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1335.09 PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.
The SWP3 must contain a description of the controls appropriate for each construction operation and the applicant must implement such controls. The SWP3 must clearly describe for each major construction activity the appropriate control measures; the general sequence during the construction process under which the measures will be implemented; and the contractor responsible for implementation (e.g., contractor A will clear land and install perimeter controls and contractor B will maintain perimeter controls until final stabilization).
The approved SWP3, and the sediment and erosion controls, and non-sediment pollution controls contained therein, shall be implemented upon the commencement of construction. Perimeter controls must be installed two working days prior to commencement of construction. The approved plan must be implemented until the site reaches final stabilization. All properties adjacent to the site of soil-disturbing activity shall be protected from soil erosion and sediment run-off and damage, including, but not limited to, private properties, natural and artificial waterways, wetlands, storm sewers and public lands.
It is the owner's responsibility to maintain current records of contractor(s) responsible for implementation of the SWP3 and providing that information to the City Building Department. The SWP3 shall identify all subcontractors engaged in activities that could impact stormwater runoff. The SWP3 shall contain signatures from all of the identified subcontractors indicating that they have been informed and understand their roles and responsibilities in complying with the SWP3. The applicant shall review the SWP3 with the primary contractor prior to commencement of construction activities and keep a SWP3 training log to demonstrate that this review had occurred.
Erosion and sediment controls shall be designed, installed and maintained effectively to minimize the discharge of pollutants during the course of earth disturbing activities. The controls shall include the following minimum components:
(a) Non-structural Preservation Measures: The SWP3 must make use of practices that preserve the existing natural condition to the maximum extent practicable. Such practices may include preserving riparian areas, preserving existing vegetation and vegetative buffer strips, phasing of construction operations in order to minimize the amount of disturbed land at any one time, minimizing disturbance of steep slopes, designation of tree preservation areas or other protective clearing or grubbing practices. Soil compaction shall be minimized and, unless infeasible, topsoil shall be preserved. Provide and maintain a 50-foot buffer of undisturbed natural vegetation around surface waters of the state, or riparian or wetland areas, if applicable, whichever is greater, unless maintaining this buffer is infeasible (e.g., stream crossings for roads or utilities, or for channel and floodplain rehabilitation and restoration). Direct stormwater to vegetated areas to increase sediment removal and maximize stormwater infiltration.
(b) Erosion Control Practices: The SWP3 must make use of erosion controls that are capable of providing cover over disturbed soils. The amount of soil exposed during construction activity shall be minimized. A description of control practices designed to restabilize disturbed areas after grading or construction shall be included in the SWP3. The SWP3 must provide specifications for stabilization of all disturbed areas of the site and provide guidance as to which method of stabilization will be employed for any time of the year. Such practices may include: temporary seeding, permanent seeding, mulching, matting, sod stabilization, vegetative buffer strips, phasing of construction operations, the use of construction entrances, and the use of alternative ground cover.
Erosion control practices must meet the following requirements:
(1) Stabilization. Disturbed areas must be stabilized as specified in Tables 1 and 2 below.
Table 1: Permanent Stabilization
Area requiring permanent stabilization
Time frame to apply erosion controls
Any area that will lie dormant for one year or more.
Within 7 days of the most recent disturbance.
Any area within 50 feet of a surface water of the state and at final grade.
Within 2 days of reaching final grade.
Any other areas at final grade.
Within 7 days of reaching final grade within that area.
Table 2: Temporary Stabilization
Area requiring temporary stabilization
Time frame to apply erosion controls
Any disturbed area within 50 feet of a surface water of the state and not at final grade.
Within 2 days of the most recent disturbance if that area will remain idle for more than 14 days.
For all construction activities, any disturbed area, including soil stockpiles that will be dormant for more than 14 days but less than one year, and not within 50 feet of a surface water of the state.
Within 7 days of the most recent disturbance within the area.
For residential subdivisions, disturbed areas must be stabilized at least 7 days prior to transfer of ownership or operational responsibility.
Disturbed areas that will be idle over winter.
