APPENDIX B  DETAILED CLASSIFICATION OF PLANT SPECIES
   The following is a list of plant species that fit within the various plant categories used for the landscape requirements of this code.  Species not included on this list require approval by the Zoning Administrator and determination by the Zoning Administrator of the corresponding landscaping point values, if any.
CLIMAX TREES (75 landscaping points)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
CLIMAX TREES (75 landscaping points)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Acer saccharum RF
Sugar Maple
S
Round
Rich soil; salt-sensitive; oval when young; yellow, orange or scarlet fall color.
"Green Mountain"
Scorch-resistant; leathery leaves.
Carya ovata RF
Shagbark Hickory
Native and very adaptable; salt-sensitive, fruit-nut, lawn tree.
Ginkgo bilboa
Ginkgo
S
Pyramidal
Very urban, dioecious, females produce smelly fruits, golden yellow fall color.
"Fastigiata"
Sentry Ginkgo
Columnar
Seedless.
Juglans nigra RF
Walnut
Eastern Walnut
Black Walnut
F
Best in public open spaces or lawns; not to be used as a street tree; poisonous to other plants within the drip zone; susceptible to caterpillars and leaf-spot disease.
Quercus alba RF
White Oak
S
Round
Extremely sensitive to soil compaction; tolerant of urban conditions; dry soil; subject to iron chlorosis; red fall color; very difficult to transplant; excellent lawn or shade tree.
Quercus bicolor RF
Swamp White Oak
S
Round
Very tolerant of urban conditions; moist to wet, intolerant of alkaline soil; tolerates poor drainage; difficult to transplant; yellow fall color.
Quercus macrocarpa RF
Burr Oak
Mossycup Oak
S
Round
Sensitive to soil compaction; tolerant of urban conditions; dry to wet soil; no fall color; very difficult to transplant.
Quercus palustris
Pin Oak
M
Pyramidal
Sensitive to soil compaction; tolerant of urban conditions; moist, acid soil, pendulous lower branches; red fall color; iron chlorosis on alkaline soil; lawn tree; cultivar "Sovereign" best for streets.
Quercus ruba RF
(also known as Quercus borealis)
Northern Red Oak
Red Oak
M
Round
Sensitive to soil compaction; tolerant of urban conditions; pyramidal when young; red fall color; well- drained soil; fast growing for oaks; excellent lawn, shade and street tree.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
TALL DECIDUOUS TREES (30 landscaping points)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
TALL DECIDUOUS TREES (30 landscaping points)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Acer nigrum
Black Maple
M
Oval
Does well in poor, dry soils; red to bright gold fall color; excellent for lawn, shade, or street.
Acer platanoides
Norway Maple
M
Round
Shallow root system; not to be used along streets.
"Cleveland"
F
Oval- upright
Uniform dense foliage.
"Columnare"
Columnar
Indistinct central leader.
"Crimson King"
Keeps deep purple leaf color throughout summer; susceptible to sun scale, bark-splitting and transplant shock.
"Drummondi"
Harlequin Norway Maple
S
Round
Variegated, cream-edged leaves.
"Emerald Queen"
F
Oval
Vigorous; crisp foliage.
"Globosum"
Globe Norway Maple
S
Globe
Useful on a standard under utility wires; 20-foot height.
"Greenlace"
Round
Deeply divided, fine-textured leaves.
"Royal Red"
S
Round
Best for purple summer foliage.
"Shwedleri"
Round
New foliage reddish; bronze by summer.
"Summershade"
F
Rapidly growing cultivar; deep green, large, leathery leaves.
Acer rubrum RF
Red Maple
Scarlet Maple
Swamp Maple
F
Round
Moist, acid soil; tolerates poor drainage; smooth gray bark; yellow, orange or red fall color; salt-sensitive.
"Armstrong"
Fastigate
No fall color; light gray bark.
"Autumn Flame"
Early scarlet fall color.
"Bowhall"
Oval
Orange fall color.
"Red Sunset"
Late, scarlet fall color.
"Schlesingeri"
Red-orange fall color.
Acer saccharium RF
Silver Maple
Soft Maple
White Maple
River Maple
F
Vase
Heart and fast-growing; moist soil; tolerates poor drainage; fine-textured; weak-wooded (develops heart rots after 50 years, limbs may fall); yellowish or no fall color.
"Blair"
Very Fast
Strong branch structure; storm-resistant.
"Pyramidale"
Upright Silver Maple
Pyramidal
Improved branch structure.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
TALL DECIDUOUS TREES (30 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
TALL DECIDUOUS TREES (30 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Acer saccharinum RF (Cont'd)
"Silver Queen"
Seedless Sugar Maple
Round
Seedless.
"Wieri"
Cutleaf Sugar Maple
Shredded leaves; pendulous branches.
Aesculus hippocas tanum
Horsechestnut
M
Round
Urban; coarse; showy, white May flowers; litter problem; no fall color; difficult to transplant; pest or disease problems may limit use.
Alnus glutinosa
European Alder
Black Alder
F
Oval
Rich or wet soils; produces catkins; possible winterkill.
Betula lutea RF
Yellow Birch
M
Round
Drooping branches; moist well-drained soils; yellow- orange bark; rusty yellow fall color.
Catalpa speciosa
Northern Catalpa
F
Oval
Poor, dry soil; showy, white June flowers; coarse; litter problem; no fall color.
