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The purpose of Section 1147.34 is to provide architectural and design standards for the rehabilitation, infill and redevelopment in the Downtown Redevelopment District that keeps with the traditional scale, character, and function of the city's downtown business district.
B. ADMINISTRATION PROCESS.
1. All architectural changes, modifications, or repairs conducted by private entities or applied to city owned properties shall conform with the following standards.
2. Two types of approval processes shall be used dependent on the magnitude of the proposed changes. Depending on the process either an administratively granted "Repair Permit" or a Planning Commission authorized "Certificate of Architectural Appropriateness" shall be issued before any construction or repairs may begin.
a. Significant improvements shall be any structural or exterior finish replacements or changes that require removal or addition of materials which constitute more than twenty-five percent (25%) of the area where these materials are applied, additions to existing structures, or new construction within the Downtown Redevelopment District. Significant improvements shall require issuance of a Certificate of Architectural Appropriateness and are subject to review by the Planning Commission following the Zoning & Use Approval Application and appeals process.
b. Essential minor improvements or repairs shall be any structural or cosmetic change or repair which does not modify more than twenty-five percent (25%) of any existing materials, paint colors, or elements, or which replace an existing damaged or deteriorating element with an identical replica in good repair. Essential minor improvements or repairs shall require a "Repair Permit" and are subject to administrative review by the City's Development Director or their designee. Appeals of the decision would be through the Planning Commission.
C. BUILDING SCALE CLASSIFICATIONS.
The Downtown Redevelopment District includes three (3) different building scale Classifications to provide regulations to manage the scale of construction in the District in a way that preserves and protects the traditional urban fabric and scale of downtown Harrison, allows for architecture that responds to modern construction practices, and maintains an inviting and functional pedestrian environment. Building Scale applies to existing structures and infill development.
a. Small Scale.
Buildings are of the smallest scale, have delicate proportions, and often have side yards and small front yards. Architecture tends to relate strongly to the human or pedestrian scale and has many characteristics of or was built as a home. These buildings contain intimate spaces.
b. Medium Scale.
Buildings are of a medium scale, have bold proportions that are inviting for a pedestrian, and relate strongly to civic and commercial architecture designed to draw people in while accommodating a variety of business uses, gatherings, and residential units.
c. Large Scale.
Buildings are of the largest scale, have very bold and strong proportions that convey a presence within the district, these proportions relate strongly to industrial, warehousing, office, larger hotels or residential buildings. They accommodate significant internal uses and spaces and may have limited pedestrian street presence.
D. ARCHITECTURAL STANDARDS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS.
The purpose of the architectural standards for existing structures is to provide guidance for the appropriate restoration and rehabilitation of contributing historic or established buildings in the Downtown Redevelopment District, in accordance with the district's traditional function as the business and cultural hub of the city.
The following standards shall apply to all existing buildings in the Downtown Redevelopment District. To account for the district's eclectic mix of architecture and uses standards are provided by styles as defined below for the rehabilitation of existing buildings that contribute to the intent of this district, or are historically significant. Modifications which meet the requirements of the Administration Process to buildings identified as a contributing style to the Downtown Redevelopment District shall be reviewed by the Development Director or their designee for a Certificate of Architectural Appropriateness. Any modifications to buildings identified in Harrison as a registered Ohio or National Historic landmark, or as a contributing structure to the historic district shall be subject to review by the State Historic Preservation Office, in addition to the Planning Commission.
3. Contributing Existing Building Styles (Defined).
a. Commercial/Mixed-Use Style.
Contributing commercial/mixed-use buildings were designed to house retail, business, offices, hotels, restaurant, theatres, or other similar uses. The style of commercial/mixed-use buildings have transformed over generations, but the proper style for the Downtown Redevelopment District is a multi-story building, often with a store front, and upper stories to accommodate additional businesses or residential units. Most of these buildings were built from 1850-1930; however, more modern buildings can also meet these qualifications. The images in Illustration A. are examples of contributing commercial/mixed-use style buildings in the Downtown Redevelopment District.
Illustration A. Contributing Commercial/Mixed Use Style Building.
b. Industrial Style Structures.
Contributing industrial style buildings were originally built to house manufacturing, warehousing, processing, or to handle heavy equipment or automotive uses. These buildings are typically large in scale and were designed for utilitarian purposes and handling of materials. They may or may not include offices. They are often more accessible by vehicles than pedestrian users. Most of these buildings were built from 1850 to 1940. The images in Illustration B. are examples of contributing Industrial Style buildings in the Downtown Redevelopment District.
Illustration B. Contributing Industrial Style Buildings. R.E Kaiser Hardware building located in West Harrison, Indiana is a good example of desirable architecture in Harrison.
c. Residential Style Buildings.
Contributing residential style structures are primarily building designed for occupancy as a home or homes. Some of these buildings in the Downtown Redevelopment District have been adapted and reused for commercial or civic purposes. Most were built before 1940 and exhibit a range of architectural styles popular in different eras of the 19th and early 20th century. They are typically smaller in scale than commercial or industrial buildings with 2-3 stories common, and usually exhibit features such as elevated front porches, turrets, and pitched roof forms. The images in Illustration C. are examples of contributing residential style buildings in the Downtown Redevelopment District.
Illustration C. Contributing Residential Style Buildings.
d. Civic and Institutional Style Buildings.
Contributing Civic and Institutional Style Buildings are designed to accommodate gathering spaces or services that are provided by a public or private entity like governments, or religious or educational institutions. As their purpose is often between office and gathering spaces these buildings generally do not have storefronts at street level although they do have a monumental entry. Churches or places of worship have identifying features such as spires, towers, steeples, or domes, and can range from small to grand in scale. The images in Illustration D. are examples of contributing civic or institutional style buildings in the Downtown Redevelopment District.
Illustration D. Contributing Civic or Institutional Buildings.
4. Maintenance and Restoration of Traditional Elements.
The following standards shall apply to the maintenance and restoration practices of all traditional elements on all styles of buildings in the Downtown Redevelopment District as they apply to methods and practices rather than to actual design considerations.
a. Improvements, renovations, maintenance, repair or redevelopment of existing structures shall maintain and restore traditional elements of the building's facade and architecture to preserve the character of the district.
b. Renovations & Replacements to Facade Elements.
i. Window Renovation & Replacement General.