Prior to November 1 or the onset of winter weather, whichever occurs first.
Note: Where vegetative stabilization techniques may cause structural instability or are otherwise unobtainable, alternative stabilization techniques must be employed.
(2) Permanent stabilization of conveyance channels. Applicants shall undertake special measures to stabilize channels and outfalls and prevent erosive flows. Measures may include seeding, dormant seeding, mulching, erosion control matting, sodding, riprap, natural channel design with bioengineering techniques, or rock check dams, all as defined in the most recent edition of Rainwater and Land Development or the Field Office Technical Guide available at www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/efotg/.
(c) Runoff Control Practices. The SWP3 shall incorporate measures that control the volume and velocity of stormwater runoff within the site to prevent erosion. Peak flow rates and total stormwater volume shall be controlled to minimize erosion at outlets, downstream channel and streambank erosion. Such practices may include rock check dams, pipe slope drains, diversions to direct flow away from exposed soils and protective grading practices. These practices shall divert runoff away from disturbed areas and steep slopes where practicable. Velocity dissipation devices shall be placed at discharge locations and along the length of any outfall channel to provide non-erosive flow velocity from the structure to a water course so that the natural physical and biological characteristics and functions are maintained and protected.
(d) Sediment Control Practices. The SWP3 shall include a description of, and detailed drawings for, all structural practices that shall store runoff, allowing sediments to settle and/or divert flows away from exposed soils or otherwise limit runoff from exposed areas to minimize sediment discharges from the site. Structural practices shall be used to control erosion and trap sediment from a site remaining disturbed for more than 14 days. Such practices may include, among others: sediment settling ponds, silt fences, storm drain inlet protection, and earth diversion dikes or channels which direct runoff to a sediment settling pond. The design, installation and maintenance of erosion and sediment controls shall address factors such as the amount, frequency, intensity and duration of precipitation, the nature of resulting stormwater runoff, and soil characteristics, including the range of soil particle sizes expected to be present on the site.
(e) All sediment control practices must be capable of ponding runoff in order to be considered functional. Earth diversion dikes or channels alone are not considered a sediment control practice unless used in conjunction with a sediment settling pond.
Sediment control practices must meet the following requirements:
(1) Timing. Sediment control structures shall be functional throughout the course of earth disturbing activity. Sediment basins and perimeter sediment barriers shall be implemented prior to grading and within seven (7) days from the start of grubbing. They shall continue to function until the up slope development area is restabilized. As construction progresses and the topography is altered, appropriate controls must be constructed or existing controls altered to address the changing drainage patterns.
(2) Sediment settling ponds. A sediment settling pond, or equivalent best management practice upon approval from the City of Highland Heights Engineer is required for any one of the following conditions:
A. Concentrated stormwater runoff.
B. Runoff from drainage areas which exceeds the design capacity of silt fence (see Table 3) inlet protection, or other sediment barriers;
C. Runoff from common drainage locations with 10 or more acres of disturbed land.
Sediment settling ponds shall be provided in the form of a sediment trap or sediment basin as defined in the latest edition of Rainwater and Land Development. The maximum allowable contributing drainage area to a sediment trap shall be limited to less than 5 acres. Contributing drainage areas of 5 acres or more shall be treated with a sediment basin. An equivalent best management practice may be utilized upon approval from the City of Highland Heights.
The sediment-settling pond shall provide both a sediment storage zone and a dewatering zone. The volume of the dewatering zone shall be at least 1,800 cubic feet of storage per acre of total contributing drainage area. The dewatering structure of sediment basins shall be designed to have a minimum 48-hour drain time, and, unless infeasible, be designed to always withdraw runoff from the surface of the pond throughout the storm cycle. As such, a skimmer discharge device consistent with Rainwater and Land Development shall be provided to dewater sediment basins. Sediment traps shall also provide both a sediment storage zone and dewatering zone, but the outlet structure shall be constructed consistent with the specifications contained in the latest edition of Rainwater and Land Development.
