921.07  CROSS CONNECTING PROHIBITED; BACKFLOW PREVENTION.
   (a)   Purpose. The purpose of this section is:
      (1)    To protect the public potable water supply from contamination or pollution by isolating within the consumer's water system contaminants or pollutants which could backflow through the Service Connection into the public potable water system.
      (2)    To promote the elimination or control of existing cross connections, actual or potential, between the public or consumer's potable water system and nonpotable water systems, plumbing fixtures and sources or systems containing process fluids.
      (3)    To provide for the maintenance of a continuing program of cross connection control which will systematically and effectively prevent the contamination or pollution of the public and consumer's potable water systems.
   (b)   Application.  This section shall apply to all premises served by the public potable water system of the Village of Wakeman, Ohio.
   (c)   Policy.  The Village shall be responsible for the protection of the public potable water system from contamination due to backflow of contaminants through the  water service connection. If, in the judgment of the Village Administrator or his  authorized representative, and approved backflow prevention device is necessary  at the water service connection to any consumer's premises for the safety of the  water system, the Village Administrator or his authorized representative shall give notice to the consumer to install such approved backflow prevention device at each service connection to his premises. The consumer shall immediately install such  approved device or devices at his own expense, and failure, refusal or inability on the part of the consumer to install such device or devices immediately shall constitute grounds for discontinuing water service to the premises until such device  or devices have been installed.
   (d)   Definitions.  The following definitions shall apply in the interpretation and  enforcement of this section.
      (1)    "Air gap separation" means the unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet  supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture, or other device and the flood  level rim of the receptacle.
      (2)    "Approved" means a backflow prevention device or method has been accepted by the supplier of water and the director as suitable for the  proposed use.
      (3)    "Auxiliary water system" means any water system on or available to the premises other than the public water system and includes the water supplied by the system. These auxiliary waters may include water from another supplier's public water system; or water from a source such as wells, lakes or streams; or process fluids; or used water. They may be polluted or contaminated or objectionable or constitute a water source or system over which the supplier of water does not have control.
      (4)    "Backflow" means the flow of water or other liquids, mixtures or substances into the distributing pipes of a potable water supply from any source other than the intended source of the potable water supply.
      (5)    "Backflow Prevention Device" means any device, method or type of construction intended to prevent backflow into a potable water system.
      (6)    "Consumer" means the owner or person in control of any premises supplied by or in any manner connected to a public water system.
      (7)    "Consumer's water system" means any water system located on the consumer's premises, supplied by or in any manner connected to a public water system. A household plumbing system is considered to be a consumer's water system.
      (8)    "Contamination" means an impairment of the quality of the water by sewage or process fluid or waste to a degree which could create an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or through spread of disease by exposure.
      (9)    "Cross-connection" means any arrangement whereby backflow can occur.
      (10)    "Degree of hazard" means an evaluation of the potential risk to health and the adverse effect upon the potable water system.
      (11)    "Director" means the Director of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency or his duly authorized representative.
      (12)    "Double check valve assembly" means an assembly composed of two single, independently acting check valves including tightly closing shutoff valves located at each end of the assembly and suitable connections for testing the water-tightness of each check valve.
      (13)    "Environmental officer” means the Village Administrator.
      (14)   “Health hazard” means any condition, device or practice in a water system or its operation that creates or may create a danger to the health and wellbeing of users. The word "severe" as used to qualify "health hazard" means a hazard to the health of the user that could reasonably be expected to result in significant morbidity or death.
      (15)    “Interchangeable connection” means an arrangement or device that will  allow alternate but not simultaneous use of two sources of water.
      (16)    "Nonpotable water" means water not safe for drinking, personal or  culinary use.
      (17)    "Person" means the state, any political subdivision, public or private  corporation, individual, partnership or other legal entity.
      (18)    "Pollution" means the presence in water of any foreign substance that tends to degrade its quality so as to constitute a hazard or impair the usefulness  or quality of the water to a degree which does not create an actual hazard  to the public health but which does adversely and unreasonably affect such  waters for domestic use.
      (19)    "Potable water" means water which is satisfactory for drinking, culinary  and domestic purposes and meets the requirements of the Ohio  Environmental Protection Agency.
