§ 152.04  PROVISIONS FOR FLOOD HAZARD PROTECTION.
   (A)   General standards. In all areas of special flood hazards, the following standards are required.
      (1)   Anchoring.
         (a)   All new construction and substantial improvements shall be anchored to prevent floatation, collapse, or lateral movement of the structure.
         (b)   All manufactured homes must likewise be anchored to prevent floatation, collapse, or lateral movement, and shall be installed using methods and practices that minimize flood damage. Anchoring methods may include, but are not limited to, use of over-the-top or frame ties to ground anchors (Reference FEMA’s Manufactured Home Installation in Flood Areas guidebook for additional techniques).
      (2)   Construction materials and methods.
         (a)   All new construction and substantial improvements shall be constructed with materials and utility equipment resistant to flood damage.
         (b)   All new construction and substantial improvements shall be constructed using methods and practices that minimize flood damage.
         (c)   Electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, and air conditioning equipment and other service facilities shall be designed and/or located so as to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding.
      (3)   Utilities.
         (a)   All new and replacement water supply systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the system;
         (b)   New and replacement sanitary sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood water into the systems and discharge from the systems into flood waters; and
         (c)   On-site waste disposal systems shall be located to avoid impairment to them or contamination from them during flooding.
      (4)   Subdivision proposals.
         (a)   All subdivision proposals shall be consistent with the need to minimize flood damage;
         (b)   All subdivision proposals shall have public utilities and facilities such as sewer, gas, electrical, and water systems located and constructed to minimize flood damage;
         (c)   All subdivision proposals shall have adequate drainage provided to reduce exposure to flood damage; and
         (d)   Where base flood elevation data has not been provided or is not available from another authoritative source, it shall be generated for subdivision proposals and other proposed developments which contain at least 50 lots or five acres (whichever is less).
      (5)   Review of building permits. Where elevation data is not available either through the Flood Insurance Study or from another authoritative source (§ 152.03(C)(2)), applications for building permits shall be reviewed to assure that proposed construction will be reasonably safe from flooding. The test of reasonableness is a local judgement and includes use of historical data, high water marks, photographs of past flooding, and the like, where available. Failure to elevate at least two feet above grade in these zones may result in higher insurance rates.
   (B)   Specific standards. In all areas of special flood hazards where base flood elevation data has been provided as set forth in §§ 152.02 or 152.03, the following provisions are required.
      (1)   Residential construction. New construction and substantial improvement of any residential structure shall have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to or one foot above the base flood elevation.
      (2)   Fully enclosed areas. Fully enclosed areas below the lowest floor that are subject to flooding are prohibited, or shall be designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the entry and exit of flood waters. Designs for meeting this requirement must either be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect or must meet or exceed the following minimum criteria.
         (a)   A minimum of two openings having a total net area of not less than one square inch for every square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding shall be provided.
         (b)   The bottom of all openings shall be no higher than one foot above grade.
         (c)   Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, or other coverings or devices provided that they permit the automatic entry and exit of flood waters.
      (3)   Nonresidential construction. New construction and substantial improvement of any commercial, industrial, or other nonresidential structure shall either have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to the level of the base flood elevation or one foot above base flood elevation; or, together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, shall:
         (a)   Be flood proofed so that below the base flood level the structure is water tight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water;
         (b)   Have structural components capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy;
         (c)   Be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect that the design and methods of construction are in accordance with accepted standards of practice for meeting provisions of this division (B)(3)(c) based on their development and/or review of the structural design, specifications and plans. The certifications shall be provided to the official as set forth in § 152.03;
         (d)   Nonresidential structures that are elevated, not flood proofed, must meet the same standards for space below the lowest floor as described in division (B)(1) above; and/or
         (e)   Applicants flood proofing nonresidential buildings shall be notified that flood insurance premiums will be based on rates that are one foot below the flood proofed level (such as a building constructed to the base flood level will be rated one foot below that level).
      (4)   Manufactured homes. All manufactured homes to be placed or substantially improved within zones A 1-30, AH, and AE shall be elevated on a permanent foundation so that the lowest floor of the manufactured home is at or above the base flood elevation and be securely anchored to an adequately anchored foundation system in accordance with the provisions of division (A)(1)(b) above.
   (C)   Floodways. Located within areas of special flood hazard established in § 152.02 are areas designated as floodways. Since the floodway is an extremely hazardous area due to the velocity of flood waters which carry debris, potential projectiles, and erosion potential, the following provisions apply:
      (1)   Prohibit encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvements, and other development unless certification by a registered professional engineer or architect is provided demonstrating that encroachments shall not result in any increase in flood levels during the occurrence of the base flood discharge; and
      (2)   If division (C)(1) above is satisfied, all new construction and substantial improvements shall comply with all applicable flood hazard reduction provisions of this section.
(Ord. 331, passed 11-9-1998)  Penalty, see § 10.99