1725.06  SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS.
   (a)    Design and Construction Standards.  In order to prevent excessive damage to buildings, structures, and related utilities and facilities, the following restrictions apply to all repair of substantial damage to existing structures, development, subdivision proposals, manufactured home parks, new construction, and construction of substantial improvements occurring in the special flood hazard area.
      (1)    Basements and lowest floors.
         (A)    Residential structures: All new construction, relocation, substantial improvements, including repair of substantial damage, of residential structures must have the lowest floor, including basement, ductwork, and utilities, elevated to two feet above the base flood elevation.
         (B)    Non-residential structures: All new construction, relocation, substantial improvements, including repair of substantial damage of non-residential structures, must have the lowest floor, including basement, ductwork, and utilities, elevated to two feet above the base flood elevation, or, together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, must be designed so that the structure is water tight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water from the lowest structural element to two feet above the base flood elevation.
         (C)    Openings: For all new construction, relocation, substantial improvements, and repair of substantial damage, those fully enclosed areas below the lowest floor that are usable solely for parking of vehicles, building access, or storage in an area other than a basement and which are subject to flooding shall be designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for entry and exit of floodwaters. Designs for meeting this requirement must either be certified by a registered professional engineer or meet or exceed the following minimum criteria:
            (i)    A minimum of two openings having a total net area of not less than one square inch for every square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding, shall be provided;
            (ii)    The bottom of all openings shall be no higher than one foot above grade; and
            (iii)    Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, valves, or other coverings or devices provided that they permit the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters.
         (D)    A non-conversion agreement shall be signed by the applicant on all flood-proofed structures and any elevated structures when the Floodplain Administrator determines that the area below the first floor could be converted to a non-conforming use (generally applies to the enclosed areas below base flood elevation that are five feet high or more). This agreement shall state:
            (i)    The area below the base flood elevation shall not be converted for use other than for parking, building access or for allowable storage as detailed in this article; and
            (ii)    The applicant agrees to notify prospective purchasers of the existence of the non-conversion agreement. It shall be the responsibility of the applicant to transfer the non-conversion agreement at closing to the purchaser through notarized signature. A copy of a non-conversion agreement shall be provided to the Floodplain Administrator. Failure to transfer the non-conversion agreement and provide a signed copy to the Floodplain Administrator shall subject the violator to the penalties set forth in Subsection 1725.08(d).
      (2)    Manufactured home placement. Certain unique characteristics of manufactured homes installed in special flood hazard areas pose an elevated risk of substantial damage to property. Therefore, it is required that all manufactured homes to be installed within the special flood hazard areas of City of South Charleston shall be installed by a contractor possessing a valid West Virginia manufactured home installer's license. The installer shall use an installation design engineered to withstand flood hazards specific to the particular home site. Manufactured homes to be installed or substantially improved within the special flood hazard areas shall be installed in accordance with the following standards:
         (A)    The lowest floor, ductwork, and utilities, including heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, shall be elevated two feet above the base flood elevation;
         (B)    Elevation shall be on reinforced piers on a permanent foundation or other foundation elements of at least equivalent strength engineered for use in a special flood hazard area. Installation designs incorporating dry stacked block piers shall not be used in special flood hazard areas;
         (C)    All manufactured homes shall be securely anchored to an adequately anchored foundation system in compliance with the requirements of 42 West Virginia Code of State Rules, Series 19, Sections 10A and 10B, as authorized by West Virginia Code Article 21-9. The anchoring shall be adequate to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement. Methods of anchoring may include but are not limited to the over-the-top and frame ties attached to permanent foundation elements. Ground anchors may not be adequate to satisfy flood specific anchoring requirements. This requirement is in addition to applicable anchoring requirements for resisting wind forces;
         (D)    Permanently attached rigid skirts and perimeter wall skirts of brick or block must have openings to prevent collapse and damage to supporting piers. The openings must be designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces by allowing for entry and exit of floodwaters. Designs for meeting this requirement must either be certified by a registered professional engineer or meet or exceed the following minimum criteria:
            (i)    A minimum of two openings having a total net area of not less than one square inch for every square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding shall be provided; and
            (ii)    The bottom of all openings shall be no higher than one foot above grade.
         (E)    Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, valves, or other coverings or devices provided that they permit the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters.
         (F)    Any additions to a manufactured home shall be similarly anchored and vented.
         (G)    The licensed West Virginia manufactured home installer installing the unit shall perform a site inspection and certify in writing that the manufactured home has been installed to the standards set forth in this article.
