§ 155.091  OFF-STREET PARKING AND LOADING STANDARDS.
   (A)   Purpose. To assure that adequate off-street parking and loading areas are provided with the construction, alteration, remodeling or change of use of any building or change in the use of land.
   (B)   General provisions.
      (1)   Any person establishing an off-street parking facility or applying for a building permit for construction, reconstruction, or alteration of the use of any building, other than a single or two family residence, shall submit to the building inspector three copies of a plot plan designating the number, dimensions, and location of off-street parking spaces and curb cuts to be provided.
      (2)   The plot plan shall be submitted to the Planning Department by the Building Inspector, and the Director of Planning and Development shall approve or disapprove the off-street parking facilities and curb cuts.
      (3)   Required off-street parking for residential uses in any PR, Single-Family Residential, 2F, MF-1 and MF-2 Districts shall be provided on the lot or tract occupied by the use being served. For non-residential uses in the aforementioned districts and for permitted uses in all other zoning districts, except the C-4, Downtown Business District, off-street parking shall be provided on the lot or tract occupied by the use being served or upon a tract dedicated to parking use by an instrument filed for record and consolidated under a single certificate of occupancy with the main use. Such off-premise parking facility shall be located in the same or less restrictive zoning district as the use being served, and all or part of such facility shall be located within a distance not to exceed 300 feet to an entrance to the building or use being served, measured along the shortest available pedestrian route with public access.
      (4)   Any existing building or use that is enlarged, structurally altered, or remodeled to the extent of increasing or changing the use by more than 50% as it existed at the effective date of this chapter shall be accompanied by off-street parking for the entire building or use in accordance with the off-street parking regulations set forth in this section. When the enlargement, structural alteration, or remodeling is to the extent that the use is not increased or changed by more than 50%, additional off-street parking shall only be required for the increased or changed floor area or use.
      (5)   Existing parking spaces may not be used to satisfy additional off-street parking requirements of this chapter unless the existing spaces proposed for use in meeting the requirements of this chapter exceed the number required for the building or use for which the existing spaces are associated. All parking associated with a building or use from which the spaces are drawn must meet all requirements of this chapter.
      (6)   Head-in parking. The following provisions shall apply to all head-in parking adjacent to a public thoroughfare:
         (a)   Head-in parking spaces so situated that the maneuverings of a vehicle in entering or leaving such spaces is done on a public street or within public right-of-way shall not be classified as off-street parking in computing any parking requirements herein.
         (b)   Except in the C-4, Downtown Business District, the construction of head-in parking as described in division (a) above shall be prohibited hereafter. All such head-in parking facilities in existence at the time of the enactment of this section are hereby declared to be a nonconforming use of land subject to the provisions of § 155.098.
         (c)   Off-street parking facility related to single or two family dwellings and zero lot line dwellings shall be exempted from this section.
      (7)   No off-street parking facility shall be located, either in whole or in part, in a public street or sidewalk, parkway, alley or other public right-of-way.
      (8)   No off-street parking or loading space shall be located, either in whole or in part, within any fire lane required by ordinance of the city. Tandem parking is prohibited unless specifically authorized by this chapter.
      (9)   No required off-street parking facility or loading space shall be used for sales, non-vehicular storage, repair or service activities.
      (10)   Lighting facilities, if provided, shall be so arranged as to be reflected away from motorists traveling in an adjacent street and from property zoned or used for residential purposes.
      (11)   No pavement shall be permitted in the city rights-of-way or in any required setback where parking facilities are prohibited unless such pavement is intended for use as a drive approach approved for access to property or such pavement is required to meet minimum city sidewalk standards.
      (12)   For all multi-family and non-residential uses, parking spaces shall be striped or otherwise clearly designated on the parking facility surface, and shall not include any fire lane or other area necessary for aisles or maneuvering of vehicles.