Fagus grandifolia RF
American Beech
S
Oval
Moist, rich soil; smooth, gray bark; yellow-bronze fall color; difficult to transplant; salt-sensitive; sensitive to soil compaction.
Fagus sylvatica
European Beech
S
Round
Moist; rich soil; less difficult to transplant than American Beech; several cultivars available; excellent lawn tree.
Fraxinus americana RF
White Ash
M
Round
Moist soil; tolerates poor drainage; dioecious; orange to purple fall color; tolerates urban conditions.
"Autumn Purple"
Round
Seedless; superior fall color.
"Rosehill"
Oval
Seedless; superior fall color.
Fraxinus excelsior
European Ash
F
Round
Jet-black buds; no fall color.
"Aurea"
Golden European Ash
M
Round
Golden, young foliage, twigs and fall color; green summer foliage.
"Hesseri"
Hesse European Ash
Round
Simple leaves.
Fraxinus nigra RF
Black Ash
M
Irregular
Deep, rich, moist soils; tolerates wet soils; yellow fall color; scaly bark.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
TALL DECIDUOUS TREES (30 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
TALL DECIDUOUS TREES (30 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Fraxinus pennsylvanica RF
Green Ash
Red Ash
F
Oval; irregular
Dry to wet soils; tolerates poor drainage; salt-tolerant; twiggy and weak-wooded; yellow fall color; pest or disease problem may limit use; tolerates urban conditions.
"Marshall's      Seedless"
Oval
Seedless; glossy, dark green foliage; improved habit of growth.
"Summit"
Upright
Finer textured foliage.
Gleditsia triancanthos inermius
Thornless Honeylocust
F
Vase
Tolerates poor drainage; thornless, as are all of the following; pest or disease problem may limit use; salt- tolerant; yellow fall color.
"Imperial"
Round
Podless; low-growing; flat-topped; pest or disease problem may limit use.
"Shademaster"
Irregular
Podless; vase shape in age; pest or disease problem may limit use.
"Skyline"
Upright
Podless; tends to form central leader; good golden fall color; pest or disease problem may limit use.
"Sunburst"
Irregular
Podless; yellow new foliage; poor branch structure; pest or disease problem may limit use.
Gymnocladus dioica
Kentucky Coffeetree
M
Upright
Moist, rich soil; coarse and rugged; dioecious; yellowish fall color.
Juglans cinerea RF
Butternut
S
Needs good soil and consistent moisture; fairly good shade tree; susceptible to butternut decline.
Larix decidua
European Larch
F
Pyramidal
Full sun; graceful, fine-textured; transplant in spring before buds open; yellow fall color.
"Pendula"
Interesting weeping branches.
Larix kaempferi
Japanese Larch
F
Wide- Pyramidal
Similar to European Larch, more picturesque.
Larix laricina RF
American Larch
Tamarack
M
Narrow- Pyramidal
Hardy; drought tolerant; used in shelterbelts.
Liriodendrom tulipifera
Tuliptree
F
Upright
Rich, moist soil; unique leaves and interesting June flowers; yellow fall color; purchase from northern source.
Plantanus occidentalis
Sycamore
American Planetree
F
Pyramidal
Moist soil; tolerates poor drainage; mottled bark; coarse, maple-like leaves; no fall color; pest or disease problem may limit use.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
TALL DECIDUOUS TREES (30 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
TALL DECIDUOUS TREES (30 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Populus alba
"Pyramidalis"
White Poplar
F
Fastigate
Moist soil; tolerates poor drainage; mottled bark; coarse, maple-like leaves; no fall color; pest or disease problem may limit use.
Populus deltoides RF
Eastern Poplar
Very Fast
Fastigate
Hardy; fast-growing; golden yellow fall color; tolerates drought; brittle; may produce "cotton"; too large for homes.
"Robusta"
Upright
Seedless.
"Siouxland"
Larger greener leaves; seedless; uniform in shape; hardy.
"Cottonless"
Seedless; many similar species available.
Populus grandidentata RF
Bigtooth Aspen
F
Narrow
Moist, sandy, gravelly soils; not shade tolerant; yellow fall color.
Prunus serotina RF
Black Cherry
M
Oval
Dry soil; white flowers and black fruits in drooping racemes; orange fall color; pest or disease problem may limit use.
Taxodium distichum
Baldcypress
F
Pyramidal
Moist, intolerant of alkaline soil; tolerates poor drainage; sun, bronze fall color; fine texture; purchase from northern source.
Tilia americanaRF
American Linden
Basswood
Linden Tree
Linn Tree
M
Round
Sensitive to soil compaction; salt-sensitive; coarse; rich soils.
Tilia cordata
Littleleaf Linden
S
Pyramidal
Urban; moist soil; fragrant flowers; poor branch structure; needs training while young; yellow fall color.
"Chancellor"
Uniform, upright habit.
"Greenspire"
Improved branching habit.
Tilia x euchlora
"Redmond"
Redmond Linden
M
Pyramidal
Urban; dark green foliage.
MEDIUM DECIDUOUS TREES (15 landscaping points)
Aesculus x carnea
"Briotii"
Ruby Horsechesnut
S
Round
Rich, moist soil; red flowers.
Aesculus glabra
Ohio Buckeye
S
Round
Rich, moist soil; yellow-green flowers; orange fall color.
