAYS
Major Road
Secondary Road
Local Road
Private Road
 
Industrial Roadway
ODOT 451-8" reinforced concrete
ODOT 451-9" reinforced concrete
ODOT 304-4" limestone aggregate base
ODOT 304-6" limestone aggregate
ODOT 204 - Subgrade compaction and proof rolling with zero deflection using a 35 ton loaded tandem truck with ticket.  Cement stabilization of the subgrade shall be required where the subgrade CBR  value is less than 6.
ODOT 204 - Subgrade compaction and proof rolling with zero deflection using a 35 ton loaded tandem truck with ticket.  Cement stabilization of the subgrade shall be required where the subgrade CBR value is less than 6.
Transverse contraction joints, longitudinal joints, isolation and expansion joints, transverse construction joints, dowel bars, tie bars, hookbolts, reinforcing steel or mesh, and joint sealants shall be provided.
Transverse contraction joints, longitudinal joints, isolation and expansion joints, transverse construction joints, dowel bars, tie bars, hookbolts, reinforcing steel or mesh, and joint sealants shall be provided.
(Ord. 2016-108.  Passed 11-21-16.)
 
      Or a combination of materials equivalent to the structural number of the above requirements as approved by the Director of Engineering, Utilities and Inspection.
      In all cases, the minimum pavement buildup shall be calculated based on soil conditions and truck traffic and modified as required to meet the expected loadings.  The City shall receive a copy of the asphalt pavement design, including the calculations, for review and approval.  The method for pavement design shall follow the latest edition of the ODOT Pavement Design and Rehabilitation Manual.
         B.   Cross-slopes required.  All road pavements, including intersection areas, shall be constructed to provide minimum cross slope of 1.5%, maximum 3%.  Pavements with inverted crowns are not permitted for public roads.
         C.   Paving Season.  Paving of public or private roads shall only be permitted during the local paving season dates as defined in the Engineering Construction Standards.
         D.   Engineering fabrics shall be used in pavement construction as required by the Director of Engineering, Utilities, and Inspection.
      (2)   Curbs and Gutters.
         A.   Concrete curbs and gutters integral with the pavement shall be provided in all roads except:
            1.   A road located in the R-1 or R-2 Residential District;
            2.   A road specifically exempted by the Planning Commission and City Council with cause, such as compatibility with existing, intersecting roads.
         B.   All curbs shall be upright curbs.  Rolled curb construction shall not be permitted.
         C.   See Engineering Construction Standards for typical cross section.
         D.   A curb drain shall be provided continuously along the face of all finished curbs on both sides of the road. Curb drains shall connect to catch basins and inlet basins and shall be installed in accordance with the Engineering Construction Standards. Flexible pipe curb drains are not permitted.
 
   (f)   Culverts and Bridges. 
      (1)   Culverts and bridges shall be installed as required to support roads, drives, walkways, and bikeways crossing natural watercourses. Design as set forth in Chapters 1113 and 1157.
      (2)   Culverts and bridges shall be designed and installed as approved by the Director of Engineering, Utilities, and Inspection with the intent of ensuring a long period of service, minimal maintenance and repair, and minimal impact on the natural functions of the watercourse.  Design as set forth in Chapters 1113 and 1157.
      (3)   Culverts and bridges shall be designed to minimize obstruction of the natural watercourse and to provide adequate capacity to prevent blockage of storm water.  Filling and grading of watercourses and ravines for support of crossing structures shall be kept to a minimum.
         Design as set forth in Chapters 1113 and 1157.
      (4)   Where feasible alternatives are available within a subdivision, the installation of culverts or bridges shall be avoided in the interest of minimizing disruption to natural watercourses. Design as set forth in Chapters 1113 and 1157.
 
   (g)   Curb Cuts and Driveway Aprons.
      (1)   Curb cuts shall be located as approved by the Director of Engineering, Utilities, and Inspection and in accordance with any access plans adopted by the City.
      (2)   The grade of the apron shall not exceed five percent (5%) for a distance of ten feet from the sidewalk and the maximum grade of the driveway shall not exceed ten percent (10%).
      (3)   Driveway apron dimensions shall comply with the following:
 
DRIVEWAY APRON STANDARDS
 
Maximum Width at curb
Maximum Width at right-of-way line
Single Family Residential District
22 feet
16 feet
All other Districts
As approved by Director of Engineering, Utilities, and Inspection
 
      (4)   Type and thickness of base material and pavement of apron:  See Engineering Construction Standards.
 
   (h)   Road Names and Signs.
      (1)   Road names shall not duplicate or be easily confused with the names of existing roads in the City,  irrespective of modifying terms such as road, avenue, boulevard, etc. 
      (2)   Roads that are, or will eventually be, continuations of existing or platted roads shall be named the same.
      (3)   Road names and signs shall be as approved in the subdivision plat.
      (4)   Road name signs shall be constructed as required by the Engineering Construction Standards.
 
   (i)   Traffic Control and  Signs. 
      (1)   The applicant shall provide and install traffic maintenance signs conforming to the "Ohio Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices", including such stop signs, speed limit signs, parking signs, pavement markings, and other devices as specified in the improvement drawings.  Such signs shall be those required within the subdivision and those required on existing roads outside of the subdivision required due to construction of the subdivision.
      (2)   The applicant shall provide that portion of the off-site costs of expanded intersections, turning lanes, and new or upgraded traffic signals necessitated by construction of the subdivision.  The determination of applicant costs and reimbursement shall be as provided in Section 1109.01 for Extra-Size and Off-Site Improvements.
 
   (j)   Extension of Roads.  Where a subdivision adjoins unsubdivided land, certain roads shall be planned to extend to the boundary lines so all parcels can be subdivided and a coordinated road system obtained. A temporary  cul-de-sac shall be provided for each such road extension, if more than three hundred (300) feet in length and if lots front thereon. Provisions shall be made for future extension of the road and utilities and so noted on the final plat.
 
   (k)   Nonconforming Widths.  Where property abuts a road which does not conform to the width required by the Master Plan of the City or by the County or State Highway Department, or by these Regulations, the additional width shall be dedicated when such land is subdivided. Roads of less than the required width shall not be permitted.
 
   (l)   Reserve Strips Adjoining Roads.  Reserve strips controlling access to roads, shall be prohibited except where they are dedicated to the City at the time of recording of the plat.
 
   (m)   Protection of Sight Triangles.
      (1)   Landscaping at intersections of a private drive and a public right-of-way, or at intersections of two or more public rights-of-way, shall be maintained at a maximum height of twenty four inches or, if planted with trees, trees shall have all branches trimmed to maintain a clear view for a height of eight feet above the roadway surface, for such distance behind the right-of-way lines as is deemed necessary on a case by case basis to insure the public safety.
      (2)   No landscaping, tree, fence, wall or similar item constructed or installed after the adoption of this Code shall be maintained in the vicinity of any corner, road intersection, or accessway intersecting a public right-of-way which the Director of Engineering, Utilities, and Inspection determines is an obstruction to visibility or is a traffic hazard.
         (Ord. 2013-130.  Passed 1-27-14.)