§ 152.056  OFF-STREET PARKING AND LOADING.
   (A)   Purpose. This section establishes minimum standards for parking and loading. These standards are intended to promote the general welfare and public safety by ensuring that an adequate amount of permanent, safe, accessible, and attractive parking is provided in the city. The parking standards are intended to provide for adequate ingress and egress by motor vehicles, recreational vehicles, boats and buses.
   (B)   Applicability. Every use and structure, including a change or expansion of a use or structure shall provide accessory parking and loading areas as set forth below.  Except when specifically exempted, the requirements of this section shall also apply to all parking lots that are the principal use on a site.
      (1)   New buildings and land uses. Off-street parking and loading shall be provided as required by this section at the time any new building or structure is erected or any new land use is established.
      (2)   Expansion of existing nonresidential buildings. When the floor area of an existing structure is increased, additional off-street parking and loading shall be provided as required by this section for the additional floor area only, provided that the existing parking was legally established and has not been reduced. If the number of existing parking and loading spaces is greater than the requirements for such use, the number of spaces in excess of the prescribed minimum may be counted toward meeting the parking and loading requirements for the addition or enlargement.
      (3)   Addition of use to existing nonresidential buildings. When a new use locates on a parcel with an existing use, all off-street parking shall be provided to meet the total number of spaces required for the existing use and the new use, unless the uses meet the requirements of § 152.056(E)(4) or alternative guidelines that are expressly allowed by other provisions of this code.
      (4)   Change in use of existing nonresidential buildings. When a change in use requires more off-street parking than the previous use, additional parking and loading spaces shall be provided equivalent to the difference between the number of spaces required by this section for the immediately previous use and the total number of spaces required by the new use. A change in occupancy is not considered a change in use unless the new occupant is in a different use classification than the former occupant.
      (5)   Alterations that increase the number of dwelling units. The creation of additional dwelling units through the alteration of an existing building or construction of an additional structure or structures requires added off-street parking, as required by this section, to serve the new dwelling units. This requirement does not apply when sufficient off-street parking exists to provide the number of spaces required for the existing and new dwelling units.
      (6)   When required. Off-street parking and loading facilities required by this section shall be constructed or installed prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy for the uses that they serve.
   (C)   General parking and loading regulations.
      (1)   Parking and loading spaces to be permanent. Parking and loading spaces shall be permanently available, marked and maintained in good repair/condition for parking or loading purposes for the use they are intended to serve during the life of the use.
      (2)   Reduction in parking area. The owner or occupant of any building or use subject to off-street parking requirements under this section shall not discontinue or reduce any existing required parking without first having established other parking spaces which meet all requirements of this section to replace those being lost or except after proof that, by reason of reduction in floor area, seating area or other factors, the proposed reduced area for off-street parking or loading will conform to the requirements of this section.
      (3)   Restriction of parking area use. Required off-street parking, circulation, and access areas shall be used exclusively for the temporary parking and maneuvering of motorized, operative vehicles. In all non-residential zones, parking areas shall not be used for the sale, lease, display, repair, or storage of vehicles, trailers, boats, campers, mobile homes, merchandise, or equipment, or for any other use not authorized by the provisions of this code. In all residential districts parking shall be restricted per  § 152.056(J).
      (4)   Located on same site. Parking and loading facilities shall be located on the same site with the use the facilities serve or on a contiguous, identically zoned lot that is incorporated into the development site. Off-site parking facilities may be permitted subject to the requirements of § 152.056(E)(5).
      (5)   Located off-street. All parking and loading facilities required by this section shall be provided off-street and shall not be located within any public right-of-way, sidewalk, alley, or parkway, unless expressly allowed by other provisions of this code.
      (6)   Surplus parking. The provisions of this section shall also apply to parking and loading facilities provided in excess to those required, unless otherwise expressly stated in this code.
      (7)   Surfacing and maintenance. All off-street parking shall be paved with asphalt or concrete, and be graded and drained per the city engineering standards and as approved by the City Engineer and shall be maintained in good condition free of weeds, dust, trash and debris. In cases of certifiable short term or temporary use, parking lot surfaces may be constructed to a lesser standard if approved during the development review process.
   (D)   Number of parking spaces required. Except as otherwise expressly stated, off-street motor vehicle parking spaces must be provided in accordance with Table 4.2-1: Parking Spaces Required.