Alnus glutinosa
European Alder
F
Oval
Wet; tolerates poor drainage; catkins; cone fruits; no color.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
MEDIUM DECIDUOUS TREES (15 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
MEDIUM DECIDUOUS TREES (15 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Betula nigra RF
River Birch
M
Vase
Wet to dry, intolerant of alkaline soils; tolerates poor drainage; pinkish, peeling bark.
Betula papyifera RF
Paper Birch
M
Oval
Cool, moist soil; white, peeling bark; golden yellow fall color; pest or disease problem.
Betula pendula
"Gracilis"
Cutleaf European Birch
M
Weeping
Cool, moist soil; dissected leaves; yellow fall color; pests and disease.
Betula platphylla japonica
Japanese White Birch
M
Pyramidal
White bark; some resistance to bronze birch borer.
Cercidphyllum japonicum
Katsuratree
M
Columnar
Moist soil; dioecious; form controlled by pruning, wide spreading if multi-trunked; yellow to red fall color.
Cladrasits lutea
American Yellowwood
S
Round
Moist, rich soil; smooth, light gray bark; fragrant, white June flowers in large clusters; yellow fall color.
Magnolia acuminata
Cucumbertree
F
Pyramidal
Inconspicuous, greenish flowers; pink to red fruits; coarse foliage; no fall color.
Nyssa sylvatica
Black Gum
S
Pyramidal
Moist soil; tolerates poor drainage; dense habit; dioecious; orange to scarlet fall color; difficult to transplant.
Phellodendron amurense
Amur Corktree
M
Round
Urban; dry soil; dioecious; compound leaves; corky bark; yellow fall color.
Prunus maackii
Amur Chokecherry
M
Round
Amber exfoliating bark; does well in containers.
Prunus padus commutata
Harbinger European Bird Cherry
S
Round
Sun; early to leaf out in spring; pest or disease problem.
Prunus pennsylvania RF
Pin Cherry
M
Upright
Poor; dry soil; sun; graceful; shortlived; suckering; red fruits; orange to red fall color.
Prunus sargemtii
Sargent Cherry
M
Upright
Sun, well-drained soil; early, pink flowers; red fall color.
Salix alba tristis
Golden Weeping Willow
F
Weeping
Wet soil; tolerates poor drainage; bright yellow twigs; fine-textured; litter problem.
Ulmus parvifolia
Chinese Elm
M
Vase
Disease resistant; exfoliating bark.
LOW DECIDUOUS TREES (10 landscaping points)
Acer ginnala
Amur Maple
M
Round
Sun, shade; red fruit; fall color.
Alnus rugosa
Speckled Alder
F
Round
Wet soil; tolerates poor soil; lenticeled bark.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
LOW DECIDUOUS TREES (10 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
LOW DECIDUOUS TREES (10 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Amelanchier arborea RF
Downy Serviceberry
S
Upright
Dry soil; shade; gray bark; white flowers; yellow to red fall color; edible fruits.
Amelanchier grandiflora RF
Apple Serviceberry
S
Spreading
Semi-shade; large, white flowers, edible fruits.
Amelanchier laevis
Allegany Serviceberry
S
Upright
Moist soil; shade; white flowers; orange to red fall color; edible fruits.
Carpinus caroliniana RF
American Hornbeam
S
Spreading
Moist soil; shade; smooth, gray muscle-like trunks; orange fall color.
Cercis canadensis
Eastern Redbud
M
Spreading
Sun or shade; purplish-pink flowers; yellow fall color; purchase from northern source.
Cornus alternifolia
Pagoda Dogwood
M
Spreading
Cool, moist soil; shade; blue-black berries on red stalks; early, maroon fall color.
Crataegus crus-galli
"Inermis"
Thornless Cockspur Hawthorn
Spreading
Urban; sun; persistent, brick red fruits; orange to red fall color; no thorns.
Crataegus laevigata
"Pauli"
Paul's Scarlet Hawthorn
S
Upright
Heavy soil; sun; double scarlet flowers in late May; no fall color; pest or disease problem.
"Superba"
Crimson Cloud Hawthorn
Single, scarlet flowers; resistant to leaf spot.
Crataegus x lavallei
Lavalle Hawthorn
S
Upright
Urban; sun; glossy foliage; bronzy-red fall color.
Crataegus mollis
Downy Hawthorn
S
Upright
Sun; large, red, early-ripening fruit; yellow fall color; pest or disease problem.
Crataegus phaenopyrum
Washington Hawthorn
M
Upright
Urban; sun; latest-blooming; small, persistent, orange- red fruit in clusters; orange fall color.
Crataegus punctata
Dotted Hawthorn
S
Spreading
Moist, heavy soil; sun; picturesque; pest or disease problem may limit use.
Crataegus x "Toba"
Toba Hawthorn
S
Sun; double, pink, fragrant flowers; glossy leaves; red fruits; dwarf-15.
Elaeagnus angustifolia
Russianolive
F
Round
Dry, alkaline soil; sun; fragrant, inconspicuous flowers; silver-gray foliage; no fall color; pest or disease problem may limit use.
Magnolia x loebneri
"Merrill"
Dr. Merrill Magnolia
M
Pyramidal
Rich soil; sun; white, many-petaled flowers; difficult to transplant.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
LOW DECIDUOUS TREES (1o landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
LOW DECIDUOUS TREES (1o landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Magnolia x soulangiana
Saucer Magnolia
S
Round
Rich soil; sun; large pink flowers; difficult to transplant.
