§ 157.06  DEFINITIONS.
   For the purposes of this chapter, the following definitions shall apply unless the context clearly indicates or requires a different meaning.
   AIR TRAFFIC. (FAA FAR Sec. 1.1)  Aircraft operating in the air or on an airport surface, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas.
   AIRPORT. (FAA FAR Sec. 152.3)  Any areas of land or water that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and takeoff of aircraft. Any appurtenant areas that are used, or intended for use, for airport buildings, other airport facilities, or rights-of-way; and all airport buildings and facilities located on the areas specified in this definition.  The Clinton Municipal Airport owned by the City of Clinton.
   AIRPORT ELEVATION. (FAA AC 150/5190-4A)  The highest point on an airport's usable landing area measured in feet from sea level.
   AIRPORT ENVIRONS.  The land use and people in the areas surrounding an airport which can be directly affected by the operation of the airport.
   AIRPORT HAZARD. (FAA FAR Sec. 152.3)  Any structure or object of natural growth located on or in the vicinity of a public airport, or any use of land near a public airport that obstruct the airspace required for the flight of aircraft landing or talking off at the airport; or is otherwise hazardous to aircraft landing or taking off at the airport.
   AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN (ALP). (FAA FAR Sec. 152.3)  The plan of an airport showing the layout of existing and proposed airport facilities.
   AIRPORT OVERLAY ZONES.  A zone intended to place additional land use conditions on land impacted by the airport while retaining the existing underlying zone.  The FAR Part 77 Surfaces and RPZs have been combined to create five airport overlay zones.  The five specific zones create a comprehensive area focused on maintaining compatible land use around airports.
      Zone A- is intended to provide a clear area that is free of above ground obstructions and structures.  This zone is closest to the individual runway ends. 
      Zone B- is a critical overlay surface that reflects the approach and departure areas for each runway at an airport.  The size of Zone B is predicated upon the type of approach (visual, non-precision, or precision) that a specific runway has and the type/size of aircraft utilizing the runway.
      Zone C- includes those areas that are parallel to the runway pavement and extend 1,050' from the edge of the primary surface.
      Zone D- is typically elliptical in shape, depending upon the runway types and configurations at an individual airport.
      Zone E- is the outermost zone of the overlay areas and has the least number of land use restriction considerations.  The zone begins at the edge of the horizontal surface and is 4,000 feet in width paralleling the horizontal surface. 
   AIRPORT REFERENCE CODE (ARC). (FAA Web site)  The ARC is an FAA coding system used to relate airport design criteria to the operational and physical characteristics of the airplanes intended to operate at the airport.
   AIRPORT REFERENCE POINT (ARP). (FAA AC 150/5300-13)  The latitude and longitude of the approximate center of the airport.
   AIRPORT ZONING PERMIT.  Airport zoning permit allowing new development or alteration or expansion of a nonconforming use.
   AIRSIDE. (FAA Web site)  That portion of the airport facility where aircraft movements take place, airline operations areas, and areas that directly serve the aircraft, such as taxiway, runway, maintenance and fueling areas.
   AIRSPACE. (FAA Web site)  The space lying above the earth or above a certain area of land or water that is necessary to conduct aviation operations.
   APPROACH AND RUNWAY PROTECTION ZONE MAP.  The approach and Runway Protection Zone Map is compiled from the criteria in FAR Part 77, "Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace."  It shows the area affected by the Airport Overlay Zoning Ordinance, and includes the layout of runways, airport boundaries, elevations, and area topography. Applicable height limitation areas are shown in detail.
   APPROACH SLOPES. (FAR Part 77) The ratios of horizontal to vertical distance indicating the degree of inclination of the Approach Surface. The various ratios include:
      20:1. For all utility and visual runways extended from the primary surface a distance of 5,000 feet.
      34:1. For all non-precision instrument runways extended from the primary surface for a distance of 10,000 feet.
      50:1/40:1. For all precision instrument runways extending from the primary surface for a distance of 10,000 feet at an approach slope of 50:1 and an additional 40,000 feet beyond this at a 40:1 approach slope.
   APPROACH SURFACE. (FAA AC 150/5190-4A)  A surface longitudinally centered on the extended runway centerline, extending outward and upward from the end of the primary surface and at the same slope as the approach zone height limitation slope set forth in this ordinance.  In plan the perimeter of the approach surface coincides with the perimeter of the approach zone.
   AVIATION EASEMENT. (FAA Web site) A grant of a property interest in land over which a right of unobstructed flight in the airspace is established.