When post-construction detention/water quality ponds are to be used as temporary sediment trapping BMPs, a skimmer discharge device consistent with Rainwater and Land Development shall be utilized during construction phase and until the site is deemed permanently stabilized by the City of Highland Heights.
The skimmer shall be designed per the equivalent requirements of sediment basins and the operator must ensure that the outlet structure of the pond provides an equivalent or better sediment storage zone and dewatering zone. As such, temporarily while the site is under construction, there shall be no discharge of runoff below the elevation required for the sediment storage zone and the discharge of stormwater within the dewatering zone shall only occur through the skimmer.
The volume of the sediment storage zone shall be calculated by one of the following methods:
Method 1: The volume of the sediment storage zone shall be 1000 ft3 per disturbed acre within the watershed of the basin.
Method 2: The volume of the sediment storage zone shall be the volume necessary to store the sediment as calculated with RUSLE or other generally accepted erosion prediction model.
When determining the total contributing drainage area, off-site areas and areas which remain undisturbed by construction activity must be included unless runoff from these areas is diverted away from the sediment settling pond and is not co-mingled with sediment-laden runoff. The depth of the dewatering zone must be less than or equal to five (5) feet. The configuration between the inlets and the outlet of the sediment-settling pond must provide at least two units of length for each one unit of width 2:1 length-to-width ratio; however, a length to width ratio of 4:1 is recommended. Sediment must be removed from the sediment-settling pond when the design capacity of the sediment storage zone has been completely filled by sediment accumulations. This limit is typically reached when sediment occupies one-half of the basin depth.
When designing sediment settling ponds, the applicant must consider public safety, especially as it relates to children, as a design factor for the sediment basin and alternative sediment controls must be used where site limitations would preclude a safe design. The use of a combination of sediment and erosion control measures in order to achieve maximum pollutant removal is encouraged.
(3) Silt fence and diversions. Sheet flow runoff from denuded areas shall be intercepted by silt fence or diversions to protect adjacent properties and water resources from sediment transported via sheet flow. Where intended to provide sediment control, silt fence shall be placed on a level contour and shall be capable of temporarily ponding runoff. The relationship between the maximum drainage area to silt fence for a particular slope range is shown in Table 3 below. Placing silt fence in a parallel series does not extend the size of the permissible drainage area.
Table 3: Maximum Drainage Area to Silt Fence Based on Slope
Maximum Drainage Area (acres) to 100 linear feet of silt fence
Range of slope for a drainage area (%)
> 2% but < 20%
> 20% but < 50%
(4) Alternative perimeter controls for sheet flow discharges may be considered by the City of Highland Heights, but their use shall not exceed the limitations indicated in Table 3 above. Detail drawings and plan notes shall specify the diameter of filter socks, compost berms and other such alternative perimeter controls if used instead of silt fence.
(5) Stormwater diversion practices shall be used to keep runoff away from disturbed areas and steep slopes. Such devices, which include swales, dikes or berms, may receive storm water runoff from areas up to 10 acres.
(6) Inlet protection. Erosion and sediment control practices, such as boxed inlet protection, shall be installed to minimize sediment-laden water entering active storm drain systems. All inlets receiving runoff from drainage areas of one or more acres will require a sediment settling pond. Straw or hay bales and filter socks around catch basins are not acceptable forms of inlet protection.
(7) Off-site tracking of sediment and dust control. Best management practices must be implemented to ensure sediment is not tracked off-site and that dust is controlled. These best management practices must include, but are not limited to, the following:
A. Construction entrances shall be built and shall serve as the only permitted points of ingress and egress to the development area. These entrances shall be built of a stabilized pad of aggregate stone or recycled concrete or cement sized greater than 2" in diameter, placed over a geotextile fabric, and constructed in conformance with specifications in the most recent edition of Rainwater and Land Development.
B. Streets and catch basins adjacent to construction entrances shall be kept free of sediment tracked off site. Streets directly adjacent to construction entrances and receiving traffic from the development area, shall be cleaned daily to remove sediment tracked off-site. If applicable, the catch basins on these streets nearest to the construction entrances shall also be cleaned weekly and protected from sediment-laden runoff, if feasible without posing a public safety hazard.