Malus species and cultivars
Flowering Crabapples
All require sun and well-drained soil.  They all possess a high degree of resistance to the apple scab disease.
Malus "Adams"
Adams Flowering Crabtree
M
Spreading
Slightly susceptible to fire blight; rose-red flowers; -inch diameter; persistent, deep red fruits.
Malus baccata jackii
Jack Flowering Crabtree
M
Upright spreading
Slightly susceptible to fire blight; white flowers; tiny
  - ½-inch diameter; dark red fruits.
Malus  "Bob White"
Bob White Flowering Crabtree
M
Rounded
Moderately susceptible to fire blight; white flowers; -inch diameter; persistent, yellow fruits..
Malus  "Candied Apple"
Weeping Candied Apple Flowering Crabtree
Weeping
Slightly susceptible to scab; pink flowers; -inch diameter; persistent, cherry-red fruits; foliage tinted with red.
Malus  "Centurian"
Centurian Flowering Crabtree
Narrow- Upright
Disease resistant; rose-red flowers; -inch diameter; persistent, cherry-red fruits.
Malus  "David"
David Flowering Crabtree
M
Rounded
Slightly susceptible to fire blight and scab; white flowers; 1¼ - 1½-inch diameter;  reddish fruits in alternate years.
Malus  "Dolgo"
Dolgo Flowering Crabtree
M
Upright- Spreading
Slightly susceptible to fire blight and scab; 1¼ - 1½- inch diameter; persistent red fruits.
Malus  "Donald Wyman"
Donald Wyman Flowering Crabtree
M
Rounded
Disease-resistant; white flowers; -inch diameter; persistent red fruits.
Malus  "Dorothea"
Dorothea Flowering Crabtree
S
Horizontal
Moderately susceptible to scab; clear pink semi-double flowers; ½-inch diameter; yellow fruits.
Malus
    "Gibb's Golden Gage"
Gibb's Golden Gage Flowering Crabtree
Rounded
Disease resistant; white flowers; 1-inch diameter; persistent, yellow fruits.
Malus  "Indian Summer"
Indian Summer Flowering Crabtree
Rounded
Disease resistant; rose-red flowers;  - ¾-inch diameter; red fruits.
Malus  "Mary Potter"
Mary Potter Flowering Crabtree
S
Horizontal
Moderately susceptible to fire blight and scab; white flowers; ½-inch diameter; red fruits; 10-foot height.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
LOW DECIDUOUS TREES (10 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
LOW DECIDUOUS TREES (10 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Malus  "Ormiston Roy"
Ormiston Roy Flowering Crabtree
M
Rounded
Slightly susceptible to fire blight; white flowers; - inch diameter; persistent, yellow fruits.
Malus  "Profusion"
Profusion Flowering Crabtree
M
Rounded- Spreading
Slightly susceptible to fire blight; rose-red flowers; ½-inch diameter; deep red fruits; bronze-green foliage.
Malus  "Red Jewel"
Red Jewel Flowering Crabtree
Horizontal
Moderately susceptible to scab; white flowers; ½-inch diameter; persistent, bright red fruits.
Malus  "Robinson"
Robinson Flowering Crabtree
Upright- spreading
Disease-resistant; rose-red flowers; -inch diameter; persistent, bright red fruits, bronze-green foliage.
Malus  "Sentinel"
Sentinel Flowering Crabtree
Narrow- upright
Slightly susceptible to fire blight and scab; pale pink flowers; ½-inch diameter; persistent, bright red fruits.
Malus  "White Cascade"
White Cascade Flowering Crabtree
S
Weeping
Disease-resistant; white flowers; ½-inch diameter; yellowish fruits.
Ostrya virginiana RF
Hophornbeam
S
Pyramidal
Dry soil; shade; catkins; elm-like leaves; yellow fall color.
Prunus americana RF
American Plum
F
Horizontal
Dry soil; sun; suckering habit; white flowers; yellow to orange fall color.
Prunus cerasifers
  "Newportii"
Newport Plum
M
Round
Sun; reddish-purple summer foliage.
Prunus virginiana RF
Chokecherry
M
Upright
Dry, infertile soil; suckering habit; white flowers; yellow to orange fall color.
"Canada Red" or "Shubert"
Shubert Chokecherry
Sun; foliage changes from green to purple in early summer.
Pyrus calleryana and cultivars
Callery Pear
M
Oval
Sun; early, white flowers; late red fall color.
Saliz matsudana
"Tortuosa"
Corkscrew or Contorted Willow
F
Upright
Wet soil; tolerates poor drainage; sun; twisted branches; pest or disease problem may limit use.
Saliz pentandra
Laurel Willow
M
Round
Wet soil; sun; foliage glossy. dark green; dense habit.
Sorbus alnifolia
Korean Mountainash
S
Oval
Cool soil; simple leaves; small flowers and fruits; orange to red fall color; pest or disease problem.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
LOW DECIDUOUS TREES (10 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
LOW DECIDUOUS TREES (10 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Sorbus aucuparia and cultivars
European Mountainash
M
Oval
Cool soil; orange fruits; pest or disease problem.
Sorbus decora
Showy Mountainash
S
Upright
Cool soil; large, reddish fruits; pest of disease problem.
Syringa reticulata
Japanese Tree Lilac
S
Horizontal
Sun; large, pyramidal, cream-white flower clusters in June; tan fruits.