      (13)   All facilities used for parking, loading, unloading, driveways and all other vehicular access shall have a pavement constructed of concrete and comply with all applicable Fire Code and City Engineering Standards; except those for: a) a single-family residential property that is required to provide a fire apparatus access driveway; and b) uses in the C-4 Downtown Business District may be constructed of alternative equivalent strength material approved by the Director of Planning, provided that the drive approach from the street be constructed of concrete. The pavement shall always be maintained in good condition and repair.
      (14)   All dumpster pads and loading areas in front of dumpsters shall be constructed with at least six inches of concrete pavement on a scarified and compacted sub grade. The concrete pavement shall be reinforced with  inch steel bars spaced 18 inches on center each way or six by six, #6 gauge welded wire fabric. An approved paving fiber may be substituted for the reinforcing steel. Chairs shall be used to support reinforcement.
      (15)   In determining the required number of parking spaces, fractional spaces shall be counted to the nearest whole space. Parking spaces located in buildings needed for repair garages or auto laundry stalls shall not be counted as meeting the required minimum parking.
      (16)   Where several different property uses will share a joint parking area, the off-street parking requirements shall be the composite or sum of the requirements for each type of use and no off-street parking space provided for one type of use or building shall be included in calculation of off-street parking requirements for any other uses of buildings.
      (17)   Floor-area of structure devoted to off-street parking of vehicles shall be excluded in computing the floor area for off-street parking requirements.
      (18)   In all districts, the required off-street parking for all permitted uses, except institutional uses and uses permitted in the C-4, Downtown Business District, shall be available to customers, employees, tenants, clients and occupants of a use on a prearranged basis, other than an hourly or fee basis, as free or contract parking.
      (19)   No vehicle shall be parked on a lot or tract occupied by a single-family dwelling, two-family dwelling or townhouse, unless the area upon which such vehicle is parked is paved with a concrete surface. Except for the expansion joints, the paved concrete surface must be constructed as a solid, continuous span of concrete from edge to edge of the paved parking area. However, a paved parking area shall not be required for a vehicle parked in a side or rear yard enclosed by an opaque screening fence at least six feet in height or complies with division (B)(21) below.
      (20)   Additional residential driveway standards.
         (a)   The maximum width of a paved driveway devoted to off-street parking in the front yard or side yard with street frontage of a lot occupied by a single-family dwelling shall not exceed 20 feet plus a paved extension into the yard between the driveway and the nearest property line, not to exceed 12 feet in width. Except for expansion joints, the paved extension must be constructed as a solid, continuous span of concrete from the edge of the driveway to the furthest edge of the paved extension.
         (b)   An existing lawful nonconforming driveway that does not conform with the requirements in division (19)  above may be extended into the yard between the driveway and the nearest property line, not to exceed 12 feet in width, using the same materials as the existing driveway (e.g. gravel, paver, etc.). However, an existing parking area of entirely grass cannot be extended unless the extension conforms with the pavement requirements in division (A) above.
         (c)   Circular driveways shall not exceed 16 feet in width.
         (d)   All residential drive approaches shall be constructed to the width and construction standards established by the city Engineering Department.
      (21)   No vehicle shall be parked on a lot or tract occupied by a single-family dwelling, two-family dwelling or townhouse when such vehicle is greater than 25 feet in overall length (including tongue), unless one of the following conditions are met:
         (a)   The vehicle is parked in a building, either attached to the main residential building or detached, completely enclosed by three walls and a roof, and the open side of the building shall have an opaque gate at least six feet in height. A building used to meet the foregoing requirement shall comply with all applicable area, height and setback requirements for attached or detached accessory buildings; or
         (b)   The vehicle is parked behind the rearmost facade of the residence and is more than 50 feet away from any property line. The pavement and screening requirements of this section shall not apply to a vehicle parked in accordance with this provision; or
