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   (Amended by Ord. No. 175,676, Eff. 1/11/04.)
   (a)   Short Title. Reference to Code in Prosecutions. Designation in Ordinances. This Code, which consists of criminal or regulatory ordinances of this City, shall be known as the “Official Los Angeles Municipal Code,” and it shall be sufficient to refer to the Code as the “Los Angeles Municipal Code” in any prosecution for the violation of any of its provisions; it shall also be sufficient to designate any ordinance adding to, amending or repealing this Code or a portion of this Code as an addition or amendment to or a repeal of the “Los Angeles Municipal Code.”
   (b)   Existing Law Continued. The provisions of this Code, to the extent they are substantially the same as existing provisions relating to the same subject matter, shall be construed as restatements and continuations of the Code and not as new enactments.
   (c)   Construction. The provisions of this Code and all proceedings under it are to be construed with a view to effect its objectives and to promote justice.
   (d)   Effect of Code on Past Actions and Obligations Previously Accrued. Neither the adoption of this Code nor the repeal of any ordinance of this City shall in any manner affect the prosecution for violation of ordinances, which violations were committed prior to the effective date of the ordinance, nor be construed as a waiver of any license or penalty at the effective date due and unpaid under the ordinance, nor be construed as affecting any of the provisions of the ordinance relating to the collection of any license or penalty or the penal provisions applicable to any violation, nor to affect the validity of any bond or cash deposit in lieu of a bond, required to be posted, filed or deposited pursuant to any ordinance or its violation, and all rights and obligations associated with the ordinance shall continue in full force and effect.
   (e)   References to Specific Ordinances. The provisions of this Code shall not in any manner affect deposits or other matters of record which refer to, or are otherwise connected with ordinances that are specially designated by a number or otherwise and which are included within this Code, but those references shall be construed to apply to the corresponding provisions contained within this Code.
   (f)   Heading, Effect of. Division, chapter, article and section headings contained in this Code shall not be deemed to govern, limit, modify or in any manner affect the scope, meaning or intent of the provisions of any division, chapter, article or section.
   (g)   Reference to Acts or Omissions Within This City. This Code shall refer only to the omission or commission of acts within the territorial limits of the City of Los Angeles and that territory outside of this City over which the City has jurisdiction or control by virtue of the Constitution, Charter or any law, or by reason of ownership or control of property.
   (h)   Proof of Notice. Proof of giving any notice may be made by the certificate of any officer or employee of this City or by affidavit of any person over the age of 18 years, which shows service in conformity with this Code or other provisions of law applicable to the subject matter concerned.
   (i)   Notices, Service of. Whenever a notice is required to be given under this Code, unless different provisions in this Code are otherwise specifically made applicable, the notice may be given either by personal delivery to the person to be notified or by deposit in the United States Mail in a sealed envelope, postage prepaid, addressed to the person to be notified at the person’s last known business or residence address as it appears in the public records or other records pertaining to the matter to which the notice is directed. Service by mail shall be deemed to have been completed at the time of deposit in the mail.
   (j)   Prohibited Acts; Include Causing, Permitting, Suffering. Whenever in this Code any act or omission is made unlawful it shall include causing, permitting, aiding, abetting, suffering or concealing the fact of the act or omission.
   (k)   Validity of Code. If any section, subsection, sentence, clause, phrase or portion of this Code is for any reason held to be invalid or unconstitutional by the decision of any court of competent jurisdiction, that decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this Code. The Council of this City hereby declares that it would have adopted this Code and each section, subsection, sentence, clause, phrase or portion of the Code, irrespective of the fact that any one portion or more sections, subsections clauses, phrases or portions are declared invalid or unconstitutional.
   (l)   In addition to any other remedy or penalty provided by this Code, any violation of any provision of this Code is declared to be a public nuisance and may be abated by the City or by the City Attorney on behalf of the people of the State of California as a nuisance by means of a restraining order, injunction or any other order or judgment in law or equity issued by a court of competent jurisdiction. The City or the City Attorney, on behalf of the people of the State of California, may seek injunctive relief to enjoin violations of, or to compel compliance with, the provisions of this Code or seek any other relief or remedy available at law or equity. (Amended by Ord. No. 177,103, Eff. 12/18/05.)
   Violations of this Code are deemed continuing violations and each day that a violation continues is deemed to be a new and separate offense and subject to a maximum civil penalty of $2,500 for each and every offense.
   As part of any civil action, the court may require posting of a performance bond to ensure compliance with this Code, applicable state codes, court order or judgment.
   (m)   It shall be unlawful for any person to violate any provision or fail to comply with any of the requirements of this Code. Any person violating any of the provisions or failing to comply with any of the mandatory requirements of this Code, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor unless that violation or failure is declared in this Code to be an infraction. An infraction shall be tried and be punishable as provided in Section 19.6 of the Penal Code and the provisions of this section. Any violation of this Code that is designated as a misdemeanor, may be charged by the City Attorney as either a misdemeanor or an infraction.
   Every violation of this Code is punishable as a misdemeanor unless provision is otherwise made, and shall be punishable by a fine of not more than $1,000.00 or by imprisonment in the County Jail for a period of not more than six months, or by both a fine and imprisonment.
   Every violation of this Code that is established as an infraction, or is charged as an infraction, is punishable by a fine as set forth in this Code section, or as otherwise provided in this Code, not to exceed $250.00 for each violation.
   Violations of this Code may be addressed through the use of an Administrative Citation as set forth in Article 1.2 of Chapter 1 of this Code. The administrative fines prescribed by Chapter 1, Article 1.2 may be sought as an alternative to other legally available civil and criminal remedies. (Amended by Ord. No. 184,766, Eff. 3/27/17.)
   Each person shall be guilty of a separate offense for each and every day during any portion of which any violation of any provision of this Code is committed, continued or permitted by that person, and shall be punishable accordingly.
   (n)   Pursuant to Government Code Section 38773, the City may summarily abate any nuisance at the expense of the persons creating, causing, committing, or maintaining it and the expense of the abatement of the nuisance may be a lien against the property on which it is maintained and a personal obligation against the property owner.
   (o)   Pursuant to Government Code Section 38773.7, upon entry of a second or subsequent civil or criminal judgment within a two-year period that finds an owner of property responsible for a condition that may be abated in accordance with California Government Code Section 38773.5, a court may order the owner to pay treble the costs of the abatement. These costs shall not include conditions abated pursuant to California Health and Safety Code Section 17980.