TALL EVERGREEN TREES (40 landscaping points)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Height
Adaption and Remarks
Abies concolor
White fir
M
70'
Dry soil; hear; gray-green foliage.
Picea albeis
Norway Spruce
F
75'
Deep soil; dark green foliage; long cones; pendulous branchlets.
Picea glauca RF
White Spruce
M
50'
Moist soil; sun; light green needles.
Picea omorika
Serbian Spruce
S
50'
Sun; narrow habit; pendulous branches.
Picea pungens glauca
Blue Colorado Spruce
S
60'
Sun; urban; blue needles; stiff, formal habit.
Pinus cembra
Swiss Stone Pine
S
50'
Sun; narrow habit.
Pinus nigra
Austrian Pine
M
50'
Sun; urban; stout; dark green needles; pest or disease problem.
Pinus resinosa RF
Red Pine
F
50'
Dry soil; sun; reddish bark; yellow-green winter color.
Pinus strobus RF
Eastern White Pine
M
75'
Moist soil; sun; picturesque; soft, green foliage; pest of disease problem.
Pinus sylvestria
Scots Pine
F
50'
Dry soil; sun; orange bark; bluish needles.
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Douglas Fir
M
70'
Half-shade; flat, dark, green needles.
Tsuga Canadensis RF
Canada Hemlock
M
75'
Moist soil; soft, feathery foliage.
Thuja occidentalis RF
American Arborvitae
M
40'
Wet soil; half-shade; light green, soft, scale-like foliage.
LOW EVERGREEN TREES (12 landscaping points)
Juniperus chinnensis
"Keteleeri"
Keteleer Juniper
S
20'
Dry soil; sun; green foliage; large fruits.
Juniperus chinnensis
"Mountbatten"
Mountbatten Juniper
S
20'
Dry soil; sun; narrow, columnar form; large fruits.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
LOW EVERGREEN TREES (12 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Height
Adaptation and Remarks
LOW EVERGREEN TREES (12 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Height
Adaptation and Remarks
Junierus virginiana RF
Eastern Red Cedar
S
20'
Dry soil; sun; brownish winter color.
   "Burkii"
Burke Eastern Red Cedar
Fine-textured; gray-green foliage.
   "Canaertii"
Canaert Eastern Red Cedar
Dark green, tufted foliage.
   "Glauca"
Silver Eastern Red Cedar
Silver-gray foliage; informal habit.
   "Hillii"
Hill Dundee Eastern Red Cedar
Gray-green foliage turns purple in winter, no fruits.
Picea glauca RF
"Densata"
Black Hills Spruce
S
20'
Dry soil; sun; narrow, dense habit.
Taxus cuspidata
Japanese Yew
S
20'
Shade; urban; deep green needles; often sold as Taxus cuspidata "Capitata".
Thuja occidentalis RF
"Fastigata"
Pyramidal Arborvitae
M
25'
Narrow columnar form.
Thuja occidentalis RF
"Techny"
Techny Arborvitae
S
20'
Deep green foliage, year round.
TALL DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (5 landscaping points)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaption and Remarks
Amelanchier sp.
    (See also low trees)
Serviceberry
Upright
Shade; alkaline soil; white flowers; edible purple fruits; smooth, gray bark; yellow to orange fall color; fireblight a problem.
Caragana arborescens
Siberian Peashrub
Erect, Oval
Dry, alkaline soils; yellow flowers; green twig.
Chionanthus virginicus
Fringetree
Spreading
Moist soil; shade, white flowers; blue fruits; coarse.
Cornus alternifolia
Pagoda Dogwood
Spreading
Moist soil; shade; white flowers; blue fruits; horizontal branches; early, maroon fall color.
Cornus mas
Corneliancherry Dogwood
Oval
Shade; urban; yellow flowers in April; flower buds may be injured or killed during some winters; edible red fruits.
Cornus racemosa
Gray Dogwood
Erect
Dry or wet soils; shade; white flowers; white fruits; purple fall color.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
TALL DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (5 landscaping points) (Cont'd) 
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
TALL DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (5 landscaping points) (Cont'd) 
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Cornus sericea
Redosier Dogwood
Spreading
Wet, moist soils; tolerates poor drainage; white flowers; white fruits; red twigs; often sold as a C. stolonifera.
Cornus sericea baileyi
Bailey Redosier Dogwood
Erect
Cotoneaster multiflora
Manyflowered Cotoneaster
Mounded
Sun; well-drained soil; white flowers; red fruits; very wide-spreading; pests/diseases.
Elaeagnus umbellata
Autumnolive
Spreading
Poor, dry soil; sun; fragrant flowers; edible, red fruits; twiggy.
Euonymus alata
Winged Euonymus
Spreading
Sun or shade; well-drained soil; corky; winged twigs; pink to rose fall color.
Euonymus atropurpurea
Eastern Wahoo
Tree-like
Moist soil; shade; tiny, purplish flowers; orange to purple fall color.
Euonymus europaea
Spindletree of European Euonymus
Tree-like
Dry soil; urban; striped bark; persistent pink fruit; orange to purple fall color.
"Aldenhamensis"
Aldenham European Euonymus
Bright pink fruit; shrubby form.
"Redcap"
Redcap European Euonymus
Bright red fruit.