      (20)    "Process fluids" means any fluid or solution which may be chemically,  biologically or otherwise contaminated or polluted in a form or  concentration such as would constitute a health, pollution or system hazard  if introduced into the public or a potable consumer's water system. This  includes but is not limited to:
         A.   Polluted or contaminated waters;
         B.   Process waters;
         C.   Used waters originating from the public water system which may have deteriorated in sanitary quality;
         D.   Cooling waters;
         E.   Contaminated natural waters taken from wells, lakes, streams, or irrigation systems;
         F.   Chemicals in solution or suspension;
         G.   Oils, gases, acids, alkalis, and other liquid and gaseous fluids used in industrial or other processes, or for fire fighting purposes.
      (21)    “Public water system” means the meaning ascribed to such term in Ohio R.C. 6109.01 and 6109.02.
      (22)    "Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention device" means a device containing a minimum of two independently acting check valves together  with an automatically operated pressure differential relief valve located  between two check valves. During normal flow and at the cessation of  normal flow, the pressure between these two checks shall be less than the  supply pressure. In case of leakage of either check valve, the differential  relief valve by discharging into the atmosphere shall operate to maintain the  pressure between the check valves at less than the supply pressure. The  unit must include tightly closing shutoff valves located at each end of the  device, and each device shall be fitted with properly located test cocks.
      (23)    "Service connection" means the terminal end of a service line from the  public water system. If a meter is installed at the end of the service, then  the service connection means the downstream end of the water meter.
      (24)    "Supplier of water" means the owner or operator of a public water system.
      (25)    "System hazard" means a condition posing an actual or potential threat of  damage to the physical properties of the public water system or a potable  consumer's water system.
      (26)    "Pollution hazard" means a condition through which an aesthetically  objectionable or degrading material not dangerous to health may enter the  public water system or a potable consumer's water system.
      (27)    "Used water" means any water supplied by a supplier of  water, from a public water system to a consumer's water  system after it has passed through the service connection and is no longer under the control of the supplier.
   (e)   Water System. 
      (1)    The water system shall be considered as made up of two  parts: the public potable water system and the consumer's water system.
      (2)    The public potable water system shall consist of the source facilities and the distribution system, and shall include all those facilities of the potable water system under the control of the Village up to the point where the consumer's water system begins.
      (3)    The source shall include all components of the facilities utilized in the production, treatment, storage and delivery of water to the public distribution system.
      (4)    The public distribution system shall include the network of conduits used for delivery of water from the source of the consumer's water system.
      (5)    The consumer's water system shall include those parts of the facilities beyond the service connection which are utilized in conveying water from the public distribution systems to points of use.
   (f)   Cross-connections Prohibited. 
      (1)    No water service connection shall be installed or maintained to any premises where actual or potential cross-connections to the public potable water system may exist unless such actual or potential cross-connections are abated or controlled to the satisfaction of the Village Administrator.
      (2)    No connection shall be installed or maintained whereby water from an auxiliary water system may enter a public potable water system unless such auxiliary water system and the method of connection and use of such  system shall have been approved by the Village Administrator and by the Director of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency as required by Ohio R.C. 6109.13.
   (g)   Survey and Investigations.
      (1)    The consumer's premises shall be open at all reasonable times to the  Village Administrator, or his authorized representative, for the conducting of surveys and investigations of water use practices within the consumer's premises to determine whether there are actual or potential cross- connections to the consumer's water system through which contaminants  or pollutants could backflow into the public potable water system.
      (2)   On request of the Village Administrator, or his authorized representative, the consumer shall furnish information on water use practices within the consumer's premises.
      (3)   It shall be the responsibility of the water consumer to conduct periodic surveys of water use practices on his premises to determine whether there are actual or potential cross-connections in his water system through which contaminants or pollutants could backflow into his or the public potable  water system.
   (h)   Where Protection is Required.