 
Table 4.2-1: Table of Parking Spaces Required
Use Category
Specific Use Type
Minimum Vehicle Spaces Required
Residential Use Categories
Single-Family Detached and Attached; Modular; Duplex; Manufactured Home
Two spaces per dwelling unit
Multi-Family; Residential component of Mixed Use District
Studio and one bedroom unit - 1.5 space per unit
Two bedroom units - 1.5 spaces per unit
Three or more bedroom units - 2 spaces per unit
Live/Work
Two spaces per dwelling unit
Manufactured Home Park
Two spaces per dwelling unit + 1 space for every 8 dwelling units/lots for guests
Recreational Vehicle Park
One space per RV space + 1 space for every 8 RV spaces for guests
Assisted Living Center
0.5 space per residential room/unit +1 space for every 4 rooms/units for guests and employees
Assisted Living Home; Child Care Home; Group Care Home; Resident Care Home
Same as single-family
Boarding/Shelter Care
One space per 3 beds + 1 space per employee
Nursing Home
One space per 4 beds (based on maximum capacity)
Public and Semi-Public Use Categories
Arboretum or Botanical Garden
See § 152.056(D)(3)
Assembly Hall/Auditorium; Community Center; Country Club Library; Fraternal or Social Club; Social Service Facility
One space per 4 fixed seats or 1 space per 300 SF GFA where fix seating is not provided
Bus Terminal
Six spaces per 1,000 SF of waiting area
Campground
One space per camp site
Cemetery
Minimum 5% of the gross area shall be made available for parking
Child Care Center
One space per 400 SF GFA
College or University
See § 152.056(D)(3)
Crematorium or Funeral Parlor
One space per 4 fixed seats or 1 space per 300 SF GFA where fix seating is not provided
Community Playfields and Parks
See § 152.056(D)(3)
Government Office and Civic Building
One space per 300 SF GFA
Hospital
One space per 2 inpatient beds + 1 per employee on a normal shift
Medical Clinic
One space per 350 SF GFA
Museum
One space per 300 SF of display area
Public Safety Facility
One space per employee + 1 space per fleet vehicle + 1 space per 350 SF of usable office/meeting space
Religious Assembly
One space per 4 fixed seats or 1 space per 300 SF GFA where fix seating is not provided
School, Public or Private, K- 8
One space per classroom + 1 space for each 200 SF of indoor assembly area
School, Public or Private, 9- 12
One space per 200 SF of classroom and office area
Solar Generation Facility
One space per employee
Telecommunication Facility (Including Tower and Supporting Facilities)
None
Utility Facility and Service Yard
One space per employee + 1 space per fleet vehicle if present at site
Agriculture Use Categories
Agriculture, General
None
Market Garden
One per 5,000 SF of lot area
Ranching, Commercial
See § 152.056(D)(3)
Commercial Use Categories
Adult Entertainment Business
One space per 200 SF GFA
Animal Services (Kennel, Veterinary)
One space per 400 SF GFA
Commercial Entertainment:
   Indoor:
One space per 4 fixed seats or 1 space per 300 SF GFA, whichever is greater
   Movie Theater:
One space per 3 seats
   Outdoor:
See § 152.056(D)(3)
Commercial Recreation:
   General Recreation, Indoor:
One space per 200 SF GFA
   General Recreation, Outdoor:
Five spaces per acre of facility + 1 space per 4 persons of total maximum capacity of facility
   Fitness and Sports Center:
One space per 200 SF GFA
   Tour Services:
See § 152.056(D)(3)
   Bowling Alley:
Three spaces per lane + required spaces for ancillary uses
   Billiards:
Three spaces per table + required spaces for ancillary uses
   Golf Course:
Five spaces per hole + required spaces for ancillary uses
   Golf Driving Range:
Two spaces per tee + required spaces for ancillary uses
Personal Services
One space per 300 SF GFA
Financial Institution
One space per 250 SF GFA
Food and Beverage Services:
   Bar, Lounge, or Tavern:
One space per 75 SF patron space + 1 space per 200 SF of outdoor seating area
   Microbrewery, Distillery, and/or Tasting Room:
One space per 150 SF patron space
   Nightclub:
One space per 75 SF patron space + 1 space per 200 SF of outdoor area
   Restaurant, Full Service:
One space per 120 SF GFA + 1 space per 400 SF of outdoor seating area + (1 RV/boat/bus space per 14 required spaces (1 minimum) shall be provided, but may count towards total required spaces. See also § 152.056(F)(3))
   Restaurant, Limited Service:
One space per 75 SF GFA + 1 space per 400 SF of outdoor seating area + (1 RV/boat/bus space per 14 required spaces (1 minimum) shall be provided, but may count towards total required spaces. See also § 152.056(F)(3))
Medical Marijuana Dispensary, Operation or Cultivation
See § 152.056(D)(3)
Office:
   Business or Professional; Research Laboratory:
One space per 300 SF GFA
   Medical and Dental:
One space per 250 SF GFA
   Personal Services:
One space per 300 SF GFA
Retail Sales:
   Alcoholic beverages; Convenience Store; Retail, General; Business Services:
One space per 300 SF GFA
   Retail, Large:
One space per 300 SF GFA
   Nursery, Commercial; Feed Store:
One space per 400 SF of sales and display area
   Outdoor Vending:
One space per employee + principal use
   Farmers Market; Flea Market:
One space per 500 SF of designated vendor area
Self-Storage, Indoor
One space per 50 units or 1 space per 5,000 SF of storage area, whichever is greater
Instructional Services or Trade Schools