Based on site conditions, the City Engineer may require additional best management practices to control off site tracking and dust. These additional BMPs may include:
C. Fencing shall be installed around the perimeter of the development area to ensure that all vehicle traffic adheres to designated construction entrances.
D. Designated vehicle and wheel-washing areas. Wash water from these areas must be directed to a designated sediment trap, the sediment-settling pond, or to a sump pump for dewatering in conformance with Section 1335.09 (g) of this regulation. No surfactants or detergents may be used to wash vehicles.
E. Applicants shall take all necessary measures to comply with applicable regulations regarding fugitive dust emissions, including obtaining necessary permits for such emissions. The City Engineer may require dust controls including the use of water trucks to wet disturbed areas, tarping stockpiles, temporary stabilization of disturbed areas, and regulation of the speed of vehicles on the site.
(8) Surface Waters of the State protection. Construction vehicles shall avoid water resources. A 50 foot undisturbed natural buffer shall be provided around surface waters of the state unless infeasible. If it is infeasible to provide and maintain an undisturbed 50-foot natural buffer, the SWP3 shall comply with the stabilization requirements in Section 1335.09(b)(1) for areas within 50 feet of a surface water or riparian or wetland setbacks if applicable, whichever is greater; and minimize soil compaction and, unless infeasible, preserve topsoil. If a riparian or wetland setback is greater than 50 feet, no disturbance of natural vegetation shall occur within the riparian or wetland setback, if applicable, unless a variance to the riparian or wetland setback regulation has been granted. If the applicant is permitted to disturb areas within 50 feet of a water resource, the following conditions shall be addressed in the SWP3:
A. All BMPs and stream crossings shall be designed as specified in the most recent edition of Rainwater and Land Development.
B. Structural practices shall be designated and implemented on site to protect water resources from the impacts of sediment runoff.
C. No structural sediment controls (e.g., the installation of silt fence or a sediment settling pond in-stream) shall be used in water resources or wetlands.
D. Where stream crossings for roads or utilities are necessary and permitted, the project shall be designed such that the number of stream crossings and the width of the disturbance are minimized.
E. Temporary stream crossings shall be constructed if water resources or wetlands will be crossed by construction vehicles during construction.
F. Construction of bridges, culverts, or sediment control structures shall not place soil, debris, or other particulate material into or close to the water resources or wetlands in such a manner that it may slough, slip, or erode.
G. Concentrated stormwater runoff from BMPs to natural wetlands shall be converted to diffuse flow through the use of level spreaders or other such appropriate measure before the runoff enters the wetlands. The flow should be released such that no erosion occurs downslope. Level spreaders may need to be placed in series to ensure non-erosive velocities.
H. Protected areas or critical areas, including wetlands and riparian areas shall be physically marked in the field prior to earth disturbing activities.
(9) Modifying controls. If periodic inspections or other information indicates a control has been used inappropriately or incorrectly, the applicant shall replace or modify the control for site conditions.
(f) Non-Sediment Pollutant Controls: No solid or liquid waste, including building materials, shall be discharged in stormwater runoff. The applicant must implement site best management practices to prevent toxic materials, hazardous materials, or other debris from entering water resources, wetlands or the MS4. These practices shall include but are not limited to the following:
(1) Waste Materials: A covered dumpster shall be made available for the proper disposal of garbage, plaster, drywall, grout, gypsum, and other waste materials.
(2) Concrete Truck Wash Out: The washing of concrete material into a street, catch basin, other public facility, natural resource or water of the state is prohibited. A designated area for concrete washout shall be made available.
(3) Disposal of Other Wastewaters: The discharge of washout and cleanout of stucco, paint, form release oils, curing compounds, and other construction materials to a street, catch basin, other public facility, natural resource or waters of the state is prohibited. The discharge of soaps or solvents used in vehicle and equipment washing is also prohibited. If generated, these wastewaters must be collected and disposed of properly.