         (c)   The vehicle is parked at least 75 feet from the front property line and at least ten feet from side and rear property lines. No setback will be required from a side or rear property line where the abutting property is zoned for non-residential uses. The pavement and screening requirements of this section shall not apply to a vehicle parked in accordance with this provision.
      (22)   No vehicle rated to have a carrying capacity exceeding one ton shall be parked on a lot or tract occupied by a single-family dwelling, two-family dwelling or townhouse, unless such vehicle is being actively loaded or unloaded.
      (23)   Vehicles parked between a dwelling and the street shall comply with the following:
         (a)   No other vehicle shall be parked between the front property line of a lot or tract occupied by a single-family dwelling, two-family dwelling or townhouse and the portion of the front facade of the residence, including features such as entryway, front porch, side-entry or J-swing garage, or any structure protruding from the residence that is furthest from the street.
         (b)   No other vehicle shall be parked on a driveway between the side property line of a corner lot or tract occupied by a single-family dwelling, two-family dwelling or townhouse and the facade of the residence closest to the street, unless the vehicle is parked behind an opaque fence and gate at least six feet in height.
      (24)   No vehicle shall be parked on a lot or tract occupied by a single-family dwelling, two-family dwelling or townhouse when such vehicle is situated on blocks, jacks or anything other than the wheels or mechanisms that are originally designed to equip such vehicles for traveling purposes.
      (25)   Non-conforming status and exemptions.
         (a)   Any lawful unpaved driveway that was in existence prior to November 10, 1997, shall be exempted from the paving requirements of this section.
         (b)   Any other vehicle greater than 25 feet in length that was lawfully parked on a lot or tract occupied by a single-family dwelling, two-family dwelling or townhouse prior to November 10, 1997, shall be exempted from the provisions of division (B)(21) above provided that such vehicles are not located over a public sidewalk, or within a public right-of-way or visibility triangle as defined in § 155.092(I)(36).
         (c)   Any other vehicle that was lawfully parked between the front property line of a lot or tract occupied by a single-family dwelling, two-family dwelling or townhouse and the facade of the residence that is closest to the street prior to March 28, 2006, shall be exempted from the provisions of division (B)(23) above, provided that such vehicles are not located over a public sidewalk, or within a public right-of-way or visibility triangle as defined in § 155.092(I)(36).
         (d)   A vehicle lawfully parked under the provisions of divisions (b) or (c) above may be replaced by another vehicle of the same type and same dimensions by the same owner or occupant of the property; provided, however, that the exemptions permitted under divisions (b) and (c) above shall automatically terminate upon a change in ownership or occupancy of a property occupied by a single-family dwelling, two-family dwelling or townhouse upon which the vehicle is parked.
         (e)   Any other vehicle parked on a lot or tract, occupied by a single-family dwelling, two-family dwelling or townhouse, that is at least one-half acre in size and fronts on an asphalt roadway with bar ditches shall be exempt from division (B)(21), regarding maximum vehicle length and from the provisions of division (B)(21)(b) and (c) regarding the minimum setbacks for vehicles from the side and rear property lines, provided that such vehicles are parked behind the portion of the front facade of the residence that is furthest from the street and are parked on pavement or are screened from view of the street or adjacent residential properties by an opaque screening fence at least six feet in height.
      (26)   The parking of any vehicles that are prohibited by the aforementioned regulations and not exempted by the above provisions shall be discontinued or removed by the owners of the property upon which the vehicles are parked. No non-conforming use status shall be acquired by such vehicles.
      (27)   It is not a violation of the aforementioned regulations if: (1) a recreational vehicle is parked on a driveway or other lawful parking area for up to 72 hours before or after a trip for loading, unloading or maintenance so long as such vehicle is parked in compliance with all relevant parking regulations; or (2) a recreational vehicle of a visiting out-of-town guest is parked at a residence for up to 72 hours. Upon the application of the resident, the City Manager or his designee may approve a reasonable extension of time for the parking of a visiting guest's recreational vehicle based on special circumstances or undue hardship.
      (28)   The minimum off-street parking requirement for a single-family dwelling located in the PR District shall be the same as that imposed on a similar structure in any Single-Family Residential District.
   Parking Group Table
 