One space per 200 SF GFA
Vehicle Services:
   Automobile/Boat, Sales and Leasing; Rentals:
One space per 400 SF of sales and service buildings + 1 space per 10,000 SF of outdoor display area
   Automobile/Boat, Repair:
Three spaces per service bay + 1 space per 350 SF of additional retail sales and service area (service bay shall not be counted as a parking space)
   Car Wash, Full Service:
One space per 200 SF of sales, office and lounge area
   Car Wash, Self- Serve:
0.5 spaces per bay + stacking (§ 152.056(K)(7))
   Service Station:
Space at pump + 1 space per fueling position
   Service Station with Convenience Store:
Space at pump + 1 space per fueling position + 1 space per 300 SF GFA
Visitor Services:
   Hotel or Motel:
 
One space per guest room + 1 space per 4 persons of total maximum capacity of banquet room (if present) + 2 spaces per 3 employees + (1 RV/boat/bus space per 6 guest rooms (1 minimum) shall be provided, but may count towards total required spaces. See also § 152.056(F)(3))
Industrial Use Categories
Building Materials; Wholesale
One space per 500 SF of sales related area + 1 space per 350 SF of office area
Distribution Warehouse/Yard
One space per 2,000 SF of warehouse and/or 5,000 SF of yard related area + 1  space per 350 SF of office area
Manufacturing/Assembly:
   Light:
One space per 500 SF of warehouse area + 1 space per 350 SF of office area
   Heavy:
One space per 1,000 SF of warehouse area + 1 space per 350 SF of office area
Resource Extraction
See § 152.056(D)(3)
Outside Storage (Boat/RV)
Minimum 4 spaces + 1 space per employee
Truck Stop
See § 152.056(D)(3)
Waste, Salvage and Recycling Facility
See § 152.056(D)(3)
 
      (1)   Multiple uses. Unless otherwise specified, lots containing more than one use shall provide parking and loading in an amount equal to the total of the requirements for all activities.
      (2)   Non-specified parking requirements. It is recognized that specifying a single parking requirement for some uses listed in Table 4.2-1 is not reasonably feasible due to the far-reaching variation in use characteristics that can exist within that specific use type. For those uses listed in Table 4.2-1 that do not have a specific parking requirement identified, the Zoning Administrator shall determine a parking requirement based upon the requirements for the most similar comparable use, the particular characteristics of the proposed use, and any other relevant data regarding parking demand. In order to make this determination, the Zoning Administrator may require the applicant to submit a parking demand study or other information, at the applicant's cost. The parking demand study may include, but is not limited to, estimates of parking demand based on recommendations of the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), or other acceptable sources as approved by the Zoning Administrator, and should include other reliable data collected from uses or combinations of uses that are the same as or comparable with the proposed use.
      (3)   Unspecified uses. Where buildings are constructed without uses specified (i.e. shell buildings), the use with the highest parking requirement among all uses specified for the zoning district where the site is located shall be used to calculate off-street parking requirements.
      (4)   Uses not listed. Parking for land uses not specifically listed in Table 4.2-1 shall be determined by the Zoning Administrator based upon the requirements for the most similar comparable use, the particular characteristics of the proposed use, and any other relevant data regarding parking demand. In order to make this determination, the Zoning Administrator may require the applicant to submit a parking demand study or other information, at the applicant's cost. The parking demand study may include, but is not limited to, estimates of parking demand based on recommendations of the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), or other acceptable sources as approved by the Zoning Administrator, and should include other reliable data collected from uses or combinations of uses that are the same as, or comparable with, the proposed use.
      (5)   Uses in the CBD Zoning District. The parking requirements for uses in the CBD zoning district may be amended in the following manner:
         (a)   Parking requirements shall be ½ of those listed in Table 4.2-1, with the exception of service stations, grocery and supermarkets, laundries, and motels and hotels, each of which shall meet all requirements listed in Table 4.2-1.
         (b)   A parking demand study may be prepared and submitted, at the applicant's cost, to request a modification to parking requirements within the CBD Zoning District. The parking demand study may include, but is not limited to, estimates of parking demand based on recommendations of the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), or other acceptable sources as approved by the Zoning Administrator, and should include other reliable data collected from uses or combinations of uses that are the same as or comparable with the proposed use. The study should also take into account peak operating hours and both on-street and off-street parking conditions to accurately demonstrate parking demand and supply.