(4) Fuel/Liquid Tank Storage: All fuel/liquid tanks and drums shall be stored in a marked storage area. A dike shall be constructed around this storage area with a minimum capacity equal to 110% of the volume of the largest containers in the storage area and/or a spill kit shall be provided to clean up spills. The SWP3 shall contain spill prevention and response procedures and these procedures shall be discussed at the pre-construction meeting.
(5) Toxic or Hazardous Waste Disposal: Any toxic or hazardous waste shall be disposed of properly. The discharge of fuels, oils, and other pollutants used in vehicle and equipment operation and maintenance is prohibited.
(6) Contaminated Soils Disposal and Runoff: Discovery of previously unknown contaminated soils onsite shall be self-reported to Ohio EPA and local authorities. Contaminated soils from redevelopment sites shall be disposed of properly. Runoff from contaminated soils shall not be discharged from the site. Proper permits shall be obtained for development projects on solid waste landfill sites or redevelopment sites. Where construction activities are to occur on sites with contamination from previous activities, operators shall be aware that concentrations of materials that meet other criteria (i.e. not considered a Hazardous Waste, meeting Voluntary Action Program (VAP standards)) may still result in stormwater discharges in excess of Ohio Water Quality Standards. Such discharges are not authorized by this code. Control measures which may be utilized to meet this requirement include, but are not limited to:
A. Use berms, trenches, pits or tanks to collect contaminated runoff and prevent discharge.
B. Pump runoff from contaminated soils to the sanitary sewer with the prior approval of the sanitary sewer system operator, or pump into a container for transport to an appropriate treatment or disposal facility; and
C. Cover areas of contamination with tarps, daily cover or other such methods to prevent storm water from coming into contact with contaminated materials.
The SWP3 must include methods to minimize the exposure of building materials, building products, construction wastes, trash, landscape materials, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, detergents, and sanitary waste to precipitation, stormwater runoff, and snow melt. The SWP3 shall include measures to prevent and respond to chemical spills and leaks. Applicants may also reference the existence of other plans (i.e., Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) plans, spill control programs, Safety Response Plans, etc.) provided that such plan addresses this requirement and a copy of such plan is maintained on site.
(g) Compliance with Other Requirements. The SWP3 shall be consistent with applicable State and/or local waste disposal, sanitary sewer, or septic system regulations, including provisions prohibiting waste disposal by open burning, and shall provide for the proper disposal of contaminated soils located within the development area.
(h) Trench and Ground Water Control. There shall be no sediment-laden or turbid discharges to water resources or wetlands resulting from dewatering activities. If trench or ground water contains sediment, it must pass through a sediment-settling pond or other equally effective sediment control device, prior to being discharged from the construction site. Alternatively, sediment may be removed by settling in place or by dewatering into a sump pit, filter bag or comparable practice. Ground water dewatering which does not contain sediment or other pollutants is not required to be treated prior to discharge. However, care must be taken when discharging ground water to ensure that it does not become pollutant-laden by traversing over disturbed soils or other pollutant sources.
(i) Internal Inspections.
(1) All controls on the site shall be inspected a at least once every seven calendar days and within 24 hours after any storm event greater than one-half inch of rain per 24 hour period. The inspection frequency may be reduced to at least once every month if the entire site is temporarily stabilized or runoff is unlikely due to weather conditions (e.g., site is covered with snow, ice, or the ground is frozen). A waiver of inspection requirements is available until one month before thawing conditions are expected to result in a discharge if prior written approval has been attained from the City Engineer and all of the following conditions are met:
A. The project is located in an area where frozen conditions are anticipated to continue for extended periods of time (i.e. more than one (1) month).
B. Land disturbance activities have been suspended, and temporary stabilization is achieved.
C. The beginning date and ending dates of the waiver period are documented in the SWP3.
D. For sites that will not be restored by the end of the construction season, a Pre-Winter Stabilization Meeting shall be held by the landowner and the developer, engineer and contractor of the project and the City of Highland Heights prior to suspending work for the season, in order to plan and approve winter erosion and sediment controls as defined in the most current online edition of Rainwater and Land Development.
