Sec. 1-3.  Rules of construction.
The rules of construction established in this section apply to this Code except when the context clearly requires otherwise:
Computation of time. In computing a period of days, the first day is excluded and the last day is included. If the last day of any period or a fixed or final day is a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday, the period or day is extended to include the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday.
Conjunctions. In a provision involving two or more items, conditions, provisions or events, which items, conditions, provisions or events are connected by the conjunction "and," "or" or "either . . . or," the conjunction shall be interpreted as follows:
   (1)   The term "and" indicates that all the connected terms, conditions, provisions or events apply.
   (2)   The term "or" indicates that the connected terms, conditions, provisions or events apply singly or in any combination.
   (3)   The term "either . . . or" indicates that the connected terms, conditions, provisions or events apply singly but not in combination.
Delegation of authority. A provision that authorizes or requires a city officer or city employee to perform an act or make a decision authorizes such officer or employee to act or make a decision through subordinates.
Gender. Words of one gender include the other genders.
Includes, including. The terms "includes" and "including" are terms of enlargement and not of limitation or exclusive enumeration, and the use of the terms does not create a presumption that components not expressed are excluded.
Joint authority. A grant of authority to three or more persons as a public body confers the authority on a majority of the number of members as fixed by statute or ordinance.
May. The term "may" is to be construed as being permissive and not mandatory.
May not. The term "may not" states a prohibition.
Must. The term "must" is to be construed as being mandatory.
Number. The singular includes the plural, and the plural includes the singular.
Oath, affirmation, sworn, affirmed. The term "oath" includes an affirmation in all cases where an affirmation may be substituted for an oath. In similar cases, the term "sworn" includes the term "affirmed."
Officers, departments, etc. References to officers, departments, boards, commissions or employees are to city officers, city departments, city boards, city commissions and city employees.
Premises. The term "premises," as applied to real property, includes land and structures.
Property,lot,parcel,real estate,premises,plot, and land shall be interpreted to mean real property as delineated and described by legal documents and instruments.
Public acts. References to public acts are references to the Public Acts of Michigan. (For example, a reference to Public Act No. 279 of 1909 is a reference to Act No. 279 of the Public Acts of Michigan of 1909.) Any reference to a public act, whether by act number or by short title, is a reference to the act as amended.
Real property, real estate, land, lands. The term "real property" includes lands, tenements and hereditaments.
Shall. The term "shall" is to be construed as being mandatory.
Signature, subscription. The terms "signature" and "subscription" include a mark when the person cannot write.
Structure. The word "structure" shall include the word building.
Swear. The term "swear" includes affirm.
Tenses. The present tense includes the past and future tenses. The future tense includes the present tense.
Used and occupied. When applied to any land or building shall be construed to include the words "intended", "arranged", or "designed to be used" or "occupied".
Written. The term "written" includes any representation of words, letters, symbols or figures.
(Ord. No. 135, § 2(2.2), 5-21-2001)