Exochorda racemosa
Pearlbush
Leggy
Sun; pearl-like flower buds; tan fruit capsules.
Hamamelis virginiana
Common Witchhazel
Spreading
Shade; yellow October flowers.
Hydrangea paniculata
"Grandiflora"
Peegee Hydrangea
Upright
Moist soil; white to pink flowers in August; persistent, tan flower clusters.
Kolkwitzia amabilis
Beautybush
Upright
Alkaline soil; sun; pink flowers in June; shredded bark; leggy.
Ligustrum amurense
Amur Privet
Erect
Dry soil; white flowers; black fruits; hedge plant.
Ligustrum vulgare
"Cheyenne"
Cheyenne Privet
Erect
Dry soil; urban; white flowers; black fruits; hedge plant.
Lonicera x bella
"Candida"
White Belle Honeysuckle
Upright-mounded
Dry soil; white flowers; red fruits; may become weedy; pest problem.
Lonicera tatarica zabelii
Zabel Honeysuckle
Rounded
Dry soil; urban; red flowers; dense, red fruits; may become weedy; pest or disease problem; may be sold as L. korolkowii zabelii.
Magnolia stellata
Star Magnolia
Rounded
Rich soil; white flowers; orange fruits; finest textured magnolia.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
TALL DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (5 landscaping points) (Cont'd) 
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
TALL DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (5 landscaping points) (Cont'd) 
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Physocarpus opulifolius
Eastern Ninebark
Vase
Dry soil; semi-shade; white flowers; red, capsular fruit; shredded bark; course.
Prunus tomentosa
Manchu Cherry
Rounded
Dry soil; sun; white flowers; edible red fruits.
Prunus triloba
Double Flowering Plum
Rounded
Sun; double, pink flowers; no fruit.
Rhamnus frangula
"Columnaris"
Tallhedge Glossy Buckthorn
Columnar
Moist soil; shade; red to black fruits; holds leaves late.
Rhus glabara
Smooth Sumac
Suckering
Dry soil; sun; persistent red fruits; smooth stems; scarlet fall color.
Rhus typhina
Staghorn Sumac
Suckering
Dry soil; sun; persistent red fruits; felty stems; orange to red fall color.
Rhus typhina
"Dissecta"
Shredleaf Staghorn Sumac
Picturesque
Dry soil; sun; red fruits; dissected leaves, orange to red in fall.
Salix caprea
Goat Willow or French Pussy Willow
Oval
Wet or dry soil; sun; large silver catkins in early spring.
Shepherdia argentea
Buffaloberry
Irregular
Dry soil; sun; yellowish flowers; dioecious; edible red fruits; silvery foliage.
Staphylea trifolia
American Bladdernut
Upright
Moist soil; shade; whitish flowers; green to brown, bladder-like fruits; white-striped back.
Syringa x chinensis
Chinese Lilac
Vase
Dry, alkaline soil; purple-lilac flowers; fine texture.
Syringa x hyacinthiflora cvs.
Hyacinth Lilacs
Upright
Sun; white, pink, lilac, purple flowers; early blooming.
Syringa x prestoniae cvs.
Preston Lilacs
Rounded
Sun; pink to purple flowers; late-blooming; coarse textured.
Syringa reticulata
Japanese Tree Lilac
Tree-like
Sun; white flowers in June; tan fruits; cherry-like bark; often sold as S. amurensis japonica.
Syringa vulgaris cvs.
Common Lilac
Upright
Well-drained soil; sun; white, pink, lilac, purple fragrant flowers; pest or disease problem may limit use.
Tamarix ramosissima
Tamarisk
Irregular
Dry soil; sun; tiny, pink flowers; very fine texture; often sold as T. pentandra.
Virburnum dentatum
Arrowwood Viburnum
Vase
Moist soil; shade; white flowers in June; blue fruits; maroon fall color.
Virburnum lantana
Wayfaringtree Viburnum
Upright
Dry soil; shade; white flowers; red to black fruits; late maroon fall color.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
TALL DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (5 landscaping points) (Cont'd) 
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
TALL DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (5 landscaping points) (Cont'd) 
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Viburnum lentago
Nannyberry Viburnum
Upright
Moist or dry soil; sun or shade; white flowers; black fruits; leggy; maroon fall color; pest or disease problem.
Viburnum prunifolium
Blackhaw Viburnum
Spreading
Dry soil; shade; white flowers; black fruits; single or multi-trunked; maroon fall color.
Viburnum sieboldii
Siebold Viburnum
Tree-like
Rich soil; white flowers; red to black fruits; large, coarse leaves.
Viburnum trilobum
American Cranberrybush Viburnum
Upright
Moist soil; shade; lacy, white flowers; persistent, edible fruits.
MEDIUM DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (3 landscaping points)
Aronia arbutifolia
Red Chokecherry
Erect
Wet soil; shade; tolerates poor drainage; white flowers; red fruits; red fall color.
Cornus alba
"Argenteomarginata"
Creamedge Dogwood
Mounded
Moist soil; white flowers; white fruit; variegated foliage.
Corylus americana
American Filbert or Hazelnut
Rounded
Dry soil; shade; catkins in March; orange fall color.
Cotoneaster divaricatus
Spreading Cotoneaster
Mounded
Dry alkaline soil; red fruits; fine texture; late maroon fall color; not fully hardy in zone indicated - needs a special site or ideal conditions.