         (c)   For any change of use within the CBD Zoning District that may require an increase to available off-street parking that cannot be accommodated on-site, § 152.056(E), the Zoning Administrator may accept a traffic management plan, prepared by the applicant at their expense, which contains information on the strategies, designated parking areas, peak operating hours, and information indicating the applicant's ability to provide and enforce these elements over time. The Zoning Administrator may impose conditions that are needed to ensure the long-term compliance to the plan, including but not limited to a reserve parking area, phasing, or contributions to other alternative means of transportation or parking accommodations.
      (6)   Basis of calculation. When calculating the number of parking spaces required results in a fractional number, any fraction exceeding ½ shall be rounded up to the nearest whole number.
      (7)   Occupancy or capacity-based standards. For the purpose of computing parking requirements based on employees, students, residents or occupants, calculations must be based on the largest number of persons working on any single shift, the maximum enrollment or the maximum fire-rated capacity, whichever results in the greater number of spaces, unless otherwise explicitly specified within Table 4.2-1.
   (E)   Alternative parking provisions. Where conditions preclude the provision of the number of off-street parking spaces required by Table 4.2-1, the following alternative parking provisions may be available, subject to city approval:
      (1)   On-street parking. On-street parking spaces in the right-of-way along the property line, between the lot lines of the site, may be counted to satisfy the minimum off-street parking requirements for non-residential uses. One on-street parking space may be substituted for each required off-street space. These provisions only apply to street frontages where on-street parking is allowed and provided. The parking space credit shall be determined at the time of site plan approval.
      (2)   Tandem parking. Shall mean a space where one vehicle parks behind another, so that one vehicle must be moved before the other can be accessed. Accessible parking spaces shall not be used for tandem parking spaces. Tandem parking shall be limited to a maximum of two cars in depth and no less than nine feet wide and 40 feet long. Tandem parking stalls are only allowed for:
         (a)   Residential uses. Tandem parking spaces shall be allowed for single-family, duplex and townhome residential with spaces and access paved in accordance with the city engineering standards.
         (b)   Multi-family residential uses. Tandem parking spaces shall be allowed for condominium and multifamily residential uses, subject to the following conditions:
            1.   The tandem spaces shall be reserved for and assigned to dwelling units which are required to have two or more parking spaces; and
            2.   Tandem spaces shall not be used for guest parking.
         (c)   Non-residential uses. Tandem parking spaces shall not be allowed for new non-residential construction.
      (3)   Shared parking.  The Zoning Administrator may approve shared parking arrangements for developments or uses with different operating hours or different peak business periods if the shared parking complies with all of the following standards:
         (a)   Eligible developments or uses. Shared parking arrangements shall only be allowed for non-residential uses with different hours of operation or different peak business periods.
         (b)   Location.
            1.   Shared parking facilities shall be located on the subject property of the specified principal uses proposing to use shared facilities.
            2.   All shared parking facilities shall be located within 600 feet from the subject site to the primary entrance of each principal use.  The distance of the off-street parking area to the principal uses shall be measured along the shortest legal and acceptable pedestrian route. Acceptable pedestrian routes are defined within § 152.056(K)(7).
         (c)   Parking study required. Those proposing to use shared parking as a means of satisfying off-street parking requirements shall submit a shared parking study to staff that clearly demonstrates the feasibility of shared parking. At a minimum, the study must address the size and type of the proposed development, the composition of tenants, the anticipated rate of parking turnover and the anticipated peak parking and traffic loads for all uses that will be sharing off-street parking spaces.
         (d)   Design and improvement standards. All newly-constructed shared parking facilities shall conform to the same standards of access, configuration, landscaping, lighting, layout, location, and size as are required by this section for off-street parking spaces.
         (e)   Covenant required. A city-approved covenant shall be recorded with the county that includes a description of the shared parking arrangement, a requirement that all current and future tenants are notified of and shall adhere to the same hours of operation and conditions of the shared parking approval. Recordation of the agreement must take place before issuance of a building permit or business registration/renewal for any use to be served by the off-site parking area. The Zoning Administrator may grant permission to dissolve a shared parking agreement only if all required off-street parking spaces will be provided, in accordance with § 152.056(D) and (E).
      (4)   Off-site parking. The Zoning Administrator may approve the location of required off-site parking spaces on a separate lot from the lot on which the principal use is located if the off-site parking complies with all of the following standards:
         (a)   Ineligible uses. Unless expressly permitted, off-site parking may not be allowed for residential uses or other convenience-oriented uses.
         (b)   Location.
            1.   Off-site parking may be allowed only in the CBD district, or outside the CBD upon issuance of a permit for a special event.
            2.   All off-site parking spaces shall be located within 600 feet from the subject site to the primary entrance of the principal use, unless a remote shuttle bus or valet parking service is provided.  The distance of the off-site parking area to the principal use shall be measured along the shortest legal and acceptable pedestrian route. Acceptable pedestrian routes are defined within § 152.056(K)(7).