A) Original windows should be retained where possible and rehabilitated rather than replaced;
B) Wood or non-reflective aluminum clad wood windows, or comparable approved materials and profiles shall be used if replacement is necessary. New materials shall be dimensionally consistent with the existing material in size, profile, and layout.
C) Vinyl windows shall not be used in the district.
D) Security features such as window and door grilles should be complimentary to the architectural design and character of the building.
E) Exterior storm windows shall reflect the appearance and detail of the inner window as closely as possible with special attention to replicating the mullion, muntin, and meeting rail patterns.
F) Shutters shall only be permitted if they are proportionally sized to the window. Vinyl formed shutters shall not be permitted.
ii. Door Renovation & Replacement.
A) Original doors shall be retained and rehabilitated where possible.
B) The original size and proportion of a front door and the door surround contribute to the character of the entry. Where possible, existing historic hardware should be repaired and reused.
C) When new doors are used hardware including solid nonferrous metal door pulls and plates shall be used.
D) Replacement doors shall be compatible with the original character and design of the building and reflect the proportions of other doors in the building facade and in adjacent structures, including the use of glazing in a consistent manner with other doors in the facade or based on historical reference.
E) Replacement doors shall be made of solid wood with panels or windows, fiberglass with panels or windows, or full panel glass doors.
F) Solid steel and aluminum doors shall not be permitted choices on street facades. They may be used on the rear of the building but must be painted.
iii. Applied Exterior Finish Elements.
A) Existing materials and finishes that contribute to the building's historical, social or cultural significance shall be retained and preserved. Where original materials or features are deteriorated or damaged beyond repair, replacement materials shall match the old in design, color, texture, and other visual qualities. Alternate or new materials to replicate the elements may be used when they are compatible with the characteristics of the Downtown Redevelopment District and approved by the City Development Director or their designee.
B) Cornices, brackets, eves, and gutters shall be kept in good repair. If trim material is original to the building and is a character defining feature, it shall be maintained; if deteriorated, beyond repair as determined by the City Development Director or their designee, it shall be replaced to match the original in design, color, texture and style appropriate to the style of the building.
A) When possible, original unpainted exterior wall materials should be maintained in their natural states, unpainted state and maintained and repaired accordingly.
B) If it is necessary to paint the building, the preferred approach would be to paint it the color of the underlying natural materials to recreate the original design intent.
C) When historic evidence of original paint colors is present, these colors should be replicated.
D) When no historical reference exists for the specific building, paint colors available at the time of the building's construction should be used and the color pallets of adjacent buildings should be considered in the selection of colors.
E) The exterior colors and finishes should relate to others in the immediate vicinity, and the following standards shall be met.
1) No more than three (3) colors shall be permitted on a facade.
2) No more than three (3) colors shall be permitted on a sign attached to a facade. Those colors should coordinate or match the building colors.
3) The City Development Director or their designee shall maintain sample color pallets on file as a guide for appropriate paint colors. The Planning Commission may approve other colors in the review process.
4) Reflective, Day-Glo, and fluorescent colors or materials are prohibited.
5) Neutral, white, earth tone, and muted tones are recommended for use on the street facades or any color used over more than fifty percent (50%) of the building's surface.
6) The colors used on primary trims (less than twenty-five percent (25%) of the building facade surface) including the cornices, trim, window frames and sills shall complement the background color.
7) The secondary trim areas such as the window sashes, doors and details in the bulkhead and cornice may be highlighted with a third color that is generally a darker version of the major trim colors.
8) When currently unpainted, traditional masonry buildings should not be painted.
9) Wood material such as those used in cornices or window surrounds should be retained.
F) Painting shall not be used as a method to obscure or hide structural failings such as, but not limited to, inconsistent material patching for repairs of cracking or sprawling due to structural flaws, leaks, or water penetration.
v. Structural Repairs.
A) All structural aspects of a building shall be maintained in functional order.
B) Cosmetic flaws such as cracks, chips, or splits which will not result in leaks or water penetration into the substructure may be left and shall not be patched or painted.
C) Maintenance issues with stone, brick, or tile, or other masonry such as discoloration from pollution, mildew or mold should be cleaned and never painted over.
D) Cracked, crumbling, or deteriorating bricks, stone, or tile shall be replaced with like materials either salvaged or new but aged to match the existing cladding.
E) Cracking along mortar lines due to settling of the structure should be repaired by leveling the foundation layers and relaying salvaged brick or stone. Stucco and concrete layers should not be applied to mask the original masonry.
F) Mortar repairs shall use mortar colored to match existing mortar on the facade.
G) Wood and metal cladding, gutters, or flashing shall be repaired with materials of the same dimension, thickness and texture, and finished in the same manner for the whole facade.
vi. Awnings or Canopies.
A) Fabric awnings may be an appropriate decorative element for buildings in the district. Fabric awnings shall be maintained in good condition to not show significant wear, tear, or fading. If holes, fraying, or sun bleaching occurs, fabric awnings shall be replaced or removed.
B) If the building was designed to have awnings, awnings and awning frames shall not be permanently removed.
C) Awning support frames shall not remain uncovered for a period longer than six (6) weeks. Awnings left bare for more than six (6) weeks shall be removed and necessary facade repairs shall be made to maintain the structure.
D) The original existing awnings should be used if they are in working order and repairable.
E) Replacement awnings shall be designed to fit the window openings to emphasize a building's proportions. They shall not obscure architectural details. When installed new on a building, they shall be mounted at a height and location that retains the horizontal line with other buildings on the block; provided a clearance of no less than nine (9) feet is maintained above a sidewalk and/or walkway.
F) Fabric coverings shall be an all-weather material. Color and design shall be compatible with the building as determined by the City Development Director or their designee.
G) Corrugated metal or vinyl awnings are not permitted.
A) Heating and cooling equipment shall be installed on the roof, or to the side or rear elevations of the building and screened from public view when possible. If no alternative is available, window mounted units in front facades shall be properly secured and removed when not in use.