      (1)    An approved backflow prevention device shall be installed on each service connection to a consumer's water system serving premises, where in the judgment of the Village Administrator, actual or potential hazards to the public potable water system exist:
      (2)    An approved backflow prevention device shall be installed on each service connection to a consumer's water system serving premises where the following conditions exist:
         A.   Premises having an auxiliary water system, unless such auxiliary system is accepted as an additional source by the Village Administrator and the source is approved by the Director of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency;
         B.   Premises on which any substance is handled in such a fashion as to create an actual or potential hazard to the public potable water system. This shall include premises having sources or systems containing process fluids or waters originating from the public potable water system which are no longer under the sanitary control of the Village of Wakeman;
         C.   Premises having internal cross-connections that, in the judgment of the Village Administrator are not correctable, or intricate plumbing arrangements which make it impractical to determine whether or not cross connections exist;
            1.   Premises where, because of security requirements or other  prohibitions or restrictions, it is impossible or impracticable to  make a complete cross-connection survey;
            2.   Premises having a repeated history of cross-connections being established or re-established;
            3.   Others specified by the Village Administrator.
      (3)    An approved backflow prevention device shall be installed on each service connection to a consumers' water system serving, but not necessarily  limited to, the following types of facilities unless the Village Administrator  determines that no actual or potential hazard to the public potable water  system exists:
         A.   Hospitals, mortuaries, clinics, nursing homes;
         B.   Laboratories;
         C.   Piers, docks, waterfront facilities;
         D.   Sewage treatment plants, sewage pumping stations or storm water pumping stations;
         E.   Food or beverage processing plants;
         F.   Chemical plants;
         G.   Metal plating industries;
         H.   Petroleum processing or storage plants;
         I.   Radioactive material processing plants or nuclear reactors;
         J.   Car washes;
         K.   Others when determined by the Village of Wakeman to pose a contamination potential.
      (4)    An approved backflow prevention device shall be installed at any point of connection between the public potable water system and an auxiliary water  system, unless such auxiliary system is accepted as an additional source by  the Village Administrator and the source is approved by the Director of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency.
   (i)   Type of Protection Required. 
      (1)    The type of protection required under subsections (h)(1), (2) and (3) hereof shall depend on the degree of hazard which exists as follows:
         A.   An approved air gap separation shall be installed where the public potable water system may be contaminated with substances that could cause a severe health hazard;
         B.   An approved air gap separation or an approved reduced pressure principle backflow prevention device shall be installed where the public potable water system may be contaminated with any substance that could cause a system or health hazard;
         C.   An approved air gap separation or an approved reduced pressure principle backflow prevention device or an approved double check valve assembly shall be installed where the public potable water system may be polluted with substances that could cause a  pollution hazard not dangerous to health.
      (2)    The type of protection required under subsection (h)(4) shall be an approved air gap separation or an approved interchangeable connection.
      (3)    Where an auxiliary water system is used as a secondary source of water for a fire protection system, the provisions of subsection (i)(2) for an approved air gap separation or an approved interchangeable connection may not be required, provided:
         A.   At premises where the auxiliary water system may be contaminated with substances that could cause a system or health hazard, the public potable water system shall be protected against backflow by installation of an approved reduced pressure principle backflow prevention device;
         B.   At all other premises, the public potable water system shall be protected against backflow by installation of either an approved, reduced pressure principle backflow prevention device or an  approved double check valve assembly;
         C.   The public potable water system shall be the primary source of  water for the fire protection system;
         D.   The fire protection system shall be normally filled with water from  the public potable water system;
         E.   The water in the fire protection system shall be used for fire protection only, with no regular use of water from the fire protection system downstream from the approved backflow prevention device.
   (j)   Backflow Prevention Devices.
      (1)    Any backflow prevention device required by these rules shall be of a model or construction approved by Ohio EPA and shall comply with the following:
         A.   An air gap separation to be approved shall be at least twice the diameter of the supply pipe, measured vertically above the top rim of the vessel, but in no case less than one inch.
         B.   A double check valve assembly or a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention device shall be approved by the Ohio EPA and shall appear on the current list of approved backflow prevention devices of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency.
         C.   An interchangeable connection, to be approved, shall be either a  swing type connector or a four-way valve of the lubricated plug type that operates through a mechanism which unseats the plug, turns it ninety degrees or reseats the plug. Four way valves shall not be used as stop valves, but must have separate stop valves on each pipe connected to the valve. The telltale port on the four-way valve shall have no piping connected and the threads or flange on this port shall be destroyed so that a connection cannot be made.