 
Use
Number of Parking Spaces
Required for each
Additional Requirements
1.
Residential
 
 
 
 
a.   Single-family dwelling
2
Dwelling unit
 
 
b.   Two-family dwelling
2
Dwelling unit
 
 
c.   Townhouse
2
Dwelling unit
 
 
d.   Garage apartment
1
Dwelling unit
 
 
e.   Apartment or multi- family dwelling
2
Dwelling unit for first 50 units, thereafter 1.75 parking spaces for each unit
 
 
f.   Boarding or Rooming House
1
Rooming unit
 
 
g.   Hotel, Motel or Tourist Court
1
Guest room or residential unit up to 100 units then 0.75 per unit over 100; 50% of these spaces may be counted to satisfy the parking requirements of accessory uses
 
 
h.   Manufactured Home or Mobile Home
2
Lot, plot, tract or stand
 
 
i.   Private Dormitory
1
Two occupants for designed occupants
 
 
j.   Zero-lot-line Dwelling
2
Dwelling unit
 
2.
Institutional
 
 
 
 
a.   Community or Welfare Center
1
200 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
b.   School
   i.   Elementary
   ii.   Junior High
   iii.   Senior High
   iv.   Trade/Vocational
 
1
1
1
1
 
20 students
18 students
1.75 students
Student
 
 
c.   College or University
1
4 day students
 
 
d.   Public Assembly Hall with fixed seating
1
4 seats
 
 
e.   Public Assembly Hall without fixed seating
1
100 sq. ft. of floor area
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f.   Church
1
4 seats in sanctuary or auditorium
 
 
g.   Kindergarten, Day Nursery or Child Care Center
1
8 pupils
 
 
h.   Hospital - acute or chronic care
1
1½ beds
 
 
i.   Hospital - alcoholic, narcotic, psychiatric patients
1
1
2 employees or attendant, plus
10 residents
 
 
j.   Age Restricted Senior Living Facility
Dwelling unit
 
 
k.   Library or Museum
1
300 sq. ft. of public area
 
 
l.   Fraternity or Sorority
1
200 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
m.   Student Religious Center
1
250 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
n.   Nursing or Assisted Living Facility
1
6 beds
 
 
o.   Mortuary or Funeral Chapel
1
4 seats in chapel
 
 
p.   Labor Union
1
300 sq. ft. of floor area
 
3.
Recreational, Special Entertainment
 
 
 
 
a.   Theater
1
4 seats
 
 
b.   Bowling Alley
4
Lane
 
 
c.   Pool halls, Coin-machine Arcades, Other Commercial Amusements (indoor)
1
100 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
d.   Commercial Amusements (outdoors)
1
600 sq. ft. of site area exclusive of building
 
 
e.   Ballpark, Stadium
1
8 seats
 
 
f.   Lodges, Fraternal Organization
1
200 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
g.   Golf Course
 
Minimum of 30 spaces
 
 
h.   Driving Range or Miniature Golf
1
Space for each driving tee
 
4.
Personal Service and Retail
 
 
 
 
a.   Personal Service Shop
1
200 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
b.   Retail Store or Shops (inside)
1
250 sq. ft. of floor area for the first 3,000 sq. ft.; thereafter 1 space for each additional 300 sq. ft.
 
 
c.   Furniture Sales, Appliance Sales and Repair
1
400 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
d.   Open Retail Sales
1
600 sq. ft. of site area exclusive of buildings
 
 
e.   Coin-operated or Self- service Laundry or Dry Cleaning
1
3 washing machines
 
5.
Foods and Beverage Services
 
 
 
 
a.   Eating place (inside), eating only; no drive-through service
1
100 sq. ft. of floor area
Minimum of 12 spaces
 
b.   Eating place with drive- through service, Bar, Night Club and Private Club
1
75 sq. ft. of floor area
Minimum of 4 spaces; for drive- through window, see § 155.099(B)(36) for stacking requirements
6.
Business Services
 
 
 
 
a.   Bank
1
300 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
b.   Savings and Loan or Similiar Institution
1
400 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
c.   Medical, Dental Clinic or Office
1
150 sq. ft. of floor area
Minimum of 5 spaces
 
d.   Other Office, Business or Professional
1
300 sq. ft. of floor area
Minimum of 5 spaces
7.
Automotive and Equipment
 