   BUILDING CODES. (The Practice of Local Government Planning)  Codes, either local or state, that control the functional and structural aspects of buildings and/or structures. Local ordinances typically require proposed buildings to comply with zoning requirements before building permits can be issued under the building codes.
   COMMERCIAL USES.  A use category including land uses or activities involving the production, processing, manufacturing, or sale of goods or services for financial gain, including uses that provide merchandise to the general public.  Accessory uses may include offices, storage, food service, or other amenities primarily for the use of employees and parking.
   COMPATIBILITY.  The degree to which land uses or types of development can coexist or integrate.
   EASEMENT. (FAA AC 5020-1)  The legal right of one party to use a portion of the total rights in real estate owned by another party.  This may include the right of passage over, on, or below property; certain air rights above the property, including view rights; and the rights to any specified form of development or activity, as well as any other legal rights in the property that may be specified in the easement document.
   FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA). (FAA Web site)  A federal agency charged with regulating air commerce to promote its safety and development; encourage and develop civil aviation, air traffic control, air navigation; and promoting the development of a national system of airports.
   FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS (FAR). (FAA FAR)  Regulations established and administered by the FAA that govern civil aviation and aviation-related activities.
      FAR Part 36. (FAA FAR Sec. 36.1)
      Regulation establishing noise standards for the civil aviation fleet.
      FAR Part 91. (FAA FAR Sec. 91.1)
      Regulation pertaining to air traffic and general operating rules, including operating noise limits.
      FAR Part 150. (FAA FAR Sec. 150.1)
      Regulation pertaining to airport noise compatibility planning.
      FAR Part 161. (FAA FAR Sec. 161.1)
      Regulation pertaining to notice and approval of airport noise and access restrictions.
      FAR Part 77. (FAA FAR Sec. 77.1)
      Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace - Part 77 (a) establishes standards for determining obstructions in navigable airspace; (b) defines the requirements for notice to the FAA Administrator of certain proposed construction or alteration; (c) provides for aeronautical studies of obstructions to air navigation to determine their effect on the safe and efficient use of airspace; (d) provides for public hearings on the hazardous effect of proposed construction or alteration on air navigation; and (e) provides for establishing antenna farm areas.
   GENERAL AVIATION AIRPORT.  Any airport that is not an air carrier airport or a military facility.
   HEIGHT.  Height is utilized for the purpose of determining the height limits in all zones set forth in this ordinance and shown on the Official Height Zoning Map; height shall be measured as the highest point of a structure, tree, or other object of natural growth, measured from the mean sea level elevation unless otherwise specified.
   HOLD HARMLESS AGREEMENT.  An agreement which holds airport sponsors or jurisdictions harmless for alleged damages resulting from airport operations.  Such agreements are recorded in deeds or permits as a condition of approval of a regulatory land use decision.
   IMAGINARY SURFACES. (FAA FAR Part 77.25)  Those areas established in relation to the airport and to each runway consistent with FAR Part 77 in which any object extending above these imaginary surfaces, by definition, is an obstruction.
      Transitional surface.  The transitional surface extends outward and upward at right angles to the runway centerline and extends at a slope of seven feet horizontally for each one foot vertically (7:1) from the sides of the primary and approach surfaces.  The transitional surfaces extend to the point at which they intercept the horizontal surface at a height of 150 feet above the established airport elevation. 
      Horizontal surface.  The horizontal surface is a horizontal plane located 150 feet above the established airport elevation and encompasses an area from the transitional surface to the conical surface.  The perimeter is constructed by generating arcs from the center of each end of the primary surface and connecting the adjacent arcs by lines tangent to those arcs.
      Conical surface.  The conical surface extends upward and outward from the periphery of the horizontal surface at a slope of 20 feet horizontally for every one foot vertically (20:1) for a horizontal distance of 4,000 feet. 
      Approach surface.  The approach surface is longitudinally centered on the extended runway centerline and extends outward and upward from the end of the runway primary surface.  The approach slope of a runway is a ratio of 20:1, 34:1, or 50:1, depending on the approach type.  The length of the approach surface varies from 5,000 to 50,000 feet and also depends upon the approach type. 
   INCOMPATIBLE LAND USE. (FAA FAR Sec. 150.7)  The use of land which is normally incompatible with the aircraft and airport operations (such as, but not limited to, homes, schools, nursing homes, hospitals, and libraries).
   INDUSTRIAL, WHOLESALE TRADE, AND STORAGE USES. A use category including the following use types:
      (a)   Industrial development or uses involved in the research, design, manufacturing, processing, fabrication, packaging, or assembly of goods.  Natural, man-made, raw, secondary, or partially completed materials may be used.  Products may be finished or semi-finished and are generally made for the wholesale market, for transfer to other plants, or to order for firms or customers.  Goods are generally not displayed or sold on site, but if so, they are a subordinate part of sales (typically 10% or less of the total gross floor area).  Relatively few customers come to the site.
