For the purpose of this chapter, the following definitions shall apply unless the context clearly indicates or requires a different meaning.
   A99 ZONE. The part of the SFHA inundated by the 100-year flood which is to be protected from the 100-year flood by a federal flood protection system under construction. No base flood elevations are determined.
   A ZONE. Portions of the special flood hazard area (SFHA) in which the principle source of flooding is runoff from rainfall, snowmelt, or a combination of both. In A ZONES, floodwaters may move slowly or rapidly, but waves are usually not a significant threat to structures. Areas of 100-year flood, base flood elevations, and flood hazard factors are not determined.
   ACCESSORY STRUCTURE (APPURTENANT STRUCTURE). A structure located on the same parcel of property as the principle structure, the use of which is incidental to the use of the principle structure. ACCESSORY STRUCTURES should constitute a minimal initial investment, may not be used for human habitation, and should be designed to have minimal flood damage potential. Examples of ACCESSORY STRUCTURES are detached garages, carports, storage sheds, pole barns, and hay sheds.
   ACCESSORY USE. A use which is incidental and subordinate to the principal use of the parcel of land on which it is located.
   ADDITION (TO AN EXISTING STRUCTURE). Any walled and roofed expansion to the perimeter of a structure in which the addition is connected by a common load-bearing wall other than a firewall. Any walled and roofed addition, which is connected by a firewall or is separated by independent perimeter load-bearing walls is new construction.
   A1-30 AND AE ZONES. Special flood hazard areas inundated by the 1% annual chance flood (100-year flood). Base flood elevations (BFEs) are determined.
   AH ZONE. An area of 100-year shallow flooding where depths are between one and three feet (usually shallow ponding). Base flood elevations are shown.
   AO ZONE. An area of 100-year shallow flooding where water depth is between one and three feet (usually sheet flow on sloping terrain). Flood depths are shown.
   APPEAL. A request for a review of the Floodplain Administrator’s interpretation of any provision of this chapter or from the Floodplain Administrator’s ruling on a request for a variance.
   AR/A1-A30, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/AO, and AR/A ZONES. Special flood hazard areas (SFHAs) that result from the de-certification of a previously accredited flood protection system that is in the process of being restored to provide a 100-year or greater level of flood protection. After restoration is complete, these areas will still experience residual flooding from other flooding sources.
   AREA OF SHALLOW FLOODING. A designated AO or AH Zone on a community’s flood insurance rate map (FIRM) where the base flood depths range from one to three feet, there is no clearly defined channel, the path of flooding is unpredictable and indeterminate, and velocity flow may be evident. Such flooding is characterized by ponding or sheet flow.
   B AND X ZONES (SHADED). Areas of the 0.2% annual chance (500-year) flood, areas subject to the 100-year flood with average depths of less than one foot or with contributing drainage area less than one square mile, and areas protected by levees from the base flood.
   BASE FLOOD. A flood which has a 1% chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year (also called the 100-YEAR FLOOD). BASE FLOOD is the term used throughout this chapter.
   BASE FLOOD ELEVATION (BFE). The elevation shown on the flood insurance rate map (FIRM) for Zones AE, AH, Al-30, AR, AR/A, AR/AE, AR/A1-A30, AR/AH, and AR/AO that indicates the water surface elevation resulting from a flood that has a 1% or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
   BASEMENT. The portion of a structure having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all four sides.
   BUILDING. A walled and roofed structure that is principally above ground; including a manufactured home, gas or liquid storage tank, or other human-made facility or infrastructure. See definition for STRUCTURE.
   C AND X (UNSHADED) ZONES. Areas determined to be outside the 500-year floodplain.
   COMMUNITY. A political entity having the authority to adopt and enforce floodplain ordinances for the area under its jurisdiction.
   COMMUNITY FLOOD HAZARD AREA (CFHA). An area that has been determined by the Floodplain Administrator (or other delegated, designated, or qualified community official) from available technical studies, historical information, and other available and reliable sources, which may be subject to periodic inundation by floodwaters that can adversely affect the public health, safety, and general welfare. Included are areas downstream from dams.