 
 
 
a.   Service Station, including incidental car wash
1
200 sq. ft. of floor area
Minimum of 4 spaces
 
b.   Motor Vehicle Repair, Garage or Shop (indoors)
1
500 sq. ft. of floor area
Minimum of 5 spaces
 
c.   Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessory Sales (indoors)
1
200 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
d.   Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessory Sales (outdoors)
1
1,000 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
e.   Vehicle or Machinery Sales (indoor)
1
500 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
f.   Vehicle or Machinery Sales (outdoors)
1
5,000 sq. ft. of floor area
 
 
g.   Self Service Car Wash
   Machine Car Wash
2 tandem spaces
1
Wash bay
150 sq. ft. of floor area
2/3 of the minimum spaces shall be tandem spaces for cars awaiting wash or vacuum
8.
Storage, Wholesale and Manufacturing
 
 
 
 
a.   Brick or Lumber Yard or Similiar Area
1
1,000 sq. ft. of site area
 
 
b.   Open Storage of Sand, Gravel, or Petroleum
1
2,000 sq. ft. of site area
 
 
c.   Warehouse and Enclosed Storage
1
1
3,000 sq. ft. of floor area plus
300 sq. ft. of office area, if any
 
 
d.   Outside Storage
1
5,000 sq. ft. of site area used for outside storage
 
 
e.   Commercial or Wholesale Operations
1
4
1,000 sq. ft. of floor area  or
for each 5 employees on largest shift, whichever is greater
 
 
f.   Manufacturing Operations
1
4
1,000 sq. ft. of floor area or
for each 5 employees on largest shift, whichever is greater
 
 
g.   Mini-Warehouse
1
300 sq. ft. for manager's office or quarters
 
 
      (29)   Minimum off-street parking standards. The number of off-street parking spaces required for each building or use shall be determined by reference to the following table of parking groups. Parking groups are identified for each building or use in § 155.054(B). For any use not listed, or where the listed regulations are not applicable in the judgment of the Director of Planning and Development, the parking requirements shall be determined by the Director of Planning and Development. Computations of required parking spaces by the Director of Planning and Development shall be final.
      (30)   The design and dimensions of off-street parking areas shall be in accordance with the following table of minimum dimensions. Minimum stall widths shall be nine feet, except for residential and all day office parking which may utilize stalls eight and one-half feet in width, provided that minimum aisle widths are increased by one foot. In addition, the dimensions of up to 20% of the total number of off-street parking spaces may be reduced to eight feet in width and 16 feet in depth to accommodate compact automobiles. All dimensions below are in feet.
 
Angles (Degrees)
0
30
45
60
90
Stall, Parallel to Aisle
23.0
18.0
12.7
10.4
9.0
Stall, Perpendicular to Aisle
9.0
16.5
19.0
20.0
18.0
Aisle Width, One-Way
12.0
12.0
12.0
16.0
24.0
Aisle Width, Two-Way
22.0
22.0
22.0
24.0
24.0
Cross Aisle, One-Way
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
Cross Aisle, Two-Way
22.0
22.0
22.0
22.0
22.0
 
      (31)   Off-street parking spaces shall be clearly marked according to the stall layout on file in the Development Services Department.
      (32)   Parking spaces abutting on adjoining property line or street right-of-way shall be provided with wheel guards or bumper guards so located that no part of a normally parked vehicle will extend beyond the property line. When wheel guards are used, they shall be centered 2.5 feet from the property line for 90 degree parking, 2.3 feet for 60 degree parking, and 2.0 feet for 45 degree and 30 degree parking.
      (33)   Approval of the parking area layout and design of all off-street parking areas shall be by the Director of Planning and Development. The Director of Planning and Development shall determine that spaces provided are usable, and that the circulation pattern of the area is adequate.
      (34)   Buildings and land uses within the C-4, Downtown Business District shall be exempt from requirements to provide off-street parking, provided that existing parking spaces shall be preserved, and provided that when off-street parking is furnished, it shall be approved by the Director of Planning and Development.
      (35)   Pedestrian access to buildings shall be provided from rights-of-way and parking areas by means of a pathway leading to at least one public entrance. Such pathway shall be cleared of all obstructions related to construction activity prior to the opening of the building to the general public.
   (C)   Special off-street parking provisions.
      (1)   Required off-street parking space may be located behind the minimum required front yard in any 2F, MF-1 or MF-2 District.
      (2)   Required off-street parking space may be located in the minimum required front yard in any PR, A or Single-Family Residential District.
      (3)   All required off-street parking spaces shall be located completely behind the property line of any district classification provided in this chapter.
      (4)   In all non-residential districts, surface parking may extend to the front property line except as prohibited by other sections of this chapter.
   (D)   Handicapped parking regulations.
      (1)   Where curbs exist along pedestrian pathways, as between a parking lot surface and sidewalk surface, inclined curb approaches or curb cuts having a gradient of not more than one foot in 12 feet and width of not less than four feet shall be provided for access by wheelchairs. The maximum allowable slope of an accessible pathway for disabled individuals shall not exceed 1:20 or 5% gradient.
      (2)   A parking lot servicing each entrance pathway shall have a number of level parking spaces, as set forth in the following table:
 