      (b)   Industrial, manufacturing, wholesale trade, and warehouse/storage uses including uses that produce goods from raw or finished materials, uses that distribute goods in large quantities to primarily wholesale customers, or provide for storage or warehousing of goods, either in enclosed buildings or outdoors.  Few customers, especially the general public, come to the site.  Accessory activities may include sales, offices, parking, and storage.
   INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE. (FAA Pilot/Controller Glossary)  A series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of the initial approach to a landing or to a point from which a landing may be made visually.  It is prescribed and approved for a specific airport by competent authority.
   INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES (IFR). (FAA Pilot/Controller Glossary)  Rules governing the procedure for conducting instrument flight.  In addition, it is a term used by pilots and controllers to indicate a type of flight plan.
   INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS). (FAA Pilot/Controller Glossary)  A precision instrument approach system which normally consists of the following electronic components and visuals aids: localizer, glideslope, outer marker, middle marker, and approach lights. 
   ITINERANT OPERATION. (FAA AC 150/5325-4B)  Takeoff or landing operations of airplanes going from one airport to another airport that involves a trip of at least 20 miles.  Local operations are excluded.
   LAND USE COMPATIBILITY. (FAA Web site)  The coexistence of land uses surrounding the airport with airport-related activities.
   LIGHTING AND MARKING OF HAZARDS TO AIR NAVIGATION.  Installation of appropriate lighting fixtures, painted markings or other devices to such objects or structures that constitute hazards to air navigation.
   MITIGATION. (FAA Web site)  The avoidance, minimization, reduction, elimination or compensation for adverse environmental effects of a proposed action.
   NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE.  The airspace above minimum altitude for safe flight, and includes the airspace needed to ensure safety in take-off and landing of aircraft.
   NAVIGATION AIDS (NAVAID). (FAA Web site) Any facility used by an aircraft for guiding or controlling flight in the air or the landing or take-off of an aircraft.
   NOISE EXPOSURE CONTOURS. (FAA Web site)  Lines drawn around a noise source indicating constant energy levels of noise exposure.  DNL is the measure used to describe community exposure to noise.
   NOISE IMPACT.  A condition that exists when the noise levels that occur in an area exceed a level identified as appropriate for the activities in that area.
   NOISE SENSITIVE AREA. (FAA AC 91-36D)  Defined as an area where noise interferes with normal activities associated with the area's use.  Examples of noise-sensitive areas include residential, educational, health, and religious structures and sites, and parks, recreational areas (including areas with wilderness characteristics), wildlife refuges, and cultural and historical sites where a quiet setting is a generally recognized feature or attribute.
   NON-CONFORMING USE. (FAA Web site)  Any pre-existing structure, tree, or use of land that is inconsistent with the provisions of the local land use or airport master plans.
   NON-PRECISION INSTRUMENT RUNWAY. (FAA AC 150/5190-4A)  A runway having an existing instrument approach procedure utilizing air navigation facilities with only horizontal guidance, or area type navigation equipment, for which a straight-in non precision instrument approach procedure has been approved or planned.
   OBJECT. (FAA AC 150/5300-13)  Includes, but is not limited to, above ground structures, NAVAIDSs, people, equipment, vehicles, natural growth, terrain, and parked aircraft.
   OBSTACLE FREE ZONE (OFZ). (FAA 150/5300-13)  The OFZ is the airspace below 150 feet (45 m) above the established airport elevation and along the runway and extended runway centerline that is required to be clear of all objects, except for the frangible visual NAVAID's that need to be located in the OFZ because of their function, in order to provide clearance protection for the aircraft landing or taking off from the runway, and for missed approaches.
   OBSTRUCTION. (FAA AC 150/5190-4A)  Any structure, growth, or other object, including a mobile object, which exceeds a limiting height, specific to its geographic location relative to the runway/airport.
   OFF-AIRPORT PROPERTY. (FAA Web site) Property that is beyond the boundary of land owned by the airport sponsor.
   ON-AIRPORT PROPERTY. (FAA Web site)  Property that is within the boundary of land owned by the airport sponsor.
   OVERLAY ZONE. (FAA Web site) A mapped zone that imposes a set of requirements in addition to those of the underlying zoning district.