   COMMUNITY RATING SYSTEM (CRS). A program developed by the Federal Insurance Administration to provide incentives to those communities in the regular program to go beyond the minimum floodplain management requirements to develop extra measures for protection from flooding.
   CRITICAL FACILITY. Any property that, if flooded, would result in severe consequences to public health and safety or a facility which, if unusable or unreachable because of flooding, would seriously and adversely affect the health and safety of the public. CRITICAL FACILITIES include, but are not limited to: housing likely to contain occupants not sufficiently mobile to avoid injury or death unaided during a flood; schools; nursing homes; hospitals; police, fire, and emergency response installations, vehicles, and equipment storage facilities; emergency operations centers likely to be called upon before, during, and after a flood; public and private utility facilities important to maintaining or restoring normal services before, during, and after a flood; and those facilities or installations which produce, use, or store volatile, flammable, explosive, toxic and/or water-reactive materials, hazardous materials, or hazardous waste.
   D ZONE. An area in which the flood hazard is undetermined.
   DEVELOPMENT. Any human-made change to improved or unimproved real estate, including, but not limited to, buildings or other structures, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavating, drilling operations, or storage of equipment or materials.
   ELEVATED STRUCTURE. A non-basement structure built to have the lowest floor elevated above ground level by means of fill, solid foundation perimeter walls, piling, columns (post and piers), shear walls, or breakaway walls. (See freeboard requirements for residential and nonresidential structures.)
   ELEVATION CERTIFICATE. A statement certified by a registered professional engineer or surveyor on the FEMA-approved form in effect at the time of certification that verifies a structure’s elevation and other related information to verify compliance with this chapter.
   EMERGENCY PROGRAM. The initial phase under which a community participates in the NFIP intended to provide a first layer amount of insurance at subsidized rates on all insurable structures in that community before the effective date of the initial FIRM.
   ENCLOSURE. The portion of a structure below the base flood elevation (BFE) used solely for parking of vehicles, limited storage, or access to the structure.
   ENCROACHMENT. The physical advance or infringement of uses, plant growth, fill, excavation, structures, permanent structures, or development into a floodplain, which may impede or alter the flow capacity of a floodplain.
   EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. Any structure for which the “start of construction” commenced before the effective date of the FIRM or before January 1,1975, for FIRMs effective before that date. EXISTING CONSTRUCTION may also be referred to as EXISTING STRUCTURES.
   EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION. A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed before the effective date of the first floodplain management ordinance adopted by the city based on specific technical base flood elevation data which established the area of special flood hazards.
   EXPANSION TO AN EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION. The preparation of additional sites by the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads).
   FIVE-HUNDRED-YEAR FLOOD. The flood that has a 0.2% chance of being equaled or exceeded in any year. Areas subject to the 500-YEAR FLOOD have a moderate to low risk of flooding.
      (1)   A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from the overflow of inland or tidal waters; the unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; and/or mudslides (i.e., mudflows). See MUDSLIDES.
      (2)   The condition resulting from flood-related erosion. See flood-related erosion.
   FLOOD BOUNDARY AND FLOODWAY MAP (FBFM). A map on which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or Federal Insurance Administration (FIA) has delineated the areas of flood hazards and the regulatory floodway.
   FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP (FHBM). A map on which the boundaries of the flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow), and flood-related erosion areas having special hazards have been designated as Zones A, M, and/or E by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or Federal Insurance Administration (FIA).
   FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). A map on which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or Federal Insurance Administration (FIA) has delineated special flood hazard areas and risk premium zones.
   FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY. The report provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or Federal Insurance Administration (FIA) containing flood profiles, the flood insurance rate map (FIRM), and/or the flood boundary floodway map (FBFM), and the water surface elevation of the base flood.
   FLOODPLAIN or FLOOD-PRONE AREA. Any land area susceptible to being inundated by floodwaters from any source.
   FLOODPLAIN ADMINISTRATOR. The individual appointed by a NFIP participating community to administer and enforce the floodplain management ordinances.
   FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT. The operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood damage and preserving and enhancing natural resources in the floodplain, including, but not limited to, emergency preparedness plans, flood control works, floodplain management ordinances, and open space plans.
   FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS. This chapter and other zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, health regulations, special purpose ordinances (such as grading and erosion control), and other applications of police power, which control development in flood-prone areas. This term describes federal, commonwealth, and/or local regulations, in any combination thereof, which provide standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and reduction.
   FLOOD-PROOFING. Any combination of structural and non-structural additions, changes, or adjustments to structures which reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate or improved real property, water and sanitation facilities, structures, and their contents.
   FLOOD-PROOFING CERTIFICATE. A certification by a registered professional engineer or architect, on a FEMA-approved form in effect at the time of certification stating that a nonresidential structure, together with attendant utilities and sanitary facilities is water-tight to a specified design elevation with walls that are substantially impermeable to the passage of water and all structural components are capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic flood forces, including the effects of buoyancy and anticipated debris impact forces.
   FLOODWAY. The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one foot. Also referred to as the REGULATORY FLOODWAY.
   FLOODWAY FRINGE. The area of the floodplain on either side of the regulatory floodway where encroachment may be permitted without additional hydraulic and/or hydrologic analysis.
   FREEBOARD. A factor of safety, usually expressed in feet above the BFE, which is applied for the purposes of floodplain management. It is used to compensate for the many unknown factors that could contribute to flood heights greater than those calculated for the base flood. FREEBOARD must be applied not just to the elevation of the lowest floor or flood-proofing level, but also to the level of protection provided to all components of the structure, such as building utilities, HVAC components, and the like.
      (1)   As related in § 151.14, means that the variance granted must not cause fraud on or victimization of the public. In examining this requirement, the City Council will consider the fact that every newly constructed structure adds to government responsibilities and remains a part of the community for 50 to 100 years.
      (2)   Structures that are permitted to be constructed below the base flood elevation are subject during all those years to increased risk of damage from floods, while future owners of the property and the community as a whole are subject to all the costs, inconvenience, danger, and suffering that those increased flood damages may incur. In addition, future owners may purchase the property, unaware that it is subject to potential flood damage, and can be insured only at very high flood insurance rates.
   FUNCTIONALLY DEPENDENT USE FACILITY. A facility, structure, or other development, which cannot be used for its intended purpose unless it is located or carried out in close proximity to water. The term includes only a docking or port facility necessary for the loading and unloading of cargo or passengers, shipbuilding, ship repair, or seafood processing facilities. The term does not include long-term storage, manufacture, sales, or service facilities.
   GOVERNING BODY. The local governing unit, i.e., county or municipality that is empowered to adopt and implement ordinances to provide for the public health, safety, and general welfare of its citizenry.
   HAZARD POTENTIAL. The possible adverse incremental consequences that result from the release of water or stored contents due to failure of a dam or misoperation of a dam or appurtenances. The hazard potential classification of a dam does not reflect in any way the current condition of a dam and its appurtenant structures (e.g., safety, structural integrity, flood routing capacity).
   HIGHEST ADJACENT GRADE. The highest natural elevation of the ground surface, prior to construction, next to the proposed walls of a structure.
   HISTORIC STRUCTURE. Any structure that is:
      (1)   Listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places (a listing maintained by the Department of Interior) or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register;
      (2)   Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary to qualify as a registered historic district;
      (3)   Individually listed on a commonwealth inventory of historic places in states with historic preservation programs which have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or
      (4)   Individually listed on a local inventory of historic places in communities with historic preservation programs that have been certified either:
         (a)   By an approved commonwealth program as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or
         (b)   Directly by the Secretary of the Interior in states without approved programs.
      (1)   INCREASED COST OF COMPLIANCE coverage provides for the payment of a claim for the cost to comply with commonwealth or community floodplain management laws or ordinances after a direct physical loss by flood. When a building covered by a standard flood insurance policy under the NFIP sustains a loss and the commonwealth or community declares the building to be substantially or repetitively damaged, ICC will help pay up to $30,000 for the cost to elevate, flood-proof, demolish, or remove the building.
