APPENDIX A: PLANT MATERIALS LIST
 
Appendix A
Botanical Name
Common Name
Woodland Replacement
Street Tree
Parking Lot
Transition Area
CANOPY TREES
Acer nigrum
Black Maple
Y
N
Y
Y
Acer pseudoplatanus
Sycamore Maple
Y
N
N
Y
Acer miyabei
Miyabe Maple
Y
Y
N
Y
Acer rubrum
Red Maple Varieties
Y
Y
Y
Y
Acer saccharum
Sugar Maple
Y
N
N
Y
Aesculus glabra
Ohio Buckeye
Y
N
N
Y
Aesculus hippocastanum
Horsechestnut
Y
N
N
Y
Carya species
Hickory
Y
N
N
Y
Celtis occidentalis
Hackberry
Y
Y
Y
Y
Cladrastis lutea
Yellowwood
Y
N
N
Y
Fagus grandifolia
American Beech
Y
N
N
Y
Fagus sylvatica
European Beech
Y
N
N
Y
Ginkgo biloba (male)
Ginkgo
N
Y
N
Y
Gymocladus dioicus
Kentucky Coffeetree
Y
N
N
Y
Juglans cinerea
Butternut
Y
N
N
Y
Liquidambar styraciflua
Sweetgum
Y
N
N
Y
Liriodendron tulipifera
Tuliptree
Y
N
Y
Y
Metasequoia glyptostroboides
Dawn Redwood
Y
N
N
Y
Nyssa sylvatica
Tupelo
Y
N
N
Y
Platanus acerifolia
Planetree
Y
Y
Y
Y
Platanus occidentalis
American Sycamore
Y
Y
Y
Y
Pyrus calleryana
Flowering Pear
N
Y
N
Y
Quercus alba
White Oak
Y
Y
Y
Y
Quercus bicolor
Swamp White Oak
Y
Y
Y
Y
Quercus coccinea
Scarlet Oak
Y
N
N
Y
Quercus ellipsoidalis
Hill’s Oak
Y
N
N
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Quercus imbricaria
Shingle Oak
Y
N
Y
Y
Quercus macrocarpa
Bur Oak
Y
Y
Y
Y
Quercus muehlenbergii
Chinkapin Oak
Y
Y
Y
Y
Quercus prinus
Chestnut Oak
Y
Y
Y
Y
Quercus robur
English Oak
Y
Y
Y
Y
Quercus rubra
Red Oak
Y
Y
Y
Y
Quercus velutina
Black Oak
Y
Y
Y
Y
Taxodium distichum
Bald Cypress
Y
N
N
Y
Tilia americana
American Basswood
Y
Y
Y
Y
Tilia cordata
Little Leaf Linden
Y
Y
Y
Y
SHRUBS
Aronia
Chokeberry
Y
Y
Y
Betula pumila
Dwarf Birch
Y
N
Y
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
Y
Y
Y
Chaenolmeles speciosa
Flowering Quince
N
N
Y
Clethra alnifolia
Summersweet
Y
Y
Y
Cornus species
Dogwood
Y
N
Y
Corylus americana
American Filbert
Y
Y
Y
Corylus cornuta
Beaked Hazelnut
Y
Y
Y
Cotoneaster species
Cotoneaster
Y
Y
Y
Deutzia
Deutzia
Y
Y
Y
Forsythia
Forsythia
N
Y
Y
Euonymus species
Euonymous
Y
Y
Y
Hamamelis vernalis
Vernal Witchhazel
Y
Y
Y
Hydrangea quercifolia
Oakleaf Hydrangea
Y
Y
Y
Ilex opaca
American Holly
Y
Y
Y
Ilex verticillata
Winterberry
Y
Y
Y
Itea virginica
Sweetspire
Y
Y
Y
Juniperus species
Juniper
Y
Y
Y
Lindera benzoin
Spicebush
Y
Y
Y
Myrica pennsylvanica
Northern Bayberry
Y
N
Y
Physocarpus opulifolius
Common Ninebark
Y
Y
Y
Potentilla fruticosa
Bush Cinquefoil
Y
Y
Y
Rhus species
Sumac
Y
Y
Y
Ribes
Current
Y
Y
Y
Rosa species
Rose varieties
Y
Y
Y
Salix discolor
Pussy Willow
Y
N
Y
Sambucus canadensis
Elderberry
Y
N
Y
Spirea species
Spirea
N
N
Y
Symphoricarpos albus
Snowberry
Y
Y
Y
Syringa species
Lilac
N
N
Y
Taxus species
Yew
N
N
Y
Thuja species
Arborvitae
N
N
Y
Viburnum species
Viburnum
Y
Y
Y
EVERGREEN TREES
Abies concolor
Concolor Fir
Y
N
N
Y
Juniperus virginiana
Red Cedar
Y
N
N
Y
Picea abies
Norway Spruce
Y
N
Y
Y
Picea glauca
White Spruce
Y
N
Y
Y
Picea omorika
Serbian Spruce
Y
N
Y
Y
Picea pungens
Colorado Spruce
Y
N
Y
Y
Pinus nigra
Austrian Pine
Y
N
Y
Y
Pinus resinosa
Red Pine
Y
N
Y
Y
Pinus strobus
White Pine
Y
N
Y
Y
Pinus sylvestris
Scotch Pine
Y
N
Y
Y
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Douglas Fir
Y
N
N
Y
Tsuga canadensis
Canadian Hemlock
Y
N
N
Y
UNDERSTORY TREES
Acer ginnala
Amur Maple
Y
N
Y
Y
Amelanchier species
Serviceberry
Y
N
Y
Y