Parking Spaces for the Disabled
Total Space in Lot
Required Number of Reserved Spaces
Up to 50
1
51 to 100
2
over 100
3% of total
 
      (3)   Location. Parking spaces for disabled individuals, both employee and visitor, should be the spaces within the lot, closest to an accessible building entrance, and be connected to this entrance by an accessible path. Such parking spaces shall not include any fire lane aisles or other maneuvering areas for vehicles.
      (4)   Parking spaces for individuals with physical disabilities shall be 96" wide with a 60" wide access aisle. Access aisles may be shared by two accessible parking spaces.
      (5)   Access aisles shall be marked to prevent vehicle parking within their limits.
      (6)   The maximum allowable slope of an access aisle shall be 1:50.
      (7)   Access aisles shall have smooth transitions with adjoining walkways, either by joining at a common level or by use of curb ramps at maximum allowable slope of 1:12.
      (8)   The minimum clear width of pathways adjacent to parking spaces shall not be reduced by vehicle overhang. Wheelstops, railings, billiards, or other devices, shall be provided, to insure clear width.
      (9)   Identification. Accessible parking spaces shall be designed as reserved for the handicapped through display of identification signs. Each such sign must display a profile of a wheelchair with occupant and at least the words "Handicapped Parking" and be placed so that it will not be obscured by parked vehicles. The signs shall conform to the standard size, weight, and length as set forth in the Texas Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
      (10)   Care in planning should be exercised so that individuals in wheelchairs and individuals using braces and crutches are not compelled to wheel or walk behind parked cars.
   (E)   Bonus for landscaping of off-street parking facilities. The minimum off-street parking requirements shall be reduced up to a maximum of 10% of the requirement for those parking facilities designed to accommodate 20 or more vehicles where a percent of the total parking area has been retained and developed as landscaped open space area. The percent of the landscaped open space area shall determine the maximum percent reduction, which will be permitted in the total number of off-street parking spaces.
   (F)   Off-street loading regulations.
      (1)   The owner and the occupier of any property upon which a business is located shall provide loading and unloading areas of sufficient number and facility to accommodate on such business premises all vehicles that will be reasonably expected to simultaneously deliver or receive materials or merchandise, and of sufficient size to accommodate all types of vehicles that will be reasonably expected to engage in such loading or unloading activities.
      (2)   Any person desiring a building permit for the construction, alteration, or change of use of the land or any business building or structure shall submit a plot plan to the Building Official designating the number, dimensions and locations of all loading areas and all proposed avenues of ingress and egress to the property from adjacent public thoroughfares. The Building Official shall not issue such permit if it is determined that the proposed loading and unloading facilities will present a direct or indirect hazard to vehicular or pedestrian traffic.
      (3)   Required off-street loading facilities may be adjacent to a public alley or private service drive, or may consist of a berth within a structure.
      (4)   No portion of a loading facility may extend into a public right-of-way or into an off-street parking facility elsewhere herein required.
      (5)   The off-street loading spaces or truck berths shall provide maneuvering areas on site to prevent any blockage of public right-of-way.
      (6)   Buildings and land uses within the C-4, Downtown Business District shall be exempt from the off-street loading requirements of this chapter, unless an owner or occupier of business property elects to provide off-street loading facilities, in which event, such facilities shall be approved as provided in these regulations.
(Ord. 671, passed 4-15-86)