      (2)   ICC coverage is available on residential and nonresidential buildings (this category includes public or government buildings, such as schools, libraries, and municipal buildings) insured under the NFIP.
      (1)   Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person and no city, county, or other political subdivision of the commonwealth, including levee districts, drainage districts, flood control districts or systems, or similar bodies, shall commence the construction, reconstruction, relocation, or improvement of any dam, embankment, levee, dike, bridge, fill, or other obstruction (except those constructed by the Department of Highways) across or along any stream, or in the floodway of any stream, unless the plans and specifications for such work have been submitted by the person or political subdivision responsible for the construction, reconstruction, or improvement and such plans and specifications have been approved in writing by the Cabinet and a permit issued; however, the Cabinet by regulation may exempt those dams, embankments, or other obstructions, which are not of such size or type as to require approval by the Cabinet in the interest of safety or retention of water supply.
      (2)   No person, city, county, or other political subdivision of the commonwealth shall commence the filing of any area with earth, debris, or any other material, or raise the level of any area in any manner, or place a building, barrier or obstruction of any sort on any area located adjacent to a river or stream or in the floodway of the stream so that such filling, raising, or obstruction will in any way affect the flow of water in the channel or in the floodway of the stream unless plans and specifications for such work have been submitted to and approved by the Cabinet and a permit issued as required in division (1) above.
      (3)   Nothing in this division (3) is intended to give the Cabinet any jurisdiction or control over the construction, reconstruction, improvement, enlargement, maintenance, or operation of any drainage district, ditch, or system established for agricultural purposes, or to require approval of the same except where such obstruction of the stream or floodway is determined by the Cabinet to be a detriment or hindrance to the beneficial use of water resources in the area, and the person or political subdivision in control thereof so notified.
      (4)   The Department for Natural Resources, through KRS Ch. 350, shall have exclusive jurisdiction over KRS Ch. 151 concerning the regulation of dams, levees, embankments, dikes, bridges, fills, or other obstructions across or along any stream or in the floodway of any stream which structures are permitted under KRS Ch. 350 for surface coal mining operations.
      (1)   An official FEMA determination, by letter, to amend or revise effective flood insurance rate maps, flood boundary, and floodway maps, and flood insurance studies.
      (2)   LOMCs include the following categories.
         (a)   LETTER OF MAP AMENDMENT (LOMA). A revision based on technical data showing that a property was incorrectly included in a designated SFHA. A LOMA amends the current effective FIRM and establishes that a specific property is not located in a SFHA.
         (b)   LETTER OF MAP REVISION (LOMR). A revision based on technical data that, usually due to human-made changes, shows changes to flood zones, flood elevations, floodplain and floodway delineations, and planimetric features.
         (c)   LETTER OF MAP REVISION. FILL (LOMR-F). A determination that a structure or parcel has been elevated by properly placed engineered fill above the BFE and is, therefor, excluded from the SHFA.
   LEVEE. A human-made structure, usually an earthen embankment, designed and constructed in accordance with sound engineering practices to contain, control, or divert the flow of water so as to provide protection from temporary flooding.
      (1)   A flood protection system that consists of a levee, or levees, and associated structures, such as closure and drainage devices, which are constructed and operated in accordance with sound engineering practices.
      (2)   For a LEVEE SYSTEM to be recognized, the following criteria must be met:
         (a)   All closure devices or mechanical systems for internal drainage, whether manual or automatic, must be operated in accordance with an officially adopted operation manual (a copy of which must be provided to FEMA by the operator when levee or drainage system recognition is being sought or revised); and
         (b)   All operations must be under the jurisdiction of a federal or commonwealth agency, an agency created by federal or commonwealth law, or an agency of a community participating in the NFB.
   LIMITED STORAGE. An area used for storage and intended to be limited to incidental items which can withstand exposure to the elements and have low flood damage potential. Such an area must be of flood-resistant material, void of utilities except for essential lighting, and cannot be temperature controlled.
   LOWEST ADJACENT GRADE. The elevation of the sidewalk, patio, deck support, or basement entryway immediately next to the structure and after the completion of construction. It does not include earth that is emplaced for aesthetic or landscape reasons around a foundation wall. It does include natural ground or properly compacted fill that comprises a component of a structure’s foundation system.