Betula alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
Y
N
Y
Y
Betula nigra
River Birch
Y
N
Y
Y
Alnus
Alder
Y
N
N
Y
Carpinus caroliniana
American Hornbeam
Y
N
Y
Y
Cercis canadensis
Eastern Redbud
Y
N
Y
Y
Crataegus species
Hawthorn
Y
N
Y
Y
Hamamelis virginiana
Common Witchhazel
Y
N
Y
Y
Larix decidua
Larch
Y
N
Y
Y
Malus
Crabapple
N
N
Y
Y
Magnolia species
Magnolia
Y
N
Y
Y
Ostrya virginiana
Hophornbeam
Y
N
Y
Y
 
Landscape Design and Construction Using Best Management Practices
Goal: To build or improve landscaped environments that provide aesthetic and functional properties and optimal growing conditions while conserving water and protecting water quality.
   A.   Planning Guidelines:
      In the planning stages of a project is when the designer is most able to apply Best Management Practices (BMP). These are factors that will either contribute to or prevent the successful outcome of reaching the goals of BMP. Consider the following as elements that will affect the success of the strategy:
      1.   Consider existing and proposed grades to provide optimal drainage and infiltration opportunities.
      2.   Exposure to wind and sun can affect water needs, plant health, and conservation.
      3.   Roads and parking areas can be utilized to provide moderate levels of infiltration.
      4.   Salt, chemical spray, and snow storage in certain locations will affect plant health, soils, water quality, and runoff.
      5.   Soils should be understood to be used effectively in water conservation, erosion potential, and plant health.
      6.   Precipitation amounts and intensity at different sites and regions will affect design choices and maintenance guidelines.
      7.   Maintenance schedules should be well defined and followed throughout the year.
      Incorporating elements of ‘Xeriscape’ will aid in the conservation and protection of water resources, these include:
      1.   Use the planning stage to combine design with resource management.
      2.   Amend poor soils for improved erosion control and growing conditions.
      3.   Choose plants that require minimal water and hardy growing conditions
      4.   Minimize turf areas to decrease mowing and fertilizing/herbicide requirements.
      5.   Apply efficient irrigation practices and monitor during the growing season.
      6.   Apply and maintain proper mulch.
      7.   Use porous paving materials for walkways, roads, and parking areas.
      8.   Follow a site specific maintenance plan.
   B.   Installation:
      The following principles are suggested to improve the sustainability of plants in the landscape through design, construction, and into the maintenance cycle:
      Test soils prior to planting to identify appropriate amendments needed to improve the soil. Soil tests determine costs associated with amendments and determine pH, phosphorus, and nitrogen level.
      Improve Soil And Drainage.  Due to heavy equipment the soil compaction frequently reaches 80% to 90%. Break compaction by tilling the soil or replace it around plants. When the soil has been prepared for planting it is important to keep construction equipment off of the prepared surface. Plants can often adapt to dry conditions but plantings on poorly drained sites will be difficult to maintain and have a shortened life span.
