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(A) Purpose. The landscape, walls, and screening section provides uniform standards for the installation of landscaping, walls and buffer areas as well as guidelines for the protection, maintenance and management of these resources to promote and encourage sustainability, effectuate privacy, facilitate logical development and enhance property value. This section includes guidance on where landscaping is required; the types and use of vegetation allowed, the provision of screening and buffering mechanisms (where necessary) to encourage the creation of an attractive appearance along public streets while screening unattractive uses. Landscaping materials, including ground cover, shrubs and trees, promote the control of erosion and the reduction of glare and dust, as well as visually softening buildings, parking lots and walls. Walls and screening devices allow for the separation of incompatible uses and for the buffering of intensive activities.
(B) Landscape. This section is intended to contribute to the aesthetic character of the city through the provision of landscaping and retention of existing vegetation.
(1) Applicability. These requirements apply to residential and non-residential uses except those located in the IP district and single family home lots. These regulations shall also apply to the required on- and off-site improvements of a subdivision.
(2) Selection of plant materials. Xeriscape landscaping incorporates water-conserving design through proper plant selection, installation, and maintenance practices. The species and variety of plants selected to meet the landscape requirements of this section, shall correspond closely with the following xeriscape principles:
Good Landscape Planning and Design
Careful consideration of a site's size and shape, soil type, topography, and building configuration is essential in developing a good landscape plan. The function of the space (i.e., its use), the amount of available sun, location of views, regional and microclimate conditions, and a preliminary assessment of landscape watering zones should also be taken into account in early planning of a xeriscape landscape.
Use of Drought Tolerant and Low-Water Use Plants
Primarily drought tolerant and low water use plants shall be used. These plants can serve nearly every function. Some provide shade and texture, while others are appropriate for borders, accent areas, seasonal color, and year-round greenery. Native wildflowers and grasses are typically suitable for revegetating disturbed areas.
Appropriate Lawn Areas
Lawns require a lot of water to stay green and healthy. Lawns shall only be located in areas where they provide functional benefits. Lawn areas planted close to a building may provide a cooling effect. Lawns should not be planted in odd shaped areas that cannot be watered efficiently. Lawn areas can often be planted with modern, low-water-use, drought-tolerant grasses.
Install irrigation systems so that they provide an adequate amount of water at the proper time to the root zone of plants. Each plant and vegetative type has its own water needs, and the planting arrangement and irrigation system should be designed to reflect those needs. Moisture sensors shall be installed on irrigation controls to measure real time soil moisture. Each water use zone should be on a different valve. Additionally, stormwater runoff should be routed into each area to offset irrigation needs.
Organic matter should be added to existing soils to increase water-holding capacity and provide beneficial nutrients to plants. In low water-use zones, loosening the soil may be all that is needed.
Xeriscape landscapes require low maintenance, but not no maintenance. To be effective, a xeriscape landscape must be monitored with a program of pruning, weed control, pest control, and irrigation system adjustments.
(3) Site area landscaping.
(a) Any part of a non-residential and multi-family development not used for buildings, parking, driveways, sidewalks, or natural undisturbed open space shall be landscaped with vegetation and landscape topping material.
(b) Required site area landscape planting criteria. The total quantity of required landscape materials shall be computed for all site landscape areas as follows (unless otherwise noted within this chapter):
1. Trees. A minimum of one tree shall be required per 500 square feet of landscape area. All deciduous trees shall not be less than one and one-half inches caliper; all coniferous trees shall not be less than five feet planted height.
2. Shrubs. One shrub shall also be required per 100 square feet of landscape area. All shrubs shall be a minimum of five gallons in size.
3. Groundcover. Hardy perennials and accent plants shall be a minimum of one gallon in size. One plant shall be provided per 200 square feet of landscape area.
4. Landscape topping materials. All landscaped areas shall be finished with a natural topping material which may include, but is not limited to, crushed aggregate (two inches minimum depth). Type, size and color of landscape topping material for projects shall be approved through the landscape plan review process.
(c) The front yard of residential development in the R-1 and R-2 zoning districts shall be landscaped with vegetation and/or landscape topping material.
(4) Streetscape landscaping.
(a) The entire area of a public street right-of-way between a street side property line and back of street curb (excluding approved driveways and walkways or right-of-way not under the control of the city) shall also be landscaped.
(b) For US 89 and SR 98, a 15 foot wide landscape area shall be established between the right-of-way line and any buildings, parking lots, walls or fences, or other improvements in association with any use.
(c) Required streetscape landscape planting criteria. The total quantity of required landscape materials shall be computed for all streetscape landscape areas as follows (unless otherwise noted within this chapter):
1. Trees. A minimum of one tree shall be required for every 50 feet of lineal frontage. All deciduous trees shall not be less than 1½ inches caliper; all coniferous trees shall not be less than five feet planted height.
2. Shrubs. Three shrub shall also be required for every 50 feet of lineal frontage. All shrubs shall be a minimum of five gallons in size.
3. Groundcover. Hardy perennials and accent plants shall be a minimum of one gallon in size. One plant shall be required for every 50 feet of lineal frontage.
4. Landscape topping materials. All landscaped areas shall be finished with a natural topping material which may include, but not limited to, crushed aggregate (two inches minimum depth). Type, size and color of landscape topping material for projects shall be approved through the landscape plan review process.
(d) Placement of required streetscape landscaping.
1. Vegetation may be clustered and located within the public street right-of-way or partially within the adjacent ten feet of the site.
2. Vegetation shall not be placed in drainage ways.
3. Trees may not be planted where they will interfere with any overhead or underground utility lines in their initial planted or mature height or width.
4. Trees are not to be planted in any sight triangle. Shrubs to be planted in any sight triangle shall be of varieties that do not exceed mature heights of more than 24 inches measured from finished grade.
5. Trees and/or shrubs shall not be planted closer than three feet to any fire hydrant or utility pole.
6. Trees shall not be planted closer than five feet to the face of any curb.
(5) Parking area landscape requirements. All parking areas shall be landscaped in compliance with the following requirements:
(a) Landscape areas with raised concrete curbing shall define all parking lot edges, entrances, drives, aisles and the ends of all parking aisles.
(b) Parking lot landscape islands shall be installed at the end of each parking aisle and at a ratio of one landscape island for every 12 parking spaces. In no instance shall more than 12 contiguous parking spaces be installed in a row without the placement of a landscaped island.
(c) The design and landscape requirements of all parking islands/planters shall be consistent with the following:
1. Each landscape island in the parking lot shall extend the entire depth of the double or single loaded stall design and contain a minimum of 75 square feet of area, not including curbs, and shall measure a minimum of six feet in width at the mid-point.
2. Each landscape island shall include a minimum of one tree and landscape topping material per § 152.057(B)(3)(b)4.
(6) Landscape maintenance.
(a) All landscape improvements installed in accordance with the requirements and provisions of this chapter for new or expanded developments and uses within on-site landscape areas as well as in the right-of-way, shall be maintained, in perpetuity, by the property owner or owner's association (should the property be subdivided) or the lessee of the site.
(b) All landscape areas shall be provided with a permanent, fixed automatic irrigation system.
(c) Any plant material that does not survive shall be replaced within 30 days.
(7) Landscape plan regulations.
(a) A "preliminary landscape plan" and a "final landscape plan" shall be prepared by a landscape architect or design professional submitted, and approved for all applicable development projects in accordance with the procedures and requirements set forth in this section.
(b) All changes in the landscaping of a site/development area after final landscape plan approval and landscape installation shall be approved by the Community Development Department prior to issuing a certificate of occupancy by the city.
(c) Prior to the issuance of a building permit, the Community Development Department shall review and approve the required plans (i.e. lighting, drainage, mechanical) which affect the placement and type of landscaping and walls within the site.
(d) Landscape plan preparation and approval.
1. Preliminary landscape plan. Two full size hard copies and one electronic copy of a preliminary landscape plan shall be prepared and submitted along with the required development/site plan for review by the Zoning Administrator. The preliminary landscape plan may be shown on the development/site plan drawings. The components of the preliminary landscape plan shall include, (at minimum) a scaled plan indicating the general locations of all existing and proposed trees, shrub massings, and groundcovers. Actual botanical names are not required to be specified at this time. Property lines, north arrow, existing and proposed structures, streets, sidewalks, trails, major natural features, walls and fences, slopes, berms, basins, drainage structures, trash enclosures, sewer laterals, utility transformers, site furniture, concrete curbing, decorative paving, and other site elements that
relate to or affect the overall landscape along with any notes describing the proposed method of irrigation. The preliminary landscape plan shall be reviewed and approved by the Community Development Department as part of the development/site plan review, and may be approved with stipulated changes or additions. A building permit may be issued prior to final landscape plan approval; however, certificate of occupancy will not be issued until final landscape plan is approved.
2. Final landscape plan. Two full size hard copies and one electronic copy of a final landscape plan, irrigation plan and lighting plan shall be submitted along with all other required site improvement and building plans at the time of application for a building permit. The lighting plan shall be prepared by a technically competent lighting professional. The final landscape plan shall contain the final calculations, data, and specific details and information of all proposed landscaped areas, landscape materials, screening walls, irrigation system, and other items that were required and identified in conceptual form on the preliminary landscape plan. The final landscape plan shall contain a specific schedule of all trees and shrubs identified by common and botanical name, and shall clearly indicate the quantity and size of each tree and shrub to be installed. The final landscape plan shall be in conformance with the approved preliminary plan and any stipulated changes or additions, and shall be approved by the Community Development Department prior to the issuance of a building permit.
3. Upon approval, both sets of the landscape plan will be dated and stamped "Approved" and one original, signed plan will be transmitted to the applicant and one will be retained on file with the Community Development Department.
(C) Fences, walls and screening. Standards set forth in this section protect the visual quality of the public realm by establishing screening requirements for various land use and development conditions.
(1) Applicability. Unless otherwise stated within this chapter, fences and/or walls shall be installed and maintained in compliance with this section.
(2) General fence and wall regulations.
(a) All general perimeter and on-site fences and walls shall adhere to the city adopted building codes and be constructed of long-lasting materials, such as vinyl, wood, masonry, stone, decorative metal, and be architecturally integrated with the building design. Within the RE, Commercial, Industrial and Airport Zoning Districts, chain link fences may be allowed with the approval of the Community Development Department.
(b) Fences or walls are not required to be set back from the property line except as otherwise specified in this chapter.
(c) Walls more than six feet in height or retaining walls extending more than four feet in height, measured from the bottom of the footing, require a building permit and supporting structural calculations prepared by a licensed structural engineer. Retaining concrete block walls shall adhere to the city adopted building codes.
(d) Barbed wire fences shall be prohibited in all zoning districts except in the SC and IP District and for temporary construction sites, provided that the barbed wire is located six feet or more above grade. Temporary barbed wire fencing located on construction sites shall be removed from the site at the time of final inspection, or a certificate of occupancy will not be issued.
(3) General wall and fence height standards.
(a) Fences or walls located between the front yard building setback line and the front property line of a lot may not exceed four feet in height.
(b) In areas behind a required front yard building setback and within the required rear and side yards, including walls for single-family dwellings, the maximum height of walls shall be six feet, as measured from the finish grade, except where a taller wall is necessary for screening purposes. Where two lots abut one another, but have differing finish grades, the wall height shall be limited to six feet on the high side and eight feet on the low side. Modifications of these requirements shall require written request and approval of the Community Development Department.
(c) Walls exceeding six feet in height, measured from the inside finished grade, shall require the submittal of structural calculations prepared by a licensed structural engineer, unless specified otherwise in this chapter. Non-retaining concrete block walls shall adhere to the city adopted building codes.
(d) Corners. No walls, buildings or other obstruction to visibility in excess of two feet in height (measured from the top of the street curb at each end of the site triangle) shall be placed on any corner lot within a triangular area formed by the curb lines and a line connecting them at points 30 feet from the intersection of lines, extended from the back of curbing. There shall be an exception for any existing trees to remain within the area of triangle, but shall be pruned to a height of seven feet measured from finished grade to permit unobstructed visibility for automobile drivers.
(4) Parking lot screens. All on-site parking areas adjacent to any street shall be screened from street views according to the provisions as set forth herein. This standard can be met through the use of the following screening methods, which may be used individually or in combination:
(a) A continuous opaque landscape screen consisting of shrubs a minimum of three feet - six inches in height and planted in compliance with all additional provisions outlined in § 152.057(B)(4)(d).
(b) A continuous wall three feet-six inches in height. The wall shall be designed to undulate and avoid straight segments longer than 100 feet.
(c) Open areas or portals for natural surveillance and pedestrian access to the site shall be provided as required by the Community Development Department.
(5) Refuse area screens. All trash, rubbish or garbage, including recyclable materials in common storage areas, except within the IP District, shall be completely enclosed via a solid six foot wall or fence and view obstructing gate and located on a concrete surface. Refuse collection areas shall be readily accessible to collection vehicles, without substantially encumbering adjacent parking and vehicular access. For multi-family dwellings, the enclosure shall be softened with landscaping on any side visible from a public or private street. If the refuse collection area can be seen from the exterior of a manufactured housing park, the enclosure shall be softened with landscaping on its most visible sides. For all other uses, if the refuse collection area can be seen from the front of the property, the enclosure shall be softened with landscaping on its most visible side.
(6) Loading area screens. All loading, delivery and service bays shall be screened from public view by a building, a decorative screen wall a minimum eight feet in height, a solid opaque evergreen landscape screen or any combination thereof.
(7) Mechanical equipment screens. All mechanical equipment, either ground-mounted or located on a rooftop, shall be screened from the view of a person standing on the property line on the far side of an adjacent public street. Individual screening of rooftop mechanical equipment is discouraged. Rooftop units should either be grouped together and screened or screened with a parapet wall the entire length of the building. Such a parapet wall shall be designed to be integral to the overall architecture of the building.
(Ord. 648-18, passed 11-28-2018; Ord. 661-19, passed 10-9-2019)