            3.   Required parking spaces for persons with disabilities may not be located off-site.
         (c)   Design and improvement standards. All newly-constructed off-site parking spaces shall conform to the same standards of access, configuration, landscaping, lighting, layout, location, and size as are required by this section for off-street parking spaces.
         (d)   Terms of off-site parking.
            1.   A city-approved covenant shall be recorded with the county that includes a description of the off-site parking and a requirement that the owner of the separated lot maintain the required parking for the life of the use to which it is covenanted.
            2.   The owner or operator of a business that uses approved off-site space to satisfy the parking requirements of this chapter shall immediately notify the Zoning Administrator of any change of ownership or use of the property for which the spaces are required, and of any termination or default of the agreement between the parties.
            3.   Should an agreement for required off-site parking expire or otherwise terminate, the Zoning Administrator shall determine a reasonable time in which one of the following shall occur:
               a.   Substitute parking is provided that is acceptable to the city; or
               b.   The size or capacity of the use is reduced in proportion to the parking spaces lost.
            4.   If the above conditions are not met in the timeframe identified, the use for which the off-site parking was provided shall be considered nonconforming and any and all approvals, including conditional use permits shall be subject to revocation.
      (5)   Electric vehicle charging stations. For each electric vehicle charging station provided, the minimum number of required off-street parking spaces may be reduced by two. Each charging station counts toward the minimum number of required parking spaces.
   (F)   Parking space dimensions.
      (1)   Vehicular parking space dimensions. All vehicular parking areas shall comply with the minimum dimension requirements as set forth in Table 4.2-2 and as illustrated in Figure 4.2-A.
 
Table 4.2-2: Vehicle Parking Dimensions
A
B
C
D
E
F
Parking Angle
Parking Space Width[1]
Parking Space Length[2]
Aisle Width (1-Way)
Aisle Width (2-Way)
Curb Length
90
10 feet
20 feet
23 feet
24 feet
10 feet
60
10 feet
21 feet
18 feet
24 feet
11 feet 7 inches
45
10 feet
19 feet 10 inches
13 feet
24 feet
14 feet 2 inches
30
10 feet
17 feet 4 inches
12 feet
20 feet
20 feet
Parallel
10 feet
N/A
12 feet
20 feet
22 feet[3]
   [1]   The width of a parking space shall be increased by 2 feet when adjacent to fences, walls, or planters.
   [2]   The length of a parking space can be reduced subject to meeting the requirements of § 152.056(K)(5). The length of the parking space and use of wheel stops shall be implemented in a manner that assures vehicle overhang will avoid contact with abutting objects such as landscaping, irrigation, or walls and vehicle intrusion on walkways.
   [3]   A single parallel parking space shall have a curb length of 26 feet.
 
   Figure 4.2-A: Vehicle Parking Dimensions
 
      (2)   Hotel and motel parking. Hotels and motels shall be allowed to have parking space widths of nine feet, all other standards apply.
      (3)   Motorcycle parking. All developments shall be allowed to designate a portion of their required ten feet by 20 feet parking spaces for motorcycle parking. 
      (4)   Recreational vehicle and bus parking space dimensions. All recreational vehicle, boat, personal watercraft or bus parking areas shall be a minimum of 12 feet in width and 35 feet in length. If 12 feet in width and 40 feet in length stalls are provided, they may be counted as two required standard stalls.
   (G)   Accessible parking. Off-street handicapped accessible parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with Table 4.2-3 for all uses that provide off-street parking. All disabled accessible parking spaces shall count toward fulfilling the off-street parking requirements of this section.
      (1)   Number of spaces required for residential. Handicapped-accessible parking for residential uses shall be provided at the rate of one space per each dwelling unit that is designated for occupancy by the handicapped.
      (2)   Number of spaces required for non-residential. Handicapped-accessible parking for non-residential uses shall be in accordance with the rate shown in the table below:
 
Table 4.2-3: Accessible Parking Requirements
Total Number of Parking Spaces Provided in Parking Facility
Minimum Number of Required Accessible Parking Spaces
1 to 25
1
26 to 50
2
51 to 75
3
76 to 100
4
101 to 150
5
151 to 200
6
201 to 300
7
301 to 400
8
401 to 500
9
501 to 1,000
2 % of to ta l
1,001 and over
20, plus 1 for each 100, or fraction thereof, over 1,000
 
         (a)   Where more than one parking facility is provided on a site, the number of accessible spaces provided on the site shall be calculated separately according to the number of spaces required for each parking facility.
         (b)   For every six or fraction of six parking spaces required by Table 4.2-3, at least one shall be a van parking space.
      (3)   Dimensions of accessible parking space. Vehicle accessible spaces shall be at least eight-feet wide and have at least a five-foot wide access aisle abutting the designated parking space. Van accessible spaces shall be at least eight-feet wide and have at least an eight-foot wide access aisle abutting the designated parking space.