Cotoneaster lucidus
Hedge Cotoneaster
Upright
Dry soil; shade; black fruits; orange to maroon fall color; good hedge plant; C acutifolius is similar.
Euonymus alatus
"Compacta"
Dwarf Winged Euonymus
Spreading
Sun or shade; pink and orange fruits; red fall color.
Forsynthia x intermedia cvs.
Border Forsythia
Vase
Sun; urban; large, pale to yellow flowers; flower buds may be injured or killed at temperatures lower than -14ºF.
Forsythia ovata
Early Forsythia
Mounded
Sun; urban; smaller, earlier, yellow flowers; flower buds may be injured or killed at temperatures lower than -25ºF.
Forsythia suspensa
Weeping Forsythia
Mounded
Sun; urban; yellow flowers; slender, drooping twigs; flower buds may be injured or killed at temperatures lower than -15ºF.
Ilex verticillata
Winterberry
Upright
Wet, acid soil; tolerates poor drainage; dioecious; red fruits.
Ligustrum obtusifolium regelianum
Regel's Border Privet
Spreading
Dry soil; shade; white flowers; blue-black fruits; late; purple fall color.
Malus sargentii  "Tina"
Sargent Crabapple
Spreading
Disease resistant; five feet mature height.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
MEDIUM DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (3 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
MEDIUM DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (3 landscaping points) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Myrica pensylvanica
Bayberry
Upright
Dry soil; sun; gray fragrant fruits; dioecious; semi-evergreen; suckering.
Philadelphus x virginalis
"Glacier"
Glacier Mockorange
Rounded
Sun; double, white fragrant flowers.
Prunus x cistena
Purple-leaved Sand Cherry
Rounded
Dry soil; sun; white flowers; purple foliage all season.
Rhodotypos scandens
Jetbead
Spreading
Dry soil; shade; white flowers; sparse red fruits; fine texture.
Rosa hugonis
Father Hugo Rose
Vase
Poor soil; sun; yellow flowers; sparse red fruits; fine texture.
Rosa rugosa cvs.
Rugosa Rose
Rounded
Dry soil; sun; white, yellow, pink or red flowers; large edible red fruits; fall color; wrinkled leaves; tolerant of salt.
Rose setigera
Prairie Rose
Sprawling-mounded
Sun; pink flowers in July; red fruits; orange fall color; can be used as a climber.
Spiraea prunifolia
Bridalwreath Spirea
Upright
Sun; double, white flowers; orange to red fall color.
Spiraea thunbergii
Thunberg Spirea
Vase
Sun; white flowers; yellow to orange fall color; fine texture.
Spiraea x vanhouttei
Vanhoutte Spirea
Vase
Sun; white flowers; arching branches.
Syringa meyeri  "Palibin"
Palibin Lilac
Rounded
Sun; purple flowers; dense, fine-textured; good informal hedge plant often sold as S. palibiniana.
Virburnum carlesii
Koreanspice Virburnum
Rounded
Shade; urban; pink to white fragrant flowers; blue- black fruits; red fall color.
Virburnum cassinoides
Witherod Virburnum
Rounded
Wet, acid soil; tolerates poor drainage; white flowers; pink to red to blue fruits; red fall color.
Weigela florida
Old-fashioned Weigela
Spreading
Well-drained soil; pink, funnel-shaped flowers.
Weigela x 'Vanicekii'
Vanicek Weigela
Spreading
Well-drained soil; red flowers.
LOW DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (1 landscaping point)
Acanthopanax sieboldianus
Fiveleaf Aralia
Upright
Dry soil; shade; urban; leaves palmately compound; thorny.
Amelanchier stolonifera
Running Serviceberry
Suckering
Dry soil; shade; white flowers; edible fruits; orange fall color.
Aronia melanocarpa
Black Chokecherry
Suckering
Wet soil; shade; white flowers; black fruits; red fall color.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
LOW DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (1 landscaping point) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
LOW DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (1 landscaping point) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Berbis thunbergii
Japanese Barberry
Mounded
Dry soil; shade; red fruits; orange fall color; thorns; good hedge plant.
"Atropurpurea"
Redleaf Japanese Barberry
Sun; red summer foliage.
"Crimson Pygmy"
Crimson Japanese Barberry
Low-mounded
Sun; red summer foliage; two feet tall.
Buxus microphylla koreana
Korean Littleleaf Box
Rounded
Shade; broadleaf evergreen; good hedge plant.
Chaenomeles japonica alpina
Dwarf Japanese Floweringquince
Spreading
Dry soil; urban; orange flowers; yellow, edible fruits; dense; one foot tall; flower buds may be injured or killed during some winters.
Cotoneaster apiculatus
Cranberry Cotoneaster
Mounded
Dry soil; red fruits; red fall color.
Deutzia x lemoinei
"Compacta"
Compact Lemoine Deutzia
Rounded
Well-drained soil; white flowers.
Diervilla lonicera
Dwarf Bushhoneysuckle
Mounded
Dry soil; shade; yellow flowers; good bank cover.
Forsythia viridissima
"Bronxensis"
Bronx Forsythia
Low-mounded
Sun; small yellow flowers; fine texture; purple fall color.
Hydrangea arborescens
"Annabelle"
Annabelle Hydrangea
Mounded
Moist soil; shade; white clustered flowers; dense; blooms on new wood.
