§ 152.02  DEFINITIONS.
   Notwithstanding other definitions within this chapter, the following definitions shall only apply to this section of the chapter:
   “ADDITION (TO AN EXISTING STRUCTURE).”  Any walled and roofed expansion to the perimeter of a structure in which the addition is connected by a common load-bearing wall other than a firewall. Any waited and roofed addition, which is connected by a firewall or is separated by independent perimeter load-bearing walls, is new construction.
   “AREA OF SHALLOW FLOODING.” A designated AO or AH Zone on a community's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) where the base flood depths range from one to three feet, there is no clearly defined channel, the path of flooding is unpredictable and indeterminate; and velocity flow may be evident. Such flooding is characterized by ponding or sheet flow.
   “AREA OF SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD.”  The land in the floodplain within a community subject to a 1% or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
   “BASE FLOOD.”  A flood which has a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year (also called the "100-year flood"). Base flood is the term used throughout this chapter.
   “BASE FLOOD ELEVATION (BFE).” The elevation shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for Zones AE, AH, Al-30, AR, AR/A, AR/AE, AR/A1-A30, AR/AH, and AR/AO that indicates the water surface elevation resulting from a flood that has a 1% or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
   “BASEMENT.”  That portion of a structure having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all four sides.
   “BREAKAWAY WALL.”  A wall that is not part of the structural support of the building and is intended through its design and construction to collapse under specific lateral loading forces without causing damage to the elevated portion of the building or the supporting foundation system.
   “COMMUNITY RATING SYSTEM (CRS).”  A program developed by the Federal Insurance Administration to provide incentives to those communities in the Regular Program to go beyond the minimum floodplain management requirements to develop extra measures for protection from flooding.
   “Community Flood Hazard Area (CFHA).”  An area that has been determined by the Floodplain Administrator (or other delegated, designated, or qualified community official) from available technical studies, historical information, and other available and reliable sources, which may be subject to periodic inundation by floodwaters that can adversely affect the public health, safety and general welfare. Included are areas downstream from dams.
   “CRITICAL FACILITY.”  Any property that, if flooded, would result in severe consequences to public health and safety or a facility which, if unusable or unreachable because of flooding, would seriously and adversely affect the health and safety of the public. Critical facilities include, but are not limited to: housing likely to contain occupants not sufficiently mobile to avoid injury or death unaided during a flood; schools, nursing homes, hospitals, police, fire and emergency response installations, vehicle and equipment storage facilities, emergency operations centers likely to be called upon before, during and after a flood, public and private utility facilities important to maintaining or restoring normal services before, during and after a flood, and those facilities or installations which produce, use or store volatile, flammable, explosive, toxic and/or water-reactive materials, hazardous materials or hazardous waste.
   “DEVELOPMENT.”  Any manmade change to improved or unimproved real estate, including, but not limited to, buildings or other structures, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavating, drilling operations, or permanent storage of materials or equipment.
   “ELEVATED STRUCTURE.”  A non-basement structure built to have the lowest floor elevated above ground level by means of fill solid foundation perimeter walls, piling, columns (post and piers), shear walls, or breakaway walls, (See freeboard requirements for residential and non-residential structures.)
   “ELEVATION CERTIFICATE.”  A statement certified by a registered professional engineer or surveyor on the FEMA-approved form in effect at the time of certification that verifies a structure's elevation and other related information to verify compliance with this chapter.
   “EMERGENCY PROGRAM.”  The initial phase under which a community participates in the NFIP, intended to provide a first layer amount of insurance at subsidized rates on all insurable structures in that community before the effective date of the initial FIRM.
   “ENCLOSURE.”  That portion of a structure below the Base Flood Elevation (BFE) used solely for parking of vehicles, limited storage, or access to the structure.
   “ENCROACHMENT.”  The physical advance or infringement of uses, plant growth, fill-excavation, structures, permanent structures or development into a floodplain, which may impede or alter the flow capacity of a floodplain.
   “EXISTING CONSTRUCTION.”  Any structure for which the “start of construction” commenced before the effective date of the FIRM or before January 1. 1975 for FIRMs effective before that date. “EXISTING CONSTRUCTION” may also be referred to as “Existing structures.”
   “EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION.”  A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed before the effective date of the first floodplain management ordinance adopted by the legislative body based on specific technical base flood elevation data which established the area of special flood hazards.
   “EXPANSION TO AN EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION.” The preparation of additional sites by the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads).