      (4)   Location of accessible parking spaces. Accessible parking spaces shall be located on the shortest accessible and unobstructed route from the parking space to an accessible building or facility entrance. In parking facilities where the accessible route must cross vehicular traffic lanes, the route shall be designated and marked as a crosswalk. Where possible, it is also preferable that the accessible route not pass behind parked vehicles.
   (H)   Loading area requirements.
      (1)   Passenger loading areas. A passenger loading space is the area a vehicle occupies while loading or unloading passengers. Passenger loading areas shall be provided in accordance with the following table of minimum requirements. The required passenger loading spaces shall not be part of the spaces used to satisfy the off-street parking requirements.
 
Table 4.2-4: Passenger Loading Area Requirements
Use Type
Loading Spaces Required
Cultural or Public Facility
2
Day Care Center, Commercial
3
Hospital
2
Medical Offices
1 per 5,000 sq. ft.
Hotel or Motel
3
Religious Assembly
1 per 50 required parking spaces
Multi-Family Residential
1 per 50 units
Tour Services
1 per active tour vehicle (based on typical operations)
Other
Determined by Zoning Administrator
 
         (a)   Location. Passenger loading areas shall be provided adjacent to the main entrance of the use or structure they are intended to serve, unless another entrance serves as the main point of access from the parking area to the structure or use.
         (b)   Maneuvering. Passenger loading areas shall consist of a vehicle turnout area so as to not interfere with the circulation of vehicles, pedestrians or bicycles within the parking area.
         (c)   Dimensions. A passenger loading space shall be a minimum of 12 feet in width and 25 feet in length, unless off-street loading will involve the use of recreation vehicles or other vehicles in excess of 25 feet in length, in which case loading spaces shall be at least 12 feet in width and 65 feet in length. A minimum vertical clearance of 14 feet shall be maintained.
      (2)   Material loading areas. Whenever the operation of any use requires that goods, merchandise, or equipment be delivered to or shipped from that use, such as grocery stores, furniture or appliance stores, plant nurseries, retail uses, hospitals, educational uses, and manufacturing and processing centers, off-street material loading and unloading areas shall be provided in accordance with the following table of minimum requirements. The required material loading spaces shall not be part of the spaces used to satisfy the off-street parking requirements.
 
Table 4.2-5: Material Loading Area Requirements
Gross Floor Area (sq. ft.)1
Loading Spaces Required
0 - 15,000
1
15,001 - 40,000
2
40,001 - 90,000
3
90,001 - 150,000
4
Over 150,000
5
   Outdoor storage, sales or display areas are included as part of the calculation of gross floor area if these areas contain materials that are received or distributed via trucks.
 
         (a)   Location. Material loading areas shall be on the same lot or parcel of land as the use or structure they are intended to serve and shall be located as near as possible to the building door openings providing loading access.
         (b)   Dimensions. Required loading space dimensions depend upon the size of delivery vehicles serving the site. Minimum sizes are as follows:
            1.   Ten feet wide, 30 feet long, 14 feet overhead clearance: Spaces serving single-unit trucks and similar delivery vehicles.
            2.   Twelve feet wide, 65 feet long, 15 feet overhead clearance: Spaces serving larger freight vehicles.
         (c)   Maneuvering. Minimum required maneuvering areas depend upon the size of delivery vehicles serving the site. Minimum maneuvering sizes are as follows:
            1.   Thirty feet: Spaces serving single-unit trucks and similar delivery vehicles.
            2.   Fifty feet: Spaces serving larger freight vehicles.
            3.   Maneuvering areas for loading spaces must not conflict with parking spaces or with the maneuvering areas for parking spaces. All maneuvering shall be contained on-site and shall not interfere with any public right-of-way.
            4.   The provisions of this division (H)(2)(c)  shall not apply to uses located in the CBD zoning district.
         (d)   Setbacks and screening. Loading areas may not be located in a required setback. See § 152.057(C)(6) for specific guidelines regarding screening of loading areas.
      (3)   Exceptions. Exceptions may be granted when a traffic or parking study demonstrates the need for lower loading requirements.
   (I)   Bicycle parking.
      (1)   Bicycle parking requirement. Bicycle parking is required for multi-family residential and non-residential development. The number of bicycle parking spaces provided shall be at least equal to 5% of the number of vehicle parking spaces required under this section.
      (2)   Bicycle location requirement.  Bicycle parking facilities shall be located on the same lot as the use for which it is intended to serve, have convenient access to the main entrance of the principal building or structure, and maximize visibility from the main entrance and/or other high activity areas.
      (3)   Bicycle space dimensions. Bicycle spaces shall measure two feet in width by six feet in length or demonstrate feasible alternative.