B) Rooftop elements should be recessed from the primary facade. Skylights should be low profile and not be visible from the street.
5. Style Specific Remodeling or Restoration Standards.
The following standards apply to specific building styles and relate to the dimensions and design aspects of the architecture common in the contributing buildings of each style.
a. Commercial/Mixed-Use Style.
i. Entries and Store Front Facades.
A) Storefronts are the parts of the building that face the street and connect with the sidewalk and are typically on the first floor. Storefronts are an integral part of the District and should primarily be transparent [have windows], with a pedestrian orientation, and appropriately oriented entry facades.
B) Preservation of traditional storefront facade elements found on contributing commercial/mixed-use buildings are fundamental to the overall character of the Downtown Redevelopment District as Harrison's traditional and historic business district.
C) During remodeling or restoration, original storefront elements and details should be restored when historic reference is available. Original storefront elements include:
1) Dimensional Cornice
2) Corbels or Brackets
3) Hoods or Lintels on Upper Story Windows
4) Regularly Spaced Upper Story Windows
6) Recessed Panel for Signs
7) Storefront Cornice
10) Display Window
11 ) Water table/Base
13) Recessed Entry
14) Masonry Patterns
15) Historic Signage and Signage Brackets
Illustration E. Anatomy of a traditional and contributing storefront.
D) When original features structurally exist, but may have been covered in previous remodeling they shall be preserved and repaired and restored with the following methods:
1) Existing storefront elements should be repaired rather than replaced when possible. If portions of the storefront cannot be repaired, the element shall be replaced with new materials that match the existing element as closely as possible in size, depth, and material.
2) The existing elements shall be carefully preserved. They shall not be made larger or smaller or changed in shape except when all of the elements of the kind (e.g. corbels) must be replaced, and then some modification from the original is acceptable.
3) If the interior ceiling is lower than the transom line, either revise the interior ceiling height in the transom area to restore the transparency of the transom, or use spandrel glass, or detailed rot resistant wood or metal panels similar to the bulkhead design to fill the area where glazing would be present.
E) When original features of the storefront have been completely removed in previous remodeling and no historical reference is available to detennine original pattern and rhythm, an appropriate restoration of a traditional storefront shall be completed using the following standards.
1) The main or “customer" entrance to a building shall be emphasized to delineate a clear point of arrival or entry.
2) The main entry shall be located along the primary public right-of-way corridor; additional entrances may be located in the side or rear of the building to allow for service access or additional customer entries.
3) On corner lots, the building's primary entrance may be angled to present access to both frontages.
4) Entries should typically be recessed slightly from the build-to line and/or sheltered by a covered arcade structure, canopy, or awning.
5) Entryways are encouraged to incorporate elements of traditional storefront design including recessed panels or area for signboards, cornices, transom, piers, display windows, bulkheads, or recessed or covered central entrance areas.
ii. Fenestration (Arrangement of Windows & Doors).
A) During remodeling or restoration, original fenestration patterns and openings should be maintained or restored when historic reference is available. Original fenestration includes the spacing pattern, shape and size of openings, and detailing like mullions, muttons, sills, and lintels.
B) When original features structurally exist, but may have been covered in previous remodeling they shall be preserved and repaired and restored with the following methods.
1) Existing structural elements and glazing of windows should be repaired rather than replaced when possible. If portions of the window cannot be repaired, the window shall be replaced with new windows that match the existing window as closely as possible in size, frame and trim material, method of operation, size of sash members, window frame elements, and the pattern of divided lights.
2) The existing window opening shall be carefully preserved. They shall not be made larger or smaller or changed in shape with inserts or modifications to accommodate a differently sized or shaped window.
C) When original features have been completely removed in previous remodeling and no historical reference is available to determine original pattern and rhythm, an appropriate restoration of the original patterns and rhythms shall be completed using the following standards:
1) Windows and doors shall be proportional to the building facade in which they are installed. Vertically proportioned windows which relate to human scale or golden ratio are preferred, but horizontally proportioned windows may be used for display purposes on lower floors. On upper floors, windows shall be divided into vertically proportioned components using mullions and muntins.
2) When replacing or restoring windows on street front facades the original proportions of the building should be used as the guide. See Illustration F. for appropriate fenestration patterns and proportions for the Downtown Redevelopment District.
Illustration F. This illustration shows how the character and appearance of a building is impacted by the scale of the window openings. The top option displays the correct proportions for the B-4 Commercial/Mixed-Use Style Buildings.
3) On the front facade, similar sized windows shall be placed in a regular pattern with the same top and bottom alignment.
4) Window openings shall indicate floor levels and shall not occur between floors.
5) A bulkhead constructed of brick, stone, wood, fiber cement siding, or metal panels shall be required at a minimum height of eighteen (18) inches from grade.
6) Transparent windows or doors shall occupy a minimum of fifty (50) percent of the area of a primary facade between two (2) and ten (10) feet from the highest grade at the sidewalk. (See Illustration G. for method to calculate area.)
Illustration G. Window or door openings are calculated from the area of the primary facade between 2 and 10 feet from grade. The dashed rectangle shows this area. The grey rectangles represent 50-percent of this area.
7) When significant grade changes occur along any facade and an original fenestration pattern is unavailable for reference, the City Development Director or their designee shall make a recommendation for window and door placement and this recommendation shall be approved by the Planning Commission with a 2/3rds vote.
8) Opaque glazing or mirrored glazing shall be prohibited, except in transoms as indicated above.
b. Industrial Style Buildings.
i. Entries and Street Front Facades.
The use of architectural elements and details in industrial style buildings is unique and connect with the sidewalk at the first floor. Large window openings and masonry exterior materials are an integral part of the District. Preservation of traditional fenestration elements found on contributing industrial buildings are fundamental to the overall character of the Downtown Redevelopment District as Harrison’s traditional and historic business district. During remodeling or restoration, original facade elements and details should be restored when historic reference is available. Original facade elements include:
A) Hipped/Flat, or Gabled Roof
B) Dimensional Cornice
C) Corbels or Brackets
D) Hoods or Lintels on Upper Story Windows
E) Clerestory or Upper Story Windows
G) Elevated Main Floor
H) Loading Bays
I) Prominent Main Entrance/Customer Entrance
J) Window Bays
K) Belt coursing
L) Water table/Base
M) Elevated base/foundation
N) Masonry patterns
Illustration H. Elements of a contributing industrial style building.
ii. Fenestration (Arrangement of Windows & Doors).