      (3)    Appurtenant structures. When possible, appurtenant structures shall be located out of the special flood hazard area. Where appurtenant structures not connected to the principal structure are to be located on sites below the base flood elevation, the following flood damage reduction provisions apply:
         (A)    Use of the structure shall be restricted to parking or limited storage and further restricted as follows:
            (i)    Structures shall be no more than 300 square feet in size and valued at less than $7,000;
            (ii)    Floors shall be at or above grade on at least one side;
            (iii)    Structures shall be located, oriented, and constructed to minimize flood damage;
            (iv)    Structures shall be designed, or modified, and adequately anchored to prevent flotation, collapse, or lateral movement of the structure resulting from hydrodynamic and hydrostatic loads, including the effects of buoyancy;
            (v)    Flood resistant materials as detailed in FEMA Technical Bulletin 2 shall be used in the construction of the structure from the lowest structural element to two feet above the base flood elevation;
            (vi)    Machinery, electric devices or appliances, and all utilities shall be located at least two feet above the base flood elevation; and
            (vii)    Hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls shall be equalized by allowing for automatic entry and exit of floodwaters. Designs for meeting this requirement must either be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect or meet or exceed the following minimum criteria:
               (I)    A minimum of two openings have a total net area of not less than one square inch for every square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding shall be provided;
               (II)    The bottom of all openings shall be no higher than one foot above grade; and
               (III)    Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, valves, or other coverings or devices provided that they permit the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters.
         (B)    In addition, a non-conversion agreement shall be signed by the applicant stating that the use of the appurtenant structure or detached or attached garage shall not be changed from the use permitted, acknowledging that the structure may be subject to greater flood risk and that higher flood insurance premiums may be possible, and that a change in use may require full compliance with this article. The applicant agrees to notify prospective purchasers of the existence of the non-conversion agreement. It shall be the responsibility of the applicant to transfer the non-conversion agreement at closing to the purchaser through notarized signature. A copy of the non-conversion agreement shall be provided to the Floodplain Administrator. Failure to transfer the non-conversion agreement and provide a signed copy to the Floodplain Administrator shall subject the violator to the penalties set forth in Subsection 1725.08(d).
      (4)    Recreational vehicle placement. Recreational vehicles to be placed within any special flood hazard area shall either:
         (A)    Be on site for fewer than 180 consecutive days;
         (B)    Be fully licensed and ready for highway use. A recreational vehicle is ready for highway use if it is on its wheels or jacking system, is attached to the site only by quick disconnected utilities and security devices, and has no permanently attached additions; or
         (C)    Be installed in accordance with the manufactured home placement requirements and all other flood reduction requirements contained in this article.
      (5)   Fill. The City of South Charleston officially recognizes the beneficial functions the floodplain area serves in storage and transportation of water during floods. Placement of fill in the special flood hazard area is discouraged and should be minimized.
Placement of fill in other areas of the special flood hazard area shall be restricted to functional purposes such as elevating a structure. Fill shall only be permitted in the same permit with the related structure or other functional purpose. Placement of fill to dispose of spoil from excavation or to elevate yards, parking lots, or fields will not generally be considered a functional purpose. The Floodplain Administrator may require the developer to provide compensatory storage before permitting fill.
No fill shall be permitted in the floodway unless it has been demonstrated through hydrologic and hydraulic analyses performed in accordance with currently accepted technical standards that the proposed fill will not result in any increase in the base flood elevation.
All fill placed in the special flood hazard area shall meet or exceed the following standards:
         (A)    Fill shall be used only to the extent to which it does not adversely affect the subject property and adjacent properties. The Floodplain Administrator may require the applicant to demonstrate through engineering reports that proposed fill would not adversely affect the subject property and adjacent properties. When required, hydrologic and hydraulic analyses shall be undertaken only by a professional engineer who shall certify that the technical methods used correctly reflect currently accepted technical concepts. The resulting study shall include a cover letter, signed and sealed by the responsible professional, providing a statement of findings in basic terms. In addition, studies, analyses, computations, and similar examinations shall be submitted in sufficient detail to allow a thorough technical review by the Floodplain Administrator. During permit review, the Floodplain Administrator shall consider the following issues that have the potential to cause adverse impact to the subject property and adjacent properties:
            (i)    Unacceptable increases in flood heights;
            (ii)    Blocking drainage from the subject property and adjacent properties;
            (iii)    Deflection of floodwaters onto adjacent existing structures;
            (iv)    Increases to stream velocity initiating or exacerbating erosion problems; and
            (v)    Other unique site conditions may be considered when determining whether fill will cause adverse impact to the subject property and adjacent properties including, but not limited to, subsidence areas, karst topography, stream blockages, and steep topography adjacent to the channel.   
         (B)    Fill shall be used only to the extent to which it does not adversely affect the capacity of channels or floodways of any tributary to the main stream, drainage ditch, or any other drainage facility or system.
         (C)    A fill site must be contoured to drain properly and avoid ponding consistent with pre-construction conditions. This provision does not apply to properly constructed impoundments that comply with the remainder of this article and that are properly permitted by the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection.
         (D)    Fill shall extend beyond a structure for a sufficient distance to provide acceptable access. For residential structures, fill shall extend laterally fifteen (15) feet beyond the building line from all points before the start of sloping required in this article. For non-residential structures, fill shall be placed to provide access acceptable for intended use.
         (E)    At grade access, fill shall extend laterally fifteen (15) feet beyond the building line and to a minimum of twenty-five (25) percent of the perimeter of a non-residential structure.
         (F)    Fill shall consist of soil or rock material only. Sanitary landfills shall not be permitted, and no trash or woody debris shall be buried on site.
         (G)    Fill material shall be compacted to provide the necessary stability and resistance to erosion, scouring, and settling. Fill compaction standards must be appropriate to proposed post fill use, and particular attention is necessary when fill is being used to elevate a structure.
         (H)    Fill slopes shall be no steeper than one vertical on two horizontal unless substantiating data justifying steeper slopes are submitted to and approved by the Floodplain Administrator.
         (I)    Fill site and fill must be protected from erosion. Fill slopes exposed to flood waters with expected velocities during the occurrence of the base flood of five feet per second or less shall be protected from erosion by covering them with grass, vines, weeds, or similar vegetative undergrowth. Fill slopes exposed to flood waters with expected velocities during the occurrence of the base flood of greater than five feet per second shall be protected from erosion by armoring them with stone or rock slope protection.
         (J)    All applicants placing fill in a special flood hazard area shall obtain a conditional letter of map revision (CLOMR-F) from FEMA when directed to do so by the Floodplain Administrator before a permit can be issued. After fill is finished, the applicant shall convert the CLOMR-F to a letter of map revision based on fill (LOMR-F) before a certificate of compliance or occupancy may be issued. The Floodplain Administrator is hereby appointed as the designated official to approve a request for a CLOMR-F or LOMR-F. The Floodplain Administrator is authorized to cooperate with the applicant with respect to any requirements of FEMA for requesting a CLOMR-F or LOMR-F, and such authority includes, but is not limited to, approving said request and executing Form 1 (Overview & Concurrence Form) and other forms as may be required by FEMA.
         (K)    The applicant shall submit any maps, computations, and other material required by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to revise the flood insurance study (FIS) and flood insurance rate maps (FIRM), when so notified by the Floodplain Administrator. The applicant shall pay any fees or other costs assessed by FEMA for this purpose.
      (6)    Placement of structures and other development. All structures and other development shall be constructed and placed on the property so as to offer the minimum obstruction to the flow of water and shall be designed to have a minimum obstruction effect upon the flow and height of floodwater. Whenever possible, structures and other development shall be constructed with the longitudinal axis parallel to the direction of flood flow. In so far as practicable, structures and other development shall be placed approximately on the same flood-flow lines as those of adjoining structures or development.
      (7)    Anchoring. All structures and other development, including stream crossings, shall be firmly anchored in accordance with accepted engineering practices to prevent flotation, collapse, and lateral movement, thus reducing the threat to life and property and decreasing the possibility of the blockage of bridge openings and other restricted sections of the watercourse. All air ducts, large pipes, swimming pools, and storage tanks located at or below the base flood elevation shall be firmly anchored to resist flotation.
      (8)    Flood protection setback.
         (A)    A flood protection setback equal to twice the width of the watercourse channel measuring from the top of one bank to the top of the opposite bank or 50 feet, whichever is less, shall be maintained from the top of the banks of all watercourses. Specifically as to oil and gas wells and well pads, no well pad may be prepared or well drilled within 100 feet from any perennial stream, natural or artificial lake, pond, reservoir, or wetland. To reduce erosion, natural vegetation shall be maintained in this area. Where natural vegetation does not exist along the watercourse and conditions for replanting are suitable, high priority shall be given to planting vegetation in the setback area to stabilize banks and enhance aquatic resources.
         (B)    Necessary public works and temporary construction may be exempted from this subdivision at the discretion of the Floodplain Administrator.
         (C)    At the discretion of the Floodplain Administrator, the flood protection setback requirement can be waived in whole or part if the applicant demonstrates that it is impossible to allow any development without encroachment into the flood protection setback area. The conditions shall be the minimum necessary and shall be made only after due consideration is given to varying other siting standards, such as side, front, and back lot line setbacks.
      (9)    Storage.
         (A)    No materials that are buoyant, flammable, explosive, or in times of flooding could be injurious to human, animal, or plant life, shall be stored below base flood elevation except for mineral storage properly and wholly within the ground in compliance with other state environmental agency requirements.
         (B)    Storage of other material or equipment may be allowed if not subject to substantial damage by floods and firmly anchored to prevent flotation or if readily removable from the area within the time available after flood warning.
         (C)    Due to the potential of masking the natural elevation and making it more difficult to enforce this article, material that resembles fill material shall not be considered storage material for purposes of this subdivision.
      (10)   Utility and facility requirements.
         (A)    All new or replacement water systems, whether public or private, shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into the systems.
         (B)    All new or replacement sanitary disposal systems, whether public or private, shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into the systems and discharges from the systems into floodwaters.
         (C)    All other new or replacement public or private utilities and facilities shall be located and constructed to minimize or eliminate flood damage.
         (D)    Onsite waste disposal systems shall be located to avoid impairment to the system and to avoid contamination from the system during flooding.
      (11)    Drainage. Within zones AH and AO, adequate drainage shall be provided around structures on slopes to guide floodwaters around and away from proposed structures and to reduce exposure to special flood hazard areas.
      (12)    Backflow preventers. Back flow prevention valves should be used for all enclosed structures with sewage or drainage facilities located in the special flood hazard area.
         (Ord. 2261.  Passed 8-16-18.)