   LOWEST FLOOR. The lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area including basement. An unfinished or flood-resistant enclosure, usable solely for parking of vehicles, structure access, or storage in an area other than a basement area is not considered a structure’s LOWEST FLOOR; provided, that such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in violation of the applicable non-elevation design requirements of this chapter.
   MANUFACTURED HOME. A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed to be used with or without a permanent foundation when connected or attached to the required utilities. The term also includes park trailers, travel trailers, and similar transportable structures placed on a site for 180 consecutive days or longer and intended to be improved property. The term MANUFACTURED HOME does not include a “recreational vehicle” (see “recreational vehicle”).
   MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION. A parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into two or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale.
   MAP. The flood hazard boundary map (FHBM) or the flood insurance rate map (FIRM) for a community issued by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
   MAP PANEL NUMBER. The four-digit number on a flood map, followed by a letter suffix, assigned by FEMA. The first four digits represent the map panel. The letter suffix represents the number of times the map panel has been revised. (The letter ‘A’ is not used by FEMA; the letter ‘B’ is the first revision.)
   MARKET VALUE. The structure value, excluding the land (as agreed between a willing buyer and seller), as established by what the local real estate market will bear. MARKET VALUE can be established by independent certified appraisal, replacement cost depreciated by age of structure (actual cash value), or adjusted assessed values.
   MEAN SEA LEVEL (MSL). The average height of the sea for all stages of the tide. For the purposes of the National Flood Insurance Program, the MSL is used as a reference for establishing various elevations within the floodplain as shown on a community’s FIRM. For purposes of this chapter, the term is synonymous with either National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) 1929 or North American Vertical Datum (NAVD) 1988.
   MITIGATION. Sustained actions taken to reduce or eliminate long-term risk to people and property from hazards and their effects. The purpose of MITIGATION is twofold: to protect people and structures; and to minimize the costs of disaster response and recovery.
   MUDSLIDE (i.e.., MUDFLOW). Describes a condition where there is a river, flow, or inundation of liquid mud down a hillside, usually as a result of a dual condition of loss of brush cover and the subsequent accumulation of water on the ground, preceded by a period of unusually heavy or sustained rain. A MUDSLIDE (i.e., MUDFLOW) may occur as a distinct phenomenon while a landslide is in progress, and will be recognized as such by the Floodplain Administrator only if the MUDFLOW, and not the landslide, is the proximate cause of damage that occurs.
   MUDSLIDE (i.e., MUDFLOW) AREA MANAGEMENT. The operation of and overall program of corrective and preventative measures for reducing mudslide (i.e., MUDFLOW) damage, including, but not limited to, emergency preparedness plans, mudslide control works, and floodplain management regulations.
   MUDSLIDE- (i.e., MUDFLOW) PRONE AREA. An area with land surfaces and slopes of unconsolidated material where the history, geology, and climate indicate a potential for mudflow.
   NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM (NFIP). The federal program that makes flood insurance available to owners of property in participating communities nationwide through the cooperative efforts of the federal government and the private insurance industry.
   NATIONAL GEODETIC VERTICAL DATUM (NGVD). As corrected in 1929, a vertical control used as a reference for establishing varying elevations within the floodplain. (Generally used as the vertical datum on the older FIRMs. Refer to FIRM legend panel for correct datum.)
   NEW CONSTRUCTION. Structures for which the start of construction commenced on or after the effective date of the city’s floodplain management regulations and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures.
   NEW MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION. A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed on or after the effective date of the city’s adopted floodplain management ordinances.
   NONRESIDENTIAL. Structures that are not designed for human habitation, including, but not limited to, small business concerns, churches, schools, farm structures (including grain bins and silos), pool houses, clubhouses, recreational strictures, mercantile structures, agricultural and industrial structures, warehouses, and hotels or motels with normal room rentals for less than six months’ duration.