      Typical to Lake County, heavy clay soils have poor aeration that, with compaction, limits root growth. Typical soil preparation consists of introducing 3 to 5 cubic yards of organic matter into the soil to a depth of 4 to 6 inches for every 1,000 square feet of area to be seeded, sodded, or planted. If native plants are used, then soil amendment may not be necessary, provided that native topsoil has been retained at the site and minimal compaction has occurred.
      Increase Planting Space.  To improve the health of plants, increase areas of open soil. This will reduce extreme moisture conditions that stress plants under stress and reduce their life span.
      Properly Size Pits and Provide Optimal Plant Depth.  Proper planting with the root collar at least 2 inches above grade helps with establishment and long-term health. Additionally, planting pits should be at a minimum 2 times the width of the root ball.
      Select the Proper Plants.  Plants are selected for a function or to visually enhance a site. Local climate, maintenance, availability, soil properties, available water, all should be considered in plant selection in addition to the plant characteristics.
      Inspect the Installation.  Many contractor mistakes can be covered with soil and mulch hiding drainage systems, soil amendments, soil compaction, size of planting pit, and root balls. These all should be inspected while they are exposed.
      Follow Maintenance Plan. All landscapes are dependent on a certain amount of maintenance. Following a maintenance plan over both the short- and long-term is crucial for plant health. Planting notes and details must be reviewed and placed on the landscape plan.
   C.   Maintenance: Tree and Plant Care
      1.   New plantings typically require additional watering for one to two growing seasons to become established.
      2.   Winter watering is necessary for newly planted trees, particularly evergreens during periods when snow or rainfall has not occurred over an extended period of time.
      3.   Many plant root systems, trunks or branches, and drought-stressed plants are harmed by heavy application of lawn-based herbicides.
      4.   Shrubs and trees should be evaluated yearly and fertilized to promote healthy roots, branching, and leaf growth.
      Perennial Care
      The following procedures should be observed in order to provide optimal sustainable growing conditions for perennial planting areas:
      1.   Prepare soil before planting by loosening it to 12 inches. If a heavy clay or sandy soil is present, add 2 to 3 inches of compost on the soil surface and then till in to a 12-inch depth.
      2.   Apply 1 to 2 inches of organic mulch between plants to reduce evaporation and control weeds and soil temperature.
      3.   Fertilizing perennials is generally not needed if proper soil preparation is done prior to planting. Fertilizer increases growth requiring additional water.
      4.   Choose plants to match the site conditions and consider plants with lower water needs.
      5.   Irrigation practices affect root depth. By watering less frequently and more thoroughly, deeper roots are produced, decreasing irrigation requirements.
      Turf Management
      Properly maintained turf while visually appealing can also reduce stormwater runoff rates, sediment and pollutant loads, and reduce heat island effects. The following BMPs can be used for areas that require turfgrass:
      1.   Avoid placing turf in long narrow areas, steep slopes, or in islands due to maintenance and irrigation challenges. Consider turf alternatives in these areas such as native or low-water-use plantings.
      2.   Low grow or no mow turf should be considered where feasible to reduce the maintenance needs during the growing season.
      3.   Mulch-mowing helps turfgrass develop deeper root systems. Mulched grass clippings can return 30% of the needed nitrogen that turf requires to be healthy.
      4.   If thatch is present at a depth greater than 1/2 inch, aerate the lawn with a core-aerator to allow water infiltration.
      5.   Turf grown on properly prepared soil requires only half of the recommended rate for irrigation.
      6.   Keep leaves, grass clippings and other turf wastes cleared from sidewalks and streets to avoid washing into storm drains, streams, and lakes.
      7.   Maintain a buffer zone along waterways where chemicals are not applied to minimize infiltration of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers into water bodies.
      8.   Follow a maintenance schedule to prevent stress, disease, and turf injury.
      Mulching
      Mulch trees, shrubs, and planting beds with partially composted organic material in a layer of 3 to 4 inches depth in order to:
      1.   Reduce water loss through evaporation;
      2.   Reduce soil erosion and sediment transport;
      3.   Suppress weeds; and
      4.   Provide uniform soil temperature.
      In areas prone to significant runoff, inorganic mulch such as stone should be considered.
(Ord., Appendix A, passed 10-13-2009; Ord. 19-1378, passed 9-10-2019)