      (4)   Bicycle parking design. Bicycle parking racks shall support each bicycle in a method that does not use a wheel as the primary means of support and connection to the rack. Bicycle parking racks shall also be securely anchored to a hard surface.
   (J)   Special parking requirements for residential uses.
      (1)   Type of required residential parking spaces. Required spaces for all non-multi-family residential uses may be either side-by-side or tandem as specified in § 152.056(E)(3), side-by-side parking areas shall at a minimum measure 18 feet wide by 20 feet deep with no obstructions. Tandem spaces shall at a minimum measure nine feet wide by 40 feet deep with no obstructions.
      (2)   Residential driveway design.
         (a)   All residential lots except in the RE zoning districts shall provide a paved driveway between a local public street or private drive and all required parking spaces. If access to a public street is provided via an alley, the alley and drive shall be fully paved.
         (b)   Residential driveways shall not be less than 20 feet in length, as measured from the back of sidewalk, or right-of-way line if no sidewalk is provided, to the front face of a dwelling unit (i.e. garage or carport).
         (c)   Residential driveways which provide access from a garage to an alley may be less than 20 feet in length, provided that the total width of the alley and the total length of the driveway combine to provide a minimum length of 23 feet for the maneuvering area.
      (3)   Location of residential parking spaces.
         (a)   Parking spaces for residential uses, as specified in Table 4.2-1, may be allowed in the front yard setback area or street side yard setback for corner lots, but not both.
         (b)   The portion of a residential driveway or maneuvering area located within the front setback (or street side yard setback for corner lots) of lots zoned RE, R-1, R-2, MHS, and MHP may be used for parking of vehicles for occupants and guests, subject to the following requirements:
            1.   Parking of vehicles shall be done only on paved concrete, asphalt, pavers, or gravel areas. Lots located in the RE District shall be exempt from this requirement.
            2.   The combined extent of residential driveway, maneuvering, and parking areas shall not occupy more than 50% of the required front or street side yard setback area or three stalls (nine feet x 20 feet) for lot widths above 50 feet, whichever is greater. Lots located in Blocks 55-80 and 92-93, but not including Block 75A, shall be exempt from this requirement.
            3.   The required front or street side yard setback area that is allowed to be used for residential driveway, maneuvering, and parking areas can be covered if the cover meets the following criteria:
               a.   Is open on three sides;
               b.   Is architecturally compatible with the dwelling unit; and
               c.   Does not extend into rights-of-way or easements.
         (c)   For all lots zoned RE, R-1, R-2, MHS, and MHP parking of vehicles within any interior side or rear yard is permissible, provided the area is paved with concrete, asphalt, pavers, or gravel and is not located closer than three feet to an abutting side property line, unless a shared driveway is utilized.
   (K)   Parking area design and layout standards. In addition to meeting the applicable off-street parking requirements of this section, the following parking area design and layout regulations shall be complied with for all uses allowed in each zoning district; excluding individual residential lots in the RE, R-1, and R-2 districts, unless expressly modified in the following provisions.
      (1)   Access to parking areas and parking spaces.
         (a)   All parking areas shall provide access to a public street by means of a paved driveway that extends on-site to a point not less than 20 feet from the property line.
         (b)   If an off-street parking area utilizes a publicly dedicated alley for access to a public street, the alley shall be paved the full length of the alley. The use of an alley for access to a multi-family, commercial or industrial site opposite any R-1 zoning district is prohibited.
      (2)   General parking design and maintenance.
         (a)   All parking areas shall be designed, constructed, and drained in accordance with all applicable city ordinances, standards, and regulations.
         (b)   Vehicles are prohibited from parking in the sight triangle.  The sight triangle is located at the intersection of two streets or the intersection of a street and a driveway.  The sight triangle is present on all corner lots and is measured by extending the property lines until they intersect.  Each of the two legs of the sight triangle shall measure 30 feet in length along the property line and/or driveway and shall be connected by the third side of the triangle.  No curb cuts, driveways, maneuvering areas, and minimal landscaping shall be permitted within the described triangular area. 
         (c)   All parking spaces shall be permanently marked. Circulation aisles, approach lanes, and turning areas shall be clearly marked with directional arrows and lines to ensure safe traffic movement.
         (d)   All required off-street parking areas shall be maintained in a debris-free, pothole-free, and excessive crack-free condition; as determined by the Zoning Administrator.
      (3)   Parking circulation design.
         (a)   Drive aisles and maneuvering areas shall be designed to facilitate the safe movement of vehicles without posing a danger to pedestrians or impeding the function of the parking area.
         (b)   Parking areas that accommodate 20 or more vehicles must maintain continuous circulation patterns, with no dead-ends, and safe access to public streets.
         (c)   Ninety degree parking areas that accommodate less than ten vehicles and terminate in a dead-end shall provide a five foot maneuvering area for the width of the aisle to assist in turning movements.