A) During remodeling or restoration, original fenestration patterns and openings should be restored when historic reference is available. Original fenestration includes the spacing pattern, shape and size of openings, and detailing like, mullions, muntins, sills, and lintels.
B) When original features structurally exist, but may have been covered in previous remodeling they shall be preserved and repaired and restored with the following methods.
C) Existing structural elements and glazing of windows should be repaired rather than replaced when possible. If portions of the window cannot be repaired, the window shall be replaced with new windows that match the existing window as closely as possible in size, frame and trim material, method of operation, size of sash members, window frame elements, profile and the pattern of divided lights.
1) The existing window opening shall be carefully preserved. They shall not be made larger or smaller or changed in shape with inserts or modifications to accommodate a differently sized or shaped window.
Illustration I. This image shows an industrial style building restored with properly proportioned windows which fit the original openings on the building.
Illustration J. This image shows a building where the original patterns and openings have been modified but they are still visible. Appropriate restoration of this building would involve using the original pattern and restoring glazing and windows to fit the original openings.
2) When original features have been completely removed in previous remodeling and no historical reference is available to determine original pattern and rhythm, an appropriate restoration of the fenestration patterns and rhythms shall be completed using the following standards.
D) Windows and doors shall be proportional to the building facade in which they are installed. Vertically proportioned windows which relate to human scale are preferred, but multi-pane steel windows with horizontally proportioned openings are appropriate in large format industrial style buildings.
E) Windows shall be divided into consistently proportioned components using mullions and muntins.
F) When replacing or restoring windows on street front facades the original proportions of the building should be used as the guide. See Illustration K. for appropriate fenestration patterns and proportions for the Downtown Redevelopment District.
G) Spacing windows more than twenty-five (25) feet apart should be avoided.
Illustration K. This illustration shows different appropriate fenestration patterns that are in proportion to the larger industrial style buildings.
c. Residential Style Buildings.
This section addresses the structures within the Downtown Redevelopment District that were originally built for the intention of a residential use. These buildings have character defining features that should be maintained.
i. Architectural Elements.
The use of architectural elements and details in residential style buildings is unique and specific to the era in which the building was constructed.
A) During remodeling or restoration, original architectural elements and details should be restored when historic reference is available. Examples of appropriate and inappropriate remodeling are shown in Figure 1351.9.
B) Original residential style facade elements include:
1) Gabled, hipped, or compound pitched roofs
2) Turrets, towers, chimneys, cupolas
3) Eaves and gutters
4) Decorative fascia and brackets
6) Upper Story Windows
7) Prominent Main Entrance, Front Door
8) First Floor Windows
9) Belt coursing
10) Water table/Base
11) Elevated base/foundation
Illustration L. Facade elements of a typical contributing Residential Style structure.
ii. Fenestration (Arrangement of Windows & Doors).
A) The entry door to residential structures shall be a single leaf panel. door. The door shall be a focal feature on the first level facade and have between two (2) and six (6) panels. These panels shall vary in size from the largest on the bottom to the smallest on the top. The middle set of panels may be combined into one shorter panel. Viewlights and glass corresponding to the panel design is acceptable.
B) The doors and frames shall be constructed of wood and not metal. These doors may either be painted or stained to match the material and color palette.
C) Storm doors may be added to residential structures. The frame and door shall be wood with thick style and rail members. The panels in the doors can either be a glazed panel, screened panel, or an interchangeable panel, solid panels are not acceptable. The panels shall either be full door height or divided to correspond to the door panels.
D) Both styles of architecture typically incorporated a surround into the design of the overall door. Transoms and sidelights can be included in the surround.
iii. Extensions and Enclosures.
A) Extensions into a front or side yard with frontage on a public right-of-way, or enclosure of an original porch shall be prohibited.
B) The original detailing, proportions, and elevations of porches should be maintained and restored in rehabilitation or renovation projects.
iv. Stoops, Porches, and Porticoes.
A) The residential structures within the Downtown Redevelopment District have either a small, uncovered stoop or portico, an extension of the door surround, or a porch.
B) The stoops are traditionally small and either had a simple iron railing or no rail at all. Due to code restrictions the design of any porches, stoops, and railings must comply with the local and state building code.
C) A one-story portico may project anywhere from one (1) foot to four (4) feet from the face of the structure and extends one (1) to two (2) feet to either side of the door. The roof of the portico can be flat or pediment and covers a rectangular area. The roof can take an alternate shape, but this is uncommon.
D) The configuration of the porches shall be one-story structures with low slope or flat roofs and occasionally a gallery above is common. The galleries were typically decorative in nature and ran the whole width and depth of the porch. Due to code restrictions the design of any balustrades and railings must comply with the local and state building code. The porch could be placed just at the entry and extend any distance up to the full width of the facade. Porches can wrap around one (1) or two (2) corners.
Any shutters that are applied shall be wood or solid composite, operable, and fit the opening to which they are adjacent. Example: A four-foot (4') wide window shall not have two (2) one-foot wide shutters. Each shutter (folded) or shutter panel shall be thirty five to one hundred percent (35-100%) of the width of the window, so that when opened it could cover the whole window. Do not use shutters and awnings for the same window.
d. Civic/Institutional Style Buildings.
i. Roof shapes, slopes, and materials that are visible from street level shall be compatible with the historic style of the building. The roof forms can take one of two (2) forms, flat/low slope screen by a parapet wall or gabled or hipped with a slope between an 8/12 and 12/12 slope. These two (2) common roof forms emphasize the rectangular box form of the style.
ii. Many different materials can be used for the cladding material of the roof. Some shingles are shaped into wedges, scales, and other forms. These decorative shapes shall be avoided so there is a distinction between old and new. The shingles may be varied in color and placed in a random pattern. The shingles shall not be placed in such a manner as to create a particular design. The colors used on the roof shall be compatible with the color scheme chosen for the rest of the structure.
A) Slate shingles may be used on steeper sloped roofs. Synthetic shingles with a slate appearance may also be used.
B) Metal roofs of a true traditional raised seam profile with flat panels is an acceptable material. The metal can be a natural finish or a prefinished color. The colors used on the roof shall be compatible with the color scheme chosen for the rest of the structure.
C) Membrane roof systems are allowable for use on flat roofs only.
iii. Entries and Street front facades.
Defined entry features such as porticos and recessed architectural features will be encouraged to provide diversity along the first floor, while providing patrons' a recognizable point of entry. The designs shall be articulated through the use of historic proportions for the columns, lower panels, transoms, area of glazing, and intermediate cornice. The columns and intermediate cornices can be a simplified version of earlier designs if the historic features are missing or a new structure is being constructed. The use of aluminum storefront systems will be allowed.
iv. Fenestration (Arrangement of Windows & Doors).
The entry door to Civic/Institutional Style Structure can be either a single or double leaf panel door. The door shall be prominent on the facade and located centered within architectural bay rhythm of the street facade or central on the facade. The door should have between two (2) and six (6) panels. The upper panel of the door may be solid or glazed and is typically shaped to match the profile of the top of the door. Viewlights and glass corresponding to the panel design is acceptable.
A) The doors and frames shall be constructed of wood or metal. These doors may either be painted or stained to match the material and color palette.
B) The window configuration is a mix of fixed and double hung configurations. Double hung windows are the most common type of windows. In most cases both the upper and lower sash were operable so the wind patterns through the structure could be varied.
1) Any glass within eighteen (18) inches from the finished floor must be safety rated.
2) All operable windows within thirty-six (36) inches of the finished floor must have a maximum opening of four (4) inches.
C) The common sash divisions for the double hung windows are 1/1 and 2/2. Religious structures can have further divisions and integrated stained glass.
D) The use of insulated glass and storm windows is allowed. Any divided storm windows shall have the sash lines aligned with those of the window. Wood, wood clad aluminum, and factory finished aluminum windows will be allowed.
E) The windows are to be placed symmetrically within the facade. Also, to create a balance the facade was divided into an odd number of bays with one vertical set of windows pertaining to each bay. Typically each window is placed individually, not in a pair or set.
F) The lintels and sills may be brick, concrete, stone, or cast stone. The lintel shall be flat, keyed, or arched. Thin stone sills of four (4) to six (6) inches are encouraged. Lintels shall be approximately 1.5 times thicker than the sills and four (4) to eight (8) inches wider on each end.
E. ARCHITECTURAL STANDARDS FOR NEW STRUCTURES.
To promote the design and construction of new mixed-use and nonresidential buildings that support and enhance the scale and function of the Downtown Redevelopment District and to create a theme that complements the city's existing built environment.
2. Facade Articulation.
a. The way a building's facade is designed to emphasize certain elements or portions of the facade is a factor in the overall character of the building. Buildings in the Downtown Redevelopment District shall respect the established scale and function of the district and of the scale of adjacent buildings.
b. Facades shall be articulated both vertically and horizontally to relate the structure to the scale of the adjacent buildings.
c. The following standards shall apply to new buildings as specified:
i. Horizontal Articulation. Horizontally long facades shall be visually and physically broken into bays. Bays shall be demarcated using:
A) recesses or setback variations,
B) architectural detailing,
C) fenestration pattern and rhythm,
D) various facade heights,
E) architectural elements and detailing including but not limited to pilasters that subdivide the facade, and
F) application of compatible building materials to cause the facade to appear as a series of proportionally correct masses. (See Illustration M.)
Illustration M. These three elevations illustrate proper and improper articulation and proportions for buildings in the District.
ii. Maximum bay width shall be determined by the overall building proportions and scale as follows.
A) Large Scale-30 feet in width.
B) Medium Scale-20 feet
C) Small Scale-15 feet
iii. A minimum of three (3) bays shall be used on Large and Medium Scale Buildings, a minimum of two (2) bays may be used on Small Scale Buildings.
iv. Bays shall be created using no fewer than two (2) of the following methods:
A) Change in wall plane such as a projection or recess. The change in depth from one bay to the next shall be at least three percent (3%) of the length of the facade.
B) Change in height of wall and/or variation in roof form.
C) Change in texture or masonry pattern.
D) Window placement or form.
v. Placement of the common horizontal elements (e.g., cornice line and window height, width, and spacing) on new structures shall be influenced by neighboring structures. These elements include window moldings, tops of display windows, cornices, copings, and parapets. When topography or lack of existing buildings in the same block does not create a consistent horizontal component, the facing street elevation shall be used as reference. If a building has no existing context to draw from, the new building shall establish the alignment for the block.
d. Vertical Articulation.
The articulation of a base, middle, and top of the building shall be required. See Illustration N.
Illustration N. This building illustrates proper vertical elements of a building for the Downtown Redevelopment District.
i. A recognizable base may consist of, but not be limited to: thicker walls, ledges, or sills, integrally-textured material such as stone or masonry, integrally-colored and patterned materials such as smooth-finished stone or tiles, lighter or darker colored material from the body of the building, mullions, or panels. The use of bulkheads and water table trims are strongly encouraged.
ii. The middle or body of the building will constitute the majority of the facade area and may consist of, but is not limited to: the primary exterior finish material, fenestration, and belt or soldier courses.
iii. A recognizable top may consist of, but is not limited to: dimensional cornice treatments; variation in masonry patterns or materials, or differently colored materials; visible roof forms including gables, sloping roof with overhangs and brackets, stepped parapets, chimney projections, cupolas, and dormers; or aligned openings and articulations.
iv. Story Height.
A) Various story heights ranging between eight (8) and fourteen (14) feet per story are encouraged. However, buildings shall not exceed the maximum building heights as specified in the Zoning District.
B) The first floor and any floor below the average grade in buildings with four (4) or more stories may have up to 150% the height of the other stories to add weight to the structure and emphasize the base, middle, and top concept described above. See Illustration O.
Illustration O. The building in this illustration has an 18' foot tall ground floor and 12-foot-tall uppers stories showing how a sense of weight is added to the structure by having a taller ground floor.
3. Roof Forms and Upper Story Details
The roof is one of the most important details on any building. It finishes the building vertically, and can be used to identify and establish entry points and provide orientation to the building when viewed from a distance.
Illustration P. Illustration shows various "pitched" roof forms. See the following standards for permitted location and application of various roof forms in the Downtown Redevelopment District.
a. Roof forms shall be appropriate to the scale and style of the building and shall be permitted as follows:
i. When a shed roof is used as the primary or sole roof form, it shall slope away from the property’s frontage. Shed roofs as a primary roof form are discouraged on buildings located on corner lots. (See Illustration Q.)
Illustration Q. Appropriate use of a shed roof. This building would not be suitable on a prominent corner lot.
ii. Mansard and Gambrel roofs shall be prohibited on single story buildings.
iii. Full projection or cantilevering of the upper portions of a flat roofed structure shall be prohibited.
Illustration R. This figure shows appropriate ways to provide coverage for pedestrian areas, cantilevering of the upper portion of a flat roofed structure without supports shall be prohibited.
iv. No roofline ridge or parapet shall run unbroken by variation for more than sixty (60) feet. Vertical or horizontal articulation is required and should correspond to other elements of the particular building mass.
v. Access to roofs should be restricted to interior access only.
vi. Scale specific roof application
A) Large Scale.
Large Scale buildings shall be constructed with a flat roof with a minimum of an eighteen (18) inch parapet.
B) Medium Scale.
Medium Scale buildings shall be constructed with a flat roof with a minimum of an eighteen inch (18") parapet, or pitched roof may be used if a false front or parapet with a horizontal emphasis is used on the main facade to obscure the roof from the main thoroughfare.
C) Small Scale.
Small Scale buildings may utilize gable, hipped or flat roofs with cupolas and dormers. The visible portion of the sloped roof shall be sheathed with material that is complimentary to architectural style of the building and other surrounding buildings.
vii. Facade Extensions and Parapets.
Facade extensions or parapets may be used on flat roofed structures to create variation and screen rooftop equipment. The following standards shall apply to faced extensions or parapets:
A) Facade extensions and/or parapets shall be included in the measurement of total building height and exterior wall height and shall not be more than six (6) feet or 1/4 of the total building height whichever is less.
B) Facade extensions and/or parapets shall be applied in a consistent manner to all visible facades of a structure to create a consistent and intentional screen for rooftop equipment without the appearance of a veneer or a flat wall extended beyond the roof form when viewed in profile. (Illustration S. )
C) Exceptions may be made for rear facades that are not visible from public spaces or residential areas.
Illustration S. Appropriate parapet use.
D) Roof-mounted mechanical equipment shall be screened from public street view through the use of architectural housing, integrated details and/or concealment behind a parapet.
Overhangs add visual interest and distinguish tops of buildings or provide an indication of where an entry is located.
A) Architectural detailing, insets, or projections may be used within the required build area to establish importance and emphasize entry to buildings.
B) No balconies, or upper story bays, shall extend beyond the outermost wall of the ground floor more than eighteen inches (18"), and under no circumstance may extend beyond the property line.
ix. Entries and Storefronts.
Primary Facades and Storefronts are the parts of the building that face the streets or public rights-of-way and connect with the sidewalk and are typically on the first floor. Storefronts are an integral part of the Downtown Redevelopment District and should primarily be transparent [contain windows], with a pedestrian orientation, and appropriately oriented entry facades based on the corridor they are oriented towards.
A) The main or “customer" entrance to a building shall be architecturally emphasized to delineate a clear point of arrival or entry.
B) The main entry shall be located along the front or public right-of-way; additional entrances may be located in the side or rear of the building to allow for service access or additional customer entries from parking lots.
C) On corner lots, the building's primary entrance may be angled to present access to both frontages.
D) Entries should typically be slightly recessed and/or sheltered by a covered arcade structure, canopy, or awning.
E) Entries shall be designed for universal accessibility from the sidewalk. Preferably by designing at grade entries and not using ramps.
F) Entryways on Commercial/Mixed-Use buildings are encouraged to incorporate elements of traditional storefront design including recessed panels or area for signboards, cornices, transom, piers, display windows, bulkheads, or recessed or covered central entrance areas.
G) Corner Buildings.
New buildings situated on corner lots may have only one primary facade on the highest rated right-of-way and a secondary facade, or may have two designated primary facades.
x. Fenestration, Windows, and Facade Transparency.
The pattern and frequency of window openings contributes to a comfortable pedestrian experience within the district. The following standards shall apply.
A) Windows and doors shall be proportional to the building falcade in which they are installed. Vertically proportioned windows which relate to human scale are preferred, but horizontally proportioned windows may be used for display purposes on lower floors. On upper floors, windows shall be divided into vertically proportioned components using mullions and muttons. (See Illustration T. )
Illustration T. This illustration shows how the character and appearance of a building is impacted by the scale of the window openings. The top option displays the correct proportions.
B) On the public facing facade, similar sized windows shall be placed in a regular pattern with the same top and bottom alignment.
C) Window openings shall indicate floor levels and shall not occur between floors.
D) A bulkhead constructed of brick; stone, wood, fiber cement siding, or metal panels shall be required at a minimum height of eighteen (18) inches from grade.
E) Transparent windows or doors shall occupy a minimum of fifty percent (50%) of the area of a primary facade between two (2) and ten (10) feet from the grade at the sidewalk at the highest point of grade. (See Illustration R. for the method to calculate area.)
F) When topography creates a substantial facade area below the highest grade the Development Director or their designee shall recommend an appropriate fenestration pattern for the lower portions of a facade along a public right-of-way.
G) Transparent windows or doors shall occupy a minimum of thirty percent (30%) of the area of a secondary facade between a line two (2) feet from the average grade of the facade and ten (10) feet from the average grade of the facade.
H) Opaque glazing or mirrored glazing shall be prohibited except opaque spandrel glass which may be used in transom areas.
I) Fenestration Pattern and Rhythm
A recognizable pattern or rhythm shall be established with the placement of window openings. The rhythm and proportion of the window openings should be similar to those on nearby facades.
Illustration U. Calculation of required fenestration for the ground floor, showing the required area based on the highest grade.
1) Window openings or groups of windows should be placed to create a regular pattern or rhythm.
2) A horizontal distance greater than one and one-half times the width of the windows or group of windows should be avoided unless other elements of the facade's detailing or building articulation help continue an established pattern. For instance, a series of bays with windows may be alternated with a series of bays without windows.
Illustration V. This illustration shows how a pattern can be established in three bays using similar window patterns in the two outer bays and a slight modification in the central bay.
3) When a genuine window opening is not feasible, variation in the facade's pattern or the use of "blanks" on mortar buildings and shuttered windows on non-mortar buildings may be considered appropriate.
Illustration W. A masonry building using “blanks” to continue the fenestration pattern where windows were not feasible.
4) Windows on upper stories should generally be vertically aligned with lower story windows or off-set in a manner that creates an intentional pattern. If the distance between the lintel of the first floor window and the second floor windows is greater than two (2) times the height of the upper story window, spandrel panels shall be used.
5) Windows used to establish a fenestration pattern should generally be of the same size; however, smaller or larger windows may be employed to create variation and interest.
Where window openings are not applicable, faux inoperable windows may be instituted with size and style matching the window openings. Where faux windows are not possible, depressions should be made in the wall to mimic the placement and rhythm of the fenestration pattern. The window blank should have lintels and sills to match the other true windows. (See Illustration W.)
xi. Architectural Trims and Detailing.
In addition to the very broad massing and scale of a building, the application and use of trim and detailing contribute to the character and quality of a structure and help define a specific style or type of architecture. While this chapter does not require a specific architectural style for new buildings in the District, attention to detail and a high level of finish shall be required. This section provides standards for the inclusion of architectural trim and details.
Trims refer to ornamental or projecting framing or design elements around openings, at corners, along eaves, and other architectural elements attached to the exterior walls of a building that do not serve a structural purpose. Applied moldings, woodwork, or other linear finishing elements that add dimension and definition or an “outline” to elements of a building's facade are examples of trim. They are applied to cover transitions in materials, and provide finish to a faccade.
1) Trim shall be of an appropriate type and scale to convey an architectural style for a building. Generally, narrow trim should be used on smaller elements and on smaller buildings while wider trim should be use on larger structures.
2) Trim should be used around facade openings to add dimension and emphasis.
3) Trim should be a contrasting color to the primary facade to help define the facade openings and articulation. However, the city may approve non-contrasting trim and detailing if it enhances the articulation and character of the structure.
Detailing refers to other elements that are installed, attached, painted or applied to the exterior of a building or structure for the purpose of ornamentation or artistic expression, and assist in the articulation of a facade adding dimension or character. Some features included in detailing are:
b) projecting eaves
c) gutters and downspouts,
d) belt courses
f) lintels or hoods
h) water tables, knee walls
i) pillars, piers, pilasters, columns
j) decorative ornamentation
i) terra cotta
4. Exterior Finish Materials and Colors.
The character of the Downtown Redevelopment District is enhanced by the use of quality building materials that reflect the purpose of this chapter for the City of Harrison. The following standards shall apply:
a. Permitted Materials.
Structures shall be finished with high-quality, durable, and attractive natural or manufactured materials with a natural appearance. Exterior finish materials should have low maintenance requirements and utilize colors that reflect the character of the city. Exterior finish materials shall be permitted as applicable. As with articulation, the materials may vary from the primary or visible facades to the secondary or screened facades. Other new materials meeting the purpose of these standards may be approved by the city on a case-by- case basis as a primary or accent building material:
i. Primary facades.
Primary facades, or building faces parallel to frontage and adjacent to public rights-of-way, shall be constructed with a primary exterior covering as defined in Table A. Table A. Permitted Exterior Building Materials. All materials should be the natural color of the permitted materials, or painted a color as permitted in section vii Colors.
ii. Secondary Facades.
Secondary facades, or those to the rear or side of a building not visible from a public right of way other than an alley, shall be constructed with a primary exterior covering as defined. All materials should be the natural color of the material or permanently colored, stained or painted to match the colors of the primary materials on the visible facades.
iii. Primary Materials.
Primary materials refer to any material or combination of materials that provide the base covering for the building usually comprising fifty percent (50%) or more of the facade finishing material. (See Illustration X.) for calculation of facade area.
iv. Accent Materials.
Materials considered accent or detailing shall comprise no more than twenty-five percent (25%) of the facades surface. See Illustration X. for calculation of facade area.
Illustration X. This figure illustrates how to calculate the percentage of the facade dedicated to a primary or accent material. Accent materials shall be applied to no more than twenty-five (25) percent of the faade surfaces.
v. Conditional or New Materials.
A) Materials listed as conditionally permitted, or new materials not listed as prohibited in these standards may be approved by the city on a case-by-case basis provided the city finds the proposed material meets the intent of the purpose of the Exterior Materials and Finish Section of this Article.
B) Other materials that are not listed as prohibited may be approved by the city on a case-by-case basis as a primary or accent building material.
Table A. Permitted Exterior Building Materials
EXTERIOR FINISH MATERIALS
Gas Station Canopies
Civic & Institutional
PP 1, A/T
PP 1, A/T
PP 1, A/T
Fiber Cement Siding
Decorative Concrete Masonry Units
Tilt-Up Architectural Concrete
Decorative metal siding
Steel Sheet Siding
Wood Trim, Moldings
Fiber Cement Trim, Moldings
Metallic Flashing or Trim (aluminum, steel, copper, brass)
PVC Trim or Moldings
Terra-Cotta Details or Tile
Glazed or Unglazed Decorative Tiles
Cast or Wrought Metal
1-Traditional or Large Scale Brick
2-Only on Upper Stories
PP Permitted/Primary and Secondary Facades
PS Permitted/Secondary Facade
A/T Permitted as Accent
C Conditionally Permitted
vi. Roofing Materials.
A) Visible Roofing.
1) Permitted Materials.
The following are the permitted materials for visible roofing on all buildings: Slate, synthetic slate, Terra Cotta or other earthen tiles, standing seam metal roofing.
2) Visible roofing (pitched roofing) shall be black, brown, gray, white, off-white, silver, copper, burnt or autumn red, or earth tone. Vibrant primary or florescent colors are prohibited.
3) Dimensional asphalt shingles may only be used on small and medium scale buildings.
4) The city may consider additional or new manufactured materials that meet the purpose of the materials standards in this section on a case-by-case basis.
5) Alternative materials that are consistent with the purpose of this section are durable, coordinated with the architecture of the building, and are of permitted colors as listed in this chapter.
B) Flat or screened low-pitched roofing.
Ethylene Propylene Diene Terpolymer (EPDM) or Thermoplastic Polyolefin (TPO) membrane material shall be used.
C) Awnings or Fabric Canopies.
1) Awnings or fabric canopies shall be made of canvas or other durable nonglossy outdoor grade fabric in a permitted color listed in section VI. E. 3. Permitted Colors below that coordinates with the overall design of the building.
2) Awnings or fabric canopies in a primary or trademarked color shall not be permitted on any building.
3) Awnings or fabric canopies may contain logos or names in trademarked colors that comply with the sign code.
4) Backlit awnings or canopies are prohibited.
Color is an important element to enhance the downtown built environment. A building's color should accentuate and harmonize with its architecture as well as complement surrounding structures.
A) Permitted Colors.
1) The Development Director or their designee will maintain a palette of preferred colors and color combinations approved by the Planning Commission for reference and guidance in selection of a color palette for new buildings.
2) The base colors used on buildings to cover more than fifty percent (50%) of a facade surface shall be:
a) the natural color of the material in the case of brick or stone,
b) a neutral muted pallet including browns, warm grays, tans, creams, and natural earth tones found in natural stone, or fired earth products (i.e. brick, tile, etc.);
c) a pastel pallet including pale blues, greens, oranges, pinks, yellows; or
d) Deep saturated hues including dark blues, greens, reds, and browns.
3) Primary, bright, or vivid colors shall be reserved for limited use as trim or accents.
4) Any proposed color scheme including but not limited to those with trademarked colors or colors affiliated with a brand that is not consistent with these standards may be approved by the Planning Commission by a 2/3rds vote.
B) Prohibited Colors.
Florescent, metallic, day-glow, neon, or reflective colors shall be prohibited.
C) Color and Material Variation.
1) Each primary facade shall be limited to a combination of one primary material and two (2) accent materials; additional materials may be used for trims based on the material most appropriate for the trim's location and purpose.
2) When surfaces are painted, colored, or otherwise do not correspond to the material, each building facade shall be limited to a combination of no more than four (4) coordinated or complementary colors as listed above.
3) Each building may include a maximum combination of five (5) colors and/or materials.
4) Context and Compatibility.
The colors and materials of existing contributing buildings shall be considered in the selection of colors and materials of new infill buildings. Incorporation of at least one existing material into the new design shall be required to promote consistency and compatibility with the district.
b. Mechanical Equipment Utilities and Waste Storage.
Mechanical equipment shall be screened and/or incorporated into the architectural design of the building.
i. Rooftop Equipment.
Rooftop equipment, including solar panels shall be located in a manner so that it shall be screened from view of the public. It shall be screened by appropriately designed parapet walls, or other rooftop features such as cupolas that are architecturally integrated with the overall design of the structure.
ii. Utility Housings.
Utility housings should be structurally integrated with other trim or detailing in a manner that enhances the architectural style of the structure. Visible utility housings, junctions, and other exterior duct work or conduits shall be painted or permanently colored to match the basic building material color on which it is located:
Illustration Y. Painted concealed utilities at the rear of a building.
iii. Solar Panels.
A) Solar panels may be installed on flat rooftops as canopies creating usable roof deck space, provided they do not exceed the buildings maximum height standards or are concealed from street view by parapets like other rooftop equipment.
B) To allow for innovative products and application of solar panels into other design features in the downtown, solar panels which are architecturally integrated into a building's facade or as a visible canopy feature will require approval by the Planning Commission.
iv. Solid Waste.
All waste bins should be enclosed with a structure compatible with the primary building. Include protection from vehicular damage with bumpers or curbs when located near vehicular access areas. Ensure easy access from the building.
5. Architectural Rhythm and Relationship to Surroundings.
New and infill buildings shall be designed to fit into the established scale and character of the Downtown Redevelopment District. The following standards provide for consistency without encouraging monotony or repetition of facades. New development shall employ a minimum of four (4) of the techniques described below to create compatibility with surrounding and adjacent developments. However, in a case where the existing adjacent buildings are not in conformance with the standards of the zoning code, new structures shall be designed to conform to the more restrictive elements of these standards and not reiterate inappropriate elements incorporated in existing structures.
a. Use similar building setbacks.
b. Use different building height.
c. Use similar building width.
d. Use similar window styles, rhythm, and alignment.
e. Use similar roof form.
f. Use similar facade articulation
g. Use similar building materials
h. Use complimentary but not matching colors
The following guidelines are provided to encourage and promote environmentally sustainable building practices in the Downtown Redevelopment District:
a. New construction should take advantage of passive designs for improving sustainability. Building orientation is an easy way to take advantage of energy efficiency with natural lighting and ventilation. Sustainable design can be easily incorporated with the preservation and reuse of existing buildings to maintain the traditional character of the town.
b. Buildings should maximize energy efficiency and conservation opportunities.
c. New construction should maximize window design to provide daylighting into interior spaces. When building depths or locations limit window placement, skylights and interior atriums should be used.
d. Energy generating devices, such as solar collectors and, wind turbines are notable features, but they must remain visually subordinate to the traditional character of the building.
e. Inclusion of a “green roof" should be considered to reduce storm water run-off and to reduce the "heat island" effect.
f. Incorporate elements that allow for passive cooling such as operable windows for natural ventilation and the introduction of solar screens to block out intense heat.
g. The use of locally manufactured, sourced, and recycled materials is encouraged to reduce fuel consumption for transportation, and reduce costs, and fit into the local architectural vernacular by using local materials. (Ord. 28-18. Passed 7-17-18.)