   PART 150 STUDY. (FAA Web site)  Part 150 is the abbreviated name for the airport noise compatibility planning process outlined in Part 150 of the Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) that allows airport owners to voluntarily submit noise exposure maps and noise compatibility programs to the FAA for review and approval. See "Noise Compatibility Plan."
   PRIMARY RUNWAY. (FAA AC 150/5325-4B General Definition)  The runway used for the majority of airport operations.  Large, high-activity airports may operate two or more parallel primary runways.
   PRIMARY SURFACE. (FAA AC 150/5190-4A)  A surface longitudinally centered on a runway. When the runway has a specially prepared hard surface, the primary surface extends 200 feet beyond each end of that runway; for military runways or when the runway has no specially prepared hard surface, or planned hard surface, the primary surface ends at each end of that runway.  The width of the primary surface is set forth in FAR Part 77.  The elevation of any point on the primary surface is the same as the elevation of the nearest point on the runway centerline.
   PUBLIC ASSEMBLY USE.  A structure or outdoor facility where concentrations of people gather for purposes such as deliberation, education, shopping, business, entertainment, amusement, sporting events, or similar activities, but excluding air shows.  PUBLIC ASSEMBLY USE does not include places where people congregate for relatively short periods of time, such as parking lots and bus stops, or uses approved by the FAA in an adopted airport master plan.
   PUBLIC USE AIRPORT. (FAA AC 150/5190-6) Either a publicly owned airport or a privately owned airport open for public use.
   RESIDENTIAL AND ACCOMMODATION USES.  A use category that includes the following use types:
      (a)   Residential uses that provide living accommodations, including sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitary facilities, to one or more persons, and where tenancies typically last longer than 30 days.
      (b)   Accommodation uses characterized by visitor-serving facilities that provide temporary lodging in guest rooms or guest units, for compensation, and with an average length of stay of less than 30 days.  Accessory uses may include pools and other recreational facilities for the exclusive use of guests, limited storage, restaurants, bars, meeting facilities, and offices.
   RUNWAY PROTECTION ZONE (RPZ). (FAA AC 150/5300-13)  An area off the runway end designed to enhance the protection of people and property on the ground.
   RUNWAY SAFETY AREA. (FAA AC 150/5300-13)  A defined surface surrounding the runway prepared or suitable for reducing the risk of damage to airplanes in the event of an overshoot, or excursion from the runway.
   STRUCTURE.  Any object constructed or installed by humans, including, but without limitation, buildings, towers, smokestacks, and overhead transmission lines, including the poles or other structures supporting the same.
   UTILITY RUNWAY.  A utility runway constructed for and intended to be used by propeller driven aircraft of 12,500 pounds gross weight or less.
   VARIANCE. (FAA Web site)  An authorization for the construction or maintenance of a building or structure, or for the establishment or maintenance of a use of land that is prohibited by a zoning ordinance.  A lawful exception from specific zoning ordinance standards and regulations predicated on the practical difficulties and/or unnecessary hardships on the petitioner being required to comply with those regulations and standards from which an exemption or exception is sought.
   VISUAL APPROACH. (FAA Web site)  An approach to an airport conducted with visual reference to the terrain.
   VISUAL FLIGHT RULES (VFR). (FAA FAR Sec. 170.3)  Rules that govern the procedures for conducting flight under visual conditions.  The term "VFR" is also used in the United States to indicate weather conditions that are equal to or greater than minimum VFR requirements. In addition, "VFR" is used by pilots and controllers to indicate the type of flight plan.
   VISUAL RUNWAY. (FAA AC 150/5300-13)  A runway without an existing or planned straight-in instrument approach procedure.
   WETLAND.  Land on which water covers the soil or is present either at or near the surface of the soil or within the root zone, all year or for varying periods of time during the year, including during the growing season.  (FAA AC 150/5200-33A) Wetlands provide a variety of functions and can be regulated by local, state, and federal laws.  Normally, wetlands are attractive to many types of wildlife, including many which rank high on the list of hazardous wildlife species.
   WILDLIFE ATTRACTANTS.  Any human-made structure, land-use practice, or human-made or natural geographic feature that can attract or sustain hazardous wildlife within the landing or departure airspace or the airport's air operations area.  These attractants include, but are not limited to, architectural features, landscaping, waste disposal sites, wastewater treatment facilities, agricultural or aquaculture activities, surface mining, or wetlands.
   WILDLIFE HAZARDS.  Species of wildlife (birds, mammals, reptiles), including feral animals and domesticated animals not under the control, that are associated with aircraft strike problems, are capable of causing structural damage to airport facilities, or act as attractants to other wildlife that pose a strike hazard.
(Ord. 2517, passed 2-24-2015)