      (2)   Existing backflow prevention devices approved by the Village Administrator and/or the Director of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency at the time of installation and properly maintained shall, except for inspection, testing and maintenance requirements be excluded from the requirement of subsection (j)(1) hereof, providing the Village Administrator is assured that they will satisfactorily protect the public potable water system. Whenever the existing device is moved from the present location or requires more than minimum maintenance or when the Village Administrator finds that the maintenance of the device constitutes a hazard to health, the device shall be replaced by a backflow prevention device meeting the requirements of this section.
   (k)   Installation. 
      (1)    Backflow prevention devices required by these rules shall be installed at a location and in a manner approved by the Village Administrator and at the expense of the water consumer. In addition, any backflow prevention device required by subsection (i)(2) and (3) hereof shall be installed at a location and in a manner approved by the Director of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency as required by Ohio R.C. 6109.13.
      (2)    Backflow prevention devices installed on the service to a consumer's water system shall be located on the consumer's side of the water meter, as close to the meter as is reasonably practical and prior to any other connection.
       (3)    Pits or vaults shall be of water-tight construction, be so located and constructed as to prevent flooding and shall be maintained free from standing water by means of either a sump and pump or a suitable drain. Such sump pump or drain shall not connect to a sanitary sewer nor permit flooding of the pit or vault by reverse flow from its point of discharge. An access ladder and adequate natural or artificial lighting shall be provided to permit maintenance, inspection and testing of the backflow prevention device.
      (4)    Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention devices must be installed above ground level or floor level, whichever is higher.
   (l)   Inspection and Maintenance.
      (1)    It shall be the duty of the consumer at any premises on which backflow prevention devices required by this chapter are installed to have inspections, tests and overhauls made in accordance with the following schedule or more often where inspections indicate a need:
         A.   Air gap separations shall be inspected at the time of installation and at least every twelve months thereafter;
         B.   Double check valve assemblies shall be inspected and tested for tightness at the time of installation and at least every twelve months thereafter. They shall be dismantled, inspected internally, cleaned and repaired whenever needed and at least every thirty months.
         C.   Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention devices shall be inspected and tested for tightness at the time of installation and at least every twelve months thereafter.
         D.   Interchangeable connections shall be inspected at the time of installation and at least every twelve months thereafter.
      (2)    Inspections, tests and overhauls of backflow prevention devices shall be made at the expense of the water consumer and shall be performed by personnel certified by the Ohio Department of Health and approved by the  Village as qualified to inspect, test and overhaul backflow prevention devices.
      (3)    Whenever backflow prevention devices required by these rules are found to be defective, they shall be repaired, overhauled or replaced at the expense of the consumer without delay.
      (4)    The water consumer must maintain a complete record of each backflow prevention device from purchase to retirement. This shall include a comprehensive listing that include a record of all tests, inspections, repairs and overhauls. Records of inspections, tests, repairs and overhauls shall be submitted to the Village Administrator within thirty days of completion.
      (5)    Backflow prevention devices shall not be bypassed, made inoperative, removed or otherwise made ineffective without specific authorization by the Village and/or Ohio EPA.
   (m)   Booster Pumps.
       (1)   Where a booster pump has been installed on the service line to or within any premises, such pump shall be equipped with a low pressure cut-off device designed to shut-off the booster pump when the pressure in the service line on the suction side of the pump drops to ten pounds per square inch gauge or less.
      (2)    It shall be the duty of the water consumer and the Village to maintain the low pressure cut-off device in proper working order and to certify to the Village at least once a year, that the device is operating properly.
   (n)   Violations.
      (1)    The Village Administrator shall deny or discontinue, after reasonable notice to the occupants thereof, the water service to any premises wherein any backflow prevention device required by this chapter is not installed, tested and maintained in a manner acceptable to this chapter, or if it is found that the backflow prevention device has been removed or bypassed, or if an unprotected cross-connection exists on the premises or if a low pressure cut-off required by this chapter is not installed and maintained in working order.
      (2)    Water service to such premises shall not be restored until the consumer has corrected or eliminated such conditions or defects in conformance with this chapter and to the satisfaction of the Village Administrator.
      (3)    The Village Administrator may recommend to Council to commence a legal action against customers who knowingly violate the terms and conditions of this chapter. In addition, the Village may recover all reasonable expenses for litigation, damage related expenditures and all fines levied on the Village by other parties. (Ord. 1998-0-11.  Passed 6-8-98.)