(2) The applicant shall assign qualified inspection personnel to conduct these inspections to ensure that the control practices are functional and to evaluate whether the SWP3 is adequate, or whether additional control measures are required. Qualified inspection personnel are individuals with knowledge and experience in the installation and maintenance of sediment and erosion controls. Copies of the inspection reports shall be retained at the development site and copies of the report submitted to the Building Department monthly or as requested by the City.
(3) These inspections shall meet the following requirements:
A. Disturbed areas and areas used for storage of materials that are exposed to precipitation shall be inspected for evidence of or the potential for, pollutants entering the drainage system.
B. Erosion and sediment control measures identified in the SWP3 shall be observed to ensure that they are operating correctly. The applicant shall utilize an inspection form provided by the City of Highland Heights or an alternate form acceptable to the City Engineer. The inspection form shall include:
1. The inspection date.
2. Names, titles and qualifications of personnel making the inspection.
3. Weather information for the period since the last inspection, including a best estimate of the beginning of each storm event, duration of each storm event and approximate amount of rainfall for each storm event in inches, and whether any discharges occurred.
4. Weather information and a description of any discharges occurring at the time of inspection.
5. Locations of:
a. Discharges of sediment or other pollutants from site.
b. BMPs that need to be maintained.
c. BMPs that failed to operate as designed or proved inadequate for a particular location.
d. Where additional BMPs are needed that did not exist at the time of inspection.
6. Corrective action required including any necessary changes to the SWP3 and implementation dates.
C. Discharge locations shall be inspected to determine whether erosion and sediment control measures are effective in preventing significant impacts to the receiving water resource or wetlands.
D. Locations where vehicles enter or exit the site shall be inspected for evidence of off-site vehicle tracking.
E. The applicant shall maintain for three (3) years following final stabilization the results of these inspections, the names and qualifications of personnel making the inspections, the dates of inspections, major observations relating to the implementation of the SWP3, a certification as to whether the facility is in compliance with the SWP3, and information on any incidents of non-compliance determined by these inspections.
(i) Maintenance. The SWP3 shall be designed to minimize maintenance requirements. All BMPs shall be maintained and repaired as needed to ensure continued performance of their intended function until final stabilization. All sediment control practices must be maintained in a functional condition until all up slope areas they control reach final stabilization. The applicant shall provide a description of maintenance procedures needed to ensure the continued performance of control practices and shall ensure a responsible party and adequate funding to conduct this maintenance, all as determined by the City Engineer.
When inspections reveal the need for repair, replacement, or installation of erosion and sediment control BMPs, the following procedures shall be followed:
(1) When BMPs require repair or maintenance. If an internal inspection reveals that a BMP is in need of repair or maintenance, with the exception of a sediment-settling pond, it must be repaired or maintained within three (3) days of the inspection. Sediment settling ponds must be repaired or maintained within ten (10) days of the inspection.
(2) When BMPs fail to provide their intended function. If an internal inspection reveals that a BMP fails to perform its intended function as detailed in the SWP3 and that another, more appropriate control practice is required, the SWP3 must be amended and the new control practice must be installed within three (3) to ten (10) days of the inspection as determined by the community engineer or site inspector.
(3) When BMPs depicted on the SWP3 are not installed. If an internal inspection reveals that a BMP has not been implemented in accordance with the schedule, the control practice must be implemented within ten (10) days from the date of the inspection. If the internal inspection reveals that the planned control practice is not needed, the record must contain a statement of explanation as to why the control practice is not needed.
(j) Final Stablization. Final stabilization shall be determined by the City of Highland Heights Engineer. Once a definable area has achieved final stabilization, the applicant may note this on the SWP3 and no further inspection requirement applies to that portion of the site. Final stabilization also requires the installation of permanent (post-construction) stormwater control measures (SCMs). Obligations under this ordinance shall not be completed until installation of post-construction BMPs is verified.
(Ord. 26-2016. Passed 12-13-16.)