         (d)   All off-street parking areas shall be designed so as to provide ingress and egress from a public street by the forward motion of the vehicle. Required off-street parking spaces shall be accessible without backing into or otherwise re-entering a public right-of-way.
         (e)   All off-street parking areas must have the necessary dimensions for the on-site maneuvering of refuse and fire trucks.  If off-site maneuvering is necessary, a permanent, recorded cross-access easement must be filed with the Community Development Department prior to issuance of a building permit. 
      (4)   Shared access. Parking areas shall provide reasonable connectivity to adjacent parking areas, when requested by the city to promote convenience, safety and efficient circulation. A cross access agreement guaranteeing the continued availability of the shared access between the properties and running with the land shall be recorded by the owners of the abutting properties. 
      (5)   Curbing and wheel stops.
         (a)   Continuous curbing at least six inches high and six inches wide shall be provided around the perimeter of all parking and drive aisle areas. Curbing located adjacent to stormwater facilities may contain curb cuts to allow for necessary drainage.
         (b)   To avoid conflicts or safety hazards, concrete wheel stops at least four inches high and six inches wide shall be located at least two feet from any adjacent wall, pole, fence, property line, walkway, sidewalk, landscape area or any other obstruction over four inches in height where parking is located, unless other provisions within this section are met. The two-foot overhang area shall be measured from the front end of the space to the rear of the wheel stop.
         (c)   The curbs adjacent to walkways or sidewalks may be used as wheel stops, allowing the car to extend into or overhang the sidewalk, only if a sidewalk with a width of six feet is provided. Where such overhang is used, the length of the parking space may be reduced by two feet. Under no circumstances shall vehicles be allowed to extend into or overhang abutting right-of-way and/or private property.
         (d)   The curbs around landscape areas and/or planters may be used as wheel stops, allowing the car to overhang the landscape area, only if the landscape area is a minimum of two feet wide for single row parking or a minimum of seven feet wide for opposing parking rows. Where such overhang is used, the length of the parking space may be reduced by two feet. Any plants or landscape materials within the two-foot overhang may not extend more than two inches above the six inch curb. All sprinklers should be placed outside of the bumper overhang or aligned with the parking space stripe so they are out of range of car bumpers. Use of such bumper overhangs reduces impervious surfaces and is encouraged. Under no circumstances shall vehicles be allowed to extend into or overhang abutting right-of-way and/or private property.
      (6)   Stacking spaces.
         (a)   Required stacking spaces. In addition to meeting the off-street parking requirements of this section, all drive-through facilities shall provide vehicle stacking spaces in accordance with the following table:
 
Table 4.2-6: Vehicle Stacking Requirements
Use Type
Stacking Space Requirement
Automated Teller Machine
Two per machine
Bank Teller
Three per teller or window (CBD - 2 per teller or window)
Car Wash
Three per bay at entrance (CBD - 2 per bay entrance)
One per bay at exit
Retail Business (dry cleaning, liquor store, etc.)
Two per window
Pharmacy
Two per window
Restaurant, drive through
Three behind menu board (CBD - 2 behind menu board)
Three behind window (CBD - 2 behind first window)
Other
Zoning Administrator shall determine a stacking requirement based upon the requirements for the most similar comparable use, the particular characteristics of the proposed use, and any other relevant data regarding stacking demand
 
         (b)   Design and layout of stacking spaces.
            1.   Stacking spaces shall be a minimum of nine feet by 20 feet in size.
            2.   Stacking spaces shall not interfere with on- or off-site traffic movements or movements into or out of off-street parking spaces.
            3.   Stacking spaces must be separated from other internal driveways by striping or raised medians if deemed necessary by the Zoning Administrator.
         (c)   Exceptions. Exceptions may be granted when a traffic or parking study demonstrates the need for lower stacking requirements.
      (7)   Pedestrian safe access.
         (a)   Parking lots in excess of 100 spaces shall provide direct and continuous pedestrian networks within and adjacent to parking areas to connect building entrances, parking spaces, public sidewalks, transit stops and other pedestrian destinations.
         (b)   A safe and direct pedestrian pathway must be provided from the street or sidewalk through the parking area to the primary building entrance.  These pathways must be ADA compliant, and either be completely separated from vehicular traffic or clearly designated, such as through a raised surface or distinctive paving.
         (c)   Pedestrian pathways within parking areas that cross driveways must be clearly marked, such as through a raised surface or distinctive paving.
         (d)   Whenever possible, parking rows should be aligned perpendicular to the main building, as this provides for a safer and more direct pedestrian route.
   (L)   Parking area landscaping. The perimeter and interior of parking lots shall be landscaped pursuant to the requirements in § 152.057(B).
   (M)   Parking area lighting. Off-street parking and loading areas shall adhere to the lighting requirements in § 152.059.
(Ord. 648-18, passed 11-28-2018)