   NORTH AMERICAN VERTICAL DATUM (NAVD). As corrected in 1988, a vertical control used as a reference for establishing varying elevations within the floodplain. (Generally used on the newer FIRM’S and digitally referenced FIRMS (DFIRMs). (Refer to FIRM or DFIRM legend panel for correct datum.)
   OBSTRUCTION. Includes but is not limited to any dam, wall, embankment, levee, dike, pile, abutment, protection, excavation, channelization, bridge, conduit, culvert, structure, wire, fence, rock, gravel, refuse, fill, structure, vegetation, or other material in, along, across or projecting into any watercourse which may alter, impede, retard, or change the direction and/or velocity of the flow of water, due to its location, its propensity to snare or collect debris carried by the flow of water, or its likelihood of being carried downstream.
   ONE-HUNDRED-YEAR FLOOD (100-YEAR FLOOD) (SEE BASE FLOOD). The flood that has a 1% or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. Any flood zone that begins with the letter ‘A’ is subject to the 100-year flood. Over the life of a 30-year loan, there is a 26% chance of experiencing such a flood with the SFHA.
   PARTICIPATING COMMUNITY. A community that voluntarily elects to participate in the NFIP by adopting and enforcing floodplain management regulations that are consistent with the standards of the NFIP.
   POST-FIRM CONSTRUCTION. Construction or substantial improvement that started on or after the effective date of the initial FIRM of the community or after December 31, 1974, whichever is later.
   PRE-FIRM CONSTRUCTION. Construction or substantial improvement, which started on or before December 31, 1974, or before the effective date of the initial FIRM of the community, whichever is later.
   PROBATION. A means of formally notifying participating NFIP communities of violations and deficiencies in the administration and enforcement of the local floodplain management regulations. During periods of probation, each insurance policy is subject to a $50 surcharge.
   PROGRAM DEFICIENCY. A defect in a community’s floodplain management regulations or administrative procedures that impairs effective implementation of those floodplain management standards or of the standards of 44 C.F.R. §§ 60.3, 60.4, 60.5, and/or 60.6.
   PUBLIC SAFETY AND NUISANCE. Anything which is injurious to safety or health of an entire community or neighborhood, or any considerable number of persons, or unlawfully obstructs the free passage or use, in the customary manner, of any navigable lake, or river, bay, stream, canal, or basin.
   RECREATIONAL VEHICLE. A vehicle that is:
      (1)   Built on a single chassis;
      (2)   Four hundred square feet or less when measured at the largest horizontal projection;
      (3)   Designed to be self-propelled or permanently towable to a light duty truck; and
      (4)   Designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling but as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, travel, or seasonal use.
   REGULAR PROGRAM. The phase of a community’s participation in the NFIP where more comprehensive floodplain management requirements are imposed and higher amounts of insurance are available based upon risk zones and elevations determined in a FIS.
   REGULATORY FLOODWAY. The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one foot. See BASE FLOOD.
   REMEDY A VIOLATION. The process by which a community brings a structure or other development into compliance with commonwealth or local floodplain management regulations, or, if this is not possible, to reduce the impact of noncompliance. Reduced impact may include protecting the structure or other affected development from flood damages, implementing the enforcement provisions of the ordinance or otherwise deterring future similar violations, or reducing commonwealth or federal financing exposure with regard to the structure or other development.
   REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing structure.
   REPETITIVE LOSS. Flood-related damages sustained by a structure on two or more separate occasions during a ten-year period where the value of damages equals or exceeds an average of 50% of the current value of the structure, beginning on the date when the damage first occurred, or, four or more flood losses of $1,000 or more over the life of the structure, or, three or more flood losses over the life of the structure that are equal to or greater than the current value of the structure.
   RIVERINE. Relating to, formed by, or resembling a river (including tributaries), stream, brook, and the like.
   SECTION 1316. The section of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended, which states that no new or renewal flood insurance coverage shall be provided for any property that the Administrator finds has been declared by a duly constituted commonwealth or local zoning authority or other authorized public body to be in violation of commonwealth or local laws, regulations, or ordinances that are intended to discourage or otherwise restrict land development or occupancy in flood-prone areas.
   SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA (SFHA). The portion of the floodplain subject to inundation by the base flood and/or flood-related erosion hazards as shown on a FHBM or FIRM as Zone A, AE, Al, A30, AH, AO, or AR.
   START OF CONSTRUCTION. Includes substantial improvement and other proposed new development. The date a building permit is issued, provided, the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition placement, or other improvement is within 180 days of the permit date. The ACTUAL START means the first placement of permanent construction of a structure (including manufactured home) on a site, such as the pouring of slabs or footings, the installation of piles, construction of columns, or any work beyond the stage of excavation, or the placement of a manufactured home on a foundation. Permanent construction does not include land preparation, such as clearing, grading, and filling; nor does it include the installation of streets and/or walkways; nor does it include excavation for a basement, footings, piers, or foundations or the erection of temporary forms; the installation on the property of accessory structures, such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure. For a substantial improvement, the actual START OF CONSTRUCTION means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the structure.
   STRUCTURE. A walled and roofed building that is principally above ground, including manufactured homes, gas or liquid storage tanks, or other human-made facilities or infrastructures. See BUILDING.
   SUBDIVISION. Any division, for the purposes of sale, lease, or development, either on the installment plan or upon any and all other plans, terms, and conditions of any tract or parcel of land into two or more lots or parcels.
   SUBROGATION. An action brought by FEMA to recover insurance money paid out where all or part of the damage can be attributed to acts or omissions by a community or other third party.
   SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. Damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its before-damaged condition would equal or exceed 50% of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.
      (1)   Any reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, or other improvement of a structure, taking place during a one-year period in which the cumulative percentage of improvements equals or exceeds 50% of the market value of the structure before the start of construction of the improvement. This term includes structures which have incurred substantial damage, regardless of the actual repair work performed.
      (2)   The term does not, however, include either:
         (a)   Any project for improvement of a structure to correct existing violations of commonwealth or local health, sanitary, or safety code specifications which have been identified by the local Code Enforcement Official and which are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions;
         (b)   Any alteration of a historic structure; provided, that the alteration will not preclude the structure’s continued designation as a historic structure; or
         (c)   Any building that has been damaged from any source or is categorized as repetitive loss.
   SUBSTANTIALLY IMPROVED EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARKS OR SUBDIVISIONS. Repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, or improvement of the streets, utilities, and pads equaling or exceeding 50% of the value of the streets, utilities, and pads before the repair, reconstruction, or improvement commenced.
   SUSPENSION. Removal of a participating community from the NFIP for failure to enact and/or enforce floodplain management regulations required for participation in the NFIP. New or renewal flood insurance policies are no longer available in suspended communities.
   UTILITIES. Includes electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, and air conditioning equipment.
   VARIANCE. Relief from some or all of the requirements of this chapter.
   VIOLATION. Failure of a structure or other development to fully comply with this chapter. A structure or other development without the elevation certificate, other certifications, or other evidence of compliance required in this chapter is presumed to be in VIOLATION until such time as that documentation is provided.
   WATER SURFACE ELEVATION. The height, in relation to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929, (or other datum, where specified) of floods of various magnitudes and frequencies in the floodplains of coastal or riverine areas.
   WATERCOURSE. A lake, river, creek, stream, wash, channel, or other topographic feature on or over which water flows at least periodically.
   WATERSHED. All the area within a geographic boundary from which water, sediments, dissolved materials, and other transportable materials drain or are carried by water to a common outlet, such as a point on a larger stream, lake, or underlying aquifer.
   X ZONE. The area where the flood hazard is less than that in the SFHA. Shaded X ZONES shown on recent FIRMs (B Zones on older FIRMs) designate areas subject to inundation by the flood with a 0.2% probability of being equaled or exceeded (the 500-year flood) in any year. Unshaded X ZONES (C Zones on older FIRMS) designate areas where the annual exceedance probability of flooding is less than 0.2%.
   ZONE. A geographical area shown on a flood hazard boundary map or a flood insurance rate map that reflects the severity or type of flooding in the area.
(Ord. 772-11, passed 4-11-2011)