   “FIVE-HUNDRED YEAR FLOOD.”  The flood that has a 0.2% chance of being equaled or exceeded in any year. Areas subject to the 500-year flood have a moderate to low risk of flooding.
   “FLOOD” “FLOODING”, or “FLOOD WATER.
      (1)   A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from the overflow of inland or tidal waters; the unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; and/or mudslides (i.e. mudflows"). See Mudslides.
      (2)   The condition resulting from flood-related erosion. See flood-related erosion.
   “FLOOD BOUNDARY AND FLOODWay MAP (FBFM).” A map on which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or Federal Insurance Administration (FIA) has delineated the areas of flood hazards and the regulatory floodway.
   “FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP (FHBM).” A map on which the boundaries of the flood-mudslide (i.e. mudflow), and flood-related erosion areas having special hazards have been designated as Zones A, M, and/or E by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or Federal Insurance Administration (FIA).
   “FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP ("FIRM).”  A map on which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or Federal Insurance Administration (FIA) has delineated special flood hazard areas and risk premium zones.
   “FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY.” The report provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or Federal Insurance Administration (FIA) containing flood profiles, the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), and/or the Flood Boundary Floodway Map (FBFM), and the water surface elevation of the base flood.
   “FLOODPLAIN OR FLOOD-PRONE AREA.”  Any land area susceptible to being inundated by flood waters from any source.
   “FLOODPLAIN ADMINISTRATOR.”  The individual appointed by a NFIP participating community to administer and enforce the floodplain management ordinances.
   “FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT.”  The operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood damage and preserving and enhancing natural resources in the floodplain including but not limited to emergency preparedness plans flood control works, floodplain management ordinances, and open space plans.
   “FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS.”  This chapter and other zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, health regulations, special purpose ordinances (such as grading and erosion control), and other applications of police power, which control development in flood-prone areas. This term describes federal, state and/or local regulations, in any combination thereof, which provide standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and reduction.
   “FLOODPROOFING.”  Any combination of structural and non-structural additions, changes, or adjustments to structures which reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate or improved real property, water and sanitation facilities, structures, and their contents.
   “FLOODPROOFING CERTIFICATE.”  A certification by a registered professional engineer or architect on a FEMA-approved form in effect at the time of certification stating that a non-residential structure, together with attendant utilities and sanitary facilities is watertight to a specified design elevation with walls that are substantially impermeable to the passage of water and all structural components are capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic flood forces, including the effects of buoyancy and anticipated debris impact forces.
   “FLOODWAY.”  The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one foot. Also referred to as the "regulatory floodway".
   “FLOODWAY FRINGE.”  That area of the floodplain on either side of the regulatory floodway where encroachment may be permitted without additional hydraulic and/or hydrologic analysis.
   “FLOOR.”  The top surface of an enclosed area in a building (including basement), i.e., top of slab in concrete slab construction or top of wood flooring in wood frame construction. The term does not include the floor of a garage used solely for parking vehicles.
   “FREEBOARD.”  A factor of safety, usually expressed in feet above the BFE, which is applied for the purposes of floodplain management. It is used to compensate for the many unknown factors that could contribute to flood heights greater than those calculated for the base flood. Freeboard must be applied not just to the elevation of the lowest floor or floodproofing level, but also to the level of protection provided to all components of the structure, such as building utilities, HVAC components, and the like.
   “FUNCTIONALLY DEPENDENT USE FACILITY.”  A facility, structure, or other development, which cannot be used for its intended purpose unless it is located or carried out in close proximity to water. The term includes only a docking or port facility necessary for the loading and unloading of cargo or passengers, shipbuilding, ship repair, or seafood processing facilities. The term does not include long-term storage, manufacture, sales, or service facilities.
   “HAZARD POTENTIAL.”  The possible adverse incremental consequences that result from the release of water or stored contents due to failure of a dam or misoperation of a dam or appurtenances. The hazard potential classification of a dam does not reflect in any way the current condition of a dam and its appurtenant structures (e.g. safety, structural integrity, flood routing capacity).
   “HIGHEST ADJACENT GRADE.”  The highest natural elevation of the ground surface, prior to construction, next to the proposed walls of a structure.
   “HISTORIC STRUCTURE.”  Any structure that is:
      (1)   Listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places (a listing maintained by the Department of Interior) or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register;
      (2)   Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary to qualify as a registered historic district;
      (3)   Individually listed on a state inventory of historic places in states with historic preservation programs which have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or
      (4)   Individually listed on a local inventory of historic places in communities with historic preservation programs that have been certified either:
         (a)    By an approved state program as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or
         (b)    Directly by the Secretary of the Interior in states without approved programs.
   “INCREASED COST OF COMPLIANCE (ICC).”  Increased cost of compliance coverage provides for the payment of a claim for the cost to comply with State or community floodplain management laws or ordinances after a direct physical loss by flood. When a building covered by a Standard Flood Insurance Policy under the NFIP sustains a loss and the state or community declares the building to be substantially or repetitively damaged, ICC will help pay up to $30,000 for the cost to elevate, floodproof, demolish, or remove the building.
   “ICC COVERAGE.” Available on residential and non-residential buildings (this category includes public or government buildings, such as schools, libraries, and municipal buildings) insured under the NFIP.
   “LETTER OF MAP CHANGE (LOMC).”  Is an official FEMA determination, by letter, to amend or revise effective Flood Insurance Rate Maps, Flood Boundary and Floodway Maps, and Flood Insurance Studies. LOMC's include the following categories:
      (1)   LETTER OF MAP AMENDMENT (LOMA).”  A revision based on technical data showing that a property was incorrectly included in a designated SFHA. A LOMA amends the current effective FIRM and establishes that a specific property is not located in a SFHA.
      (2)   “LETTER OF MAP REVISION (LOMR).”  A revision based on technical data that usually due to manmade changes, shows changes to flood zones, flood elevations, floodplain and floodway delineations, and planimetric features.
      (3)   “LETTER OF MAP REVISION — FILL (LOMR-F).” A determination that a structure or parcel has been elevated by properly placed engineered fill above the BFE and is therefore, excluded from the SHFA.
   “LEVEE.”  A man-made structure, usually an earthen embankment, designed and constructed in accordance with sound engineering practices to contain, control, or divert the flow of water so as to provide protection from temporary flooding.
   “LEVEE SYSTEM.”  A flood protection system that consists of a levee, or levees, and associated structures, such as closure and drainage devices, which are constructed and operated in accordance with sound engineering practices. For a levee system to be recognized, the following criteria must be met:
      (1)   All closure devices or mechanical systems for internal drainage, whether manual or automatic, must be operated in accordance with an officially adopted operation manual (a copy of which must be provided to FEMA by the operator when levee or drainage system recognition is being sought or revised).
      (2)   All operations must be under the jurisdiction of a Federal or State agency, an agency created by Federal or State law, or an agency of a community participating in the NFIP.
   “LIMITED STORAGE.”  An area used for storage and intended to be limited to incidental items which can withstand exposure to the elements and have low flood damage potential. Such an area must be of flood resistant material, void of utilities except for essential lighting, and cannot be temperature controlled.
   “LOWEST ADJACENT GRADE.”  The elevation of the sidewalk, patio, deck support or basement entryway immediately next to the structure and after the completion of construction. It does not include earth that is emplaced for aesthetic or landscape reasons around a foundation wall. It does include natural ground or properly compacted fill that comprises a component of a structure's foundation system.
   “LOWEST FLOOR.”  The lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area including basement. An unfinished or flood resistant enclosure, usable solely for parking of vehicles, structure access, or storage in an area other than a basement area is not considered a structure's lowest floor, provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in violation of the applicable non-elevation design requirements of this chapter.
   “MANUFACTURED HOME.”  A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed to be used with or without a permanent foundation when connected or attached to the required utilities. The term also includes park trailers, travel trailers, and similar transportable structures placed on a site for 180 consecutive days or longer and intended to be improved property. The term "manufactured home" does not include a “recreational vehicle” (see Recreational Vehicle).
   “MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION.”  A parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into two or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale.
   “MEAN SEA LEVEL (MSL).”  The average height of the sea for all stages of the tide. For the purposes of the National Flood Insurance Program, the MSL is used as a reference for establishing various elevations within the floodplain as shown on a community's FIRM. For purposes of this chapter, the term is synonymous with either National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) 1929 or North American Vertical Datum (NAVD) 1988.
   “MITIGATION.”  Sustained actions taken to reduce or eliminate long-term risk to people and property from hazards and their effects. The purpose of mitigation is twofold: to protect people and structures, and to minimize the costs of disaster response and recovery.
   “MUDSLIDE (i.e. MUDFLOW).”  Describes a condition where there is a river, flow, or inundation of liquid mud down a hillside, usually as a result of a dual condition of loss of brush cover and the subsequent accumulation of water on the ground, preceded by a period of unusually heavy or sustained rain. A mudslide (i.e. mudflow) may occur as a distinct phenomenon while a landslide is in progress, and will be recognized as such by the Floodplain Administrator only if the mudflow, and not the landslide, is the proximate cause of damage that occurs.
   “NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM (NFIP).”  The federal program that makes flood insurance available to owners of property in participating communities nationwide through the cooperative efforts of the federal government and the private insurance industry.
   “NATIONAL GEODETIC VERTICAL DATUM (NGVD).”  As corrected in 1929, a vertical control used as a reference for establishing varying elevations within the floodplain. (Generally used as the vertical datum on the older FIRM'S. Refer to FIRM legend panel for correct datum.)
   “NEW CONSTRUCTION.”  Structures for which the start of construction commenced on or after the effective date of these floodplain management regulations and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures.
   “NEW MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION.”  A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed on or after the effective date of these floodplain management regulations.
   “NORTH AMERICAN VERTICAL DATUM (NAVD).”  As corrected in 1988, a vertical control used as a reference for establishing varying elevations within the floodplain. (Generally used on the newer FIRM's and Digitally Referenced FIRM'S (DFIRM's).) (Refer to FIRM or DFIRM legend panel for correct datum.)
   “OBSTRUCTION.”  Includes but is not limited to any dam, wall, embankment, levee, dike, pile, abutment, protection, excavation, channelization, bridge, conduit culvert, structure, wire, fence, rock, gravel, refuse, fill, structure, vegetation or other material in, along, across or projecting into any watercourse which may alter, impede, retard or change the direction and/or velocity of the flow of water, due to its location, its propensity to snare or collect debris carried by the flow of water, or its likelihood of being carried downstream.
   “ONE-HUNDRED YEAR FLOOD (100-YEAR FLOOD) (SEE BASE FLOOD).”  The flood that has a 1% or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. Any flood zone that begins with the letter A is subject to the 100-year flood. Over the life of a 30-year loan, there is a 26% chance of experiencing such a flood with the SFHA.
   “PARTICIPATING COMMUNITY.”  A community that voluntarily elects to participate in the NFIP by adopting and enforcing floodplain management regulations that are consistent with the standards of the NFIP.
   “PRE-FIRM CONSTRUCTION.”  Construction or substantial improvement, which started on or before December 31. 1974, or before the effective date of the initial FIRM of the community, whichever is later.
   “POST-FIRM CONSTRUCTION.”  Construction or substantial improvement that started on or after the effective date of the initial FIRM of the community or after December 31, 1974, whichever is later.
   “PROBATION.”  A means of formally notifying participating NFIP communities of violations and deficiencies in the administration and enforcement of the local floodplain management regulations. During periods of probation, each insurance policy is subject to a $50 surcharge.
   “PROGRAM DEFICIENCY.”  A defect in a community's floodplain management regulations or administrative procedures that impairs effective implementation of those floodplain management standards or of the standards of 44 CFR 60.3. 60.4. 60.5. and/or 60.6.
   “PUBLIC SAFETY AND NUISANCE.”  Anything which is injurious to safety or health of an entire community or neighborhood, or any considerable number of persons, or unlawfully obstructs the free passage or use, in the customary manner, of any navigable lake, or river, bay, stream, canal, or basin.
   “RECREATIONAL VEHICLE.” A vehicle that is:
      (1)   Built on a single chassis;
      (2)   Four hundred (400) square feet or less when measured at the largest horizontal projection;
      (3)   Designed to be self-propelled or permanently towable to a light duty truck; and
      (4)   Designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling but as temporary living quarters for recreational camping, travel, or seasonal use.
   “REGULAR PROGRAM.”  The phase of a community's participation in the NFIP where more comprehensive floodplain management requirements are imposed and higher amounts of insurance are available based upon risk zones and elevations determined in a FIS.
   “REGULATORY FLOODWAY.”  The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one foot. See Base Flood.
   “REMEDY A VIOLATION.”  The process by which a community brings a structure or other development into compliance with State or local floodplain management regulations, or, if this is not possible, to reduce the impact of non-compliance. Reduced impact may include protecting the structure or other affected development from flood damages, implementing the enforcement provisions of the ordinance or otherwise deterring future similar violations, or reducing state or federal financing exposure with regard to the structure or other development.
   “REPAIR.”  The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing structure.
   “REPETITIVE LOSS.”  Flood-related damages sustained by a structure on two or more separate occasions during a 10-year period where the value of damages equals or exceeds an average of 50% of the current value of the structure, beginning on the date when the damage first occurred, or, four or more flood losses of $1,000 or more over the life of the structure, or three or more flood losses over the life of the structure that are equal to or greater than the current value of the structure.
   “SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA (SFHA).”  That portion of the floodplain subject to inundation by the base flood and/or flood-related erosion hazards as shown on a FHBM or FIRM as Zone A, AE, A1 - A30, AH, AO or AR.
   “START OF CONSTRUCTION.” Includes substantial improvement and other proposed new development. The date a building permit is issued, provided, the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition placement or other improvement is within 180 days of the permit date. The actual start means the first placement of permanent construction of a structure (including manufactured home) on a site, such as the pouring of slabs or footings, the installation of piles, construction of columns, or any work beyond the stage of excavation; or the placement of a manufactured home oh a foundation. Permanent construction does not include land preparation, such as clearing, grading, and filling; nor does it include the installation of streets and/or walkways; nor does it include excavation for a basement, footings, piers, or foundations or the erection of temporary forms; the installation on the property of accessory structures, such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure. For a substantial improvement, the actual start of construction means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the structure.
   “SECTION 1316.”  That section of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 as amended, which states that no new or renewal flood insurance coverage shall be provided for any property that the Administrator finds has been declared by a duly constituted state or local zoning authority or other authorized public body to be in violation of state or local laws, regulations, or ordinances that are intended to discourage or otherwise restrict land development or occupancy in flood-prone areas.
   “SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE.” 
      (1)   Any damage to a building for which the cost of repairs equals or exceeds 50% of the market value of the building prior to the damage occurring. This term includes structures that are categorized as repetitive loss.
      (2)   For the purposes of this definition, “repair” is considered to occur when the first repair or reconstruction of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of the building commences.
      (3)   The term does not apply to:
         (a)   Any project for improvement of a building required to comply with existing health, sanitary, or safety code specifications which have been identified by the Code Enforcement Official and which are solely necessary to assure safe living conditions; or
         (b)   Any-alteration of a “historic structure” provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as a “historic structure”.
   “SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT.”  Any combination of reconstruction, alteration, or improvement to a building, taking place during a 1-year period in which the cumulative percentage of improvement equals or exceeds 50% of the current market value of the building.
      (1)   For the purposes of this definition, an improvement occurs when the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of the building commences, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building.
      (2)   The term does not apply to:
         (a)   Any project for improvement of a building required to comply with existing health, sanitary, or safety code specifications which have been identified by the Code Enforcement Official and which are solely necessary to assure safe living conditions, or
         (b)   Any alteration of a “historic structure” provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as a “historic structure;” or
         (c)   Any building that has been damaged from any source or is categorized as repetitive loss.
   “SUBSTANTIALLY IMPROVED EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARKS OR SUBDIVISIONS.”  Repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, or improvement of the streets, utilities, and pads equaling or exceeding 50% of the value of the streets, utilities, and pads before the repair, reconstruction, or improvement commenced.
   “SUSPENSION.”  Removal of a participating community from the NFIP for failure to enact and/or enforce floodplain management regulations required for participation in the NFIP. New or renewal flood insurance policies are no longer available in suspended communities.
   “UTILITIES.”  Includes electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing and air conditioning equipment.
   “VARIANCE.”  Relief from some or all of the requirements of this chapter.
   “VIOLATION.”  Failure of a structure or other development to fully comply with this chapter. A structure or other development without the elevation certificate, other certifications, or other evidence of compliance required in this chapter is presumed to be in violation until such time as that documentation is provided.
   “WATERCOURSE.”  A lake, river, creek, stream, wash, channel or other topographic feature on or over which water flows at least periodically.
   “WATER SURFACE ELEVATION.”  The height in relation to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929, for other datum, where specified) of floods of various magnitudes and frequencies in the floodplains of coastal or river areas.
   “WATERSHED.”  All the area within a geographic boundary from which water, sediments, dissolved materials, and other transportable materials drain or are carried by water to a common outlet such as a point on a larger stream, lake, or underlying aquifer.
   “ZONE.”  A geographical area shown on a Flood Hazard Boundary Map or a Flood Insurance Rate Map that reflects the severity or type of flooding in the area.
(Ord. 2007-O-17, passed 10-1-07)