Hydrangea arborescens
"Grandiflora"
Snowhill Hydrangea
Mounded
Smaller flower clusters and less dense than Hydrangea arborescens "Annabelle".
Hypericum kalmianum
Kalm's St. Johnswort
Rounded
Dry soil; sun; yellow flowers; shiny, brown twigs.
Lonicera x xylosteoides
"Clavey's Dwarf"
Clavey's Dwarf Honeysuckle
Rounded
Dense growth; good hedge or screening plant.
Lonicera xylosteum
"Nanum"
Emerald Mound Honeysuckle
Mounded
Lower growing than proceeding - two to three feet.
Mahonia aquifolium
"Mayhan"
Mayhan Oregongrape
Suckering
Shade; urban; yellow flowers; blue fruits; holly-like evergreen foliage; not fully hardy in zone - need special site or ideal conditions.
Philadelphus coronarius
"Aureus"
Golden Mockorange
Rounded
Sun; white flowers; yellow summer foliage.
Philadelphus x lemoinei
"Mount Blanc"
Mont Blanc Mockorange
Mounded
Sun; single; white, fragrant flowers; dense.
Physiocarpus opulifolius
"Nanus"
Dwarf Common Ninebark
Rounded
Dry soil; shade; creamy-white flowers; red capsular fruits; shredded bark.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
LOW DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (1 landscaping point) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
LOW DECIDUOUS SHRUBS (1 landscaping point) (Cont'd)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Potentilla fruitcosa cvs.
Bush Cinquefoil
Mounded
Dry soil; sun; yellow and white flowers summer.
Prunus glandulosa
"Sinensis"
Pink Dwarf Floweringalmond
Rounded
Sun; light soil; double pink flowers; no fruits; narrow leaves.
Rhododendron x kosteranum
Mollis Hybrid Azalea
Spreading
Moist, acid soil; pink flowers; red fall color.
Rhodendron x "PJM Hybrid"
PJM Hybrid Rhododendron
Rounded
Moist, acid soil; shade; lavender flowers; evergreen leaves turn purple in autumn.
Rhus aromatica
Fragrant Sumac
Mounded
Dry soil; sun; red fruits; fragrant foliage; turns orange- maroon in fall.
"Gro-Low"
Gro-low Fragrant Sumac
Uniform 2 ½-foot height; glossy leaves.
Ribes alpinum
Alpine Currant
Rounded
Shade; urban; good hedge plant.
Rosa virfiniana
Virginia Rose
Suckering
Dry soil; pink flowers; red fruits; red stems; good bank cover.
Salix repens argentea
Silver Creeping Willow
Spreading
Moist soil; sun; silvery foliage.
Spiraea x arguta
"Compacta"
Compact Garland Spirea
Mounded
Sun; white flowers; fine texture.
Spiraea x billardii
Billiard Spirea
Upright
Sun; pink flowers in July and August.
Spiraea x bulmalda
"Anthony Waterer"
Anthony Waterer Spirea
Rounded
Dry soil; sun; raspberry red flowers; unattractive fruits.
Spiraea x bumalda
"Froebelii"
Froebel Spirea
Rounded
Dry soil; sun; raspberry red flowers; orange to maroon fall color.
Spiraea japonica alpina
Daphne Spirea
Low-mounded
Sun; pale pink flowers in July; ten inches in height.
Spiraea nipponica
"Snowmound"
Snowmound Spirea
Mounded
Sun; white flowers; blue-green foliage; possible disease problem.
Symphoricarpos rivularis
Snowberry
Vase
Dry soil; shade; tiny pink flowers; showy white fruits; often sold as S. albus laevigatus.
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus
Indiancurrant Coralberry
Suckering
Dry soil; shade; pink fruits; good bank cover.
Virburnum opulus
"Compactum"
Compact European Cranberrybush Virburnum
Rounded
Shade; white flowers; persistent, red fruit; dense habit.
Virburnum opulus
"Nanum:
Dwarf European Cranberrybush Virburnum
Globe
Shade; no flowers or fruits; twiggy.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
TALL TO MEDIUM EVERGREEN SHRUBS (5 landscaping points)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Height
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
TALL TO MEDIUM EVERGREEN SHRUBS (5 landscaping points)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Height
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Juniperus chinensis
   "Ames"
Ames Juniper
9'
Broad pyramid
Sun; bluish green foliage.
   "Blaauw"
Blaauw Juniper
4'
Upright-vase
Sun; grayish blue foliage.
   "Herzii"
Herz Blue Juniper
15'
Ascending- spreading
Sun; silvery blue foliage.
   "Maney"
Maney Juniper
6'
Upright, bushy
Sun; bluish green foliage.
   "Old Gold"
Old Gold Juniper
4'
Spreading
Sun; green with gold tips.
   "Pfitzerana"
Pfitzer Juniper
6'
Wide- spreading
Sun; green foliage; no fruits.
   "Pfitzerana Glauca"
Blue Pfitzer Juniper
5'
Spreading
Sun; blue-gray foliage.
Juniperus communis depressa
Oldfield Common Juniper
4'
Spreading
Dry soil; sun; light green; brownish in winter.
Juniperus sabina
"Von Ehren"
Von Ehren Savin Juniper
4'
Spreading
Dry soil; sun; light green; brownish in winter.
Juniperus squamata
"Meyeri"
Meyer Singleseed Juniper
5'
Picturesque
Sun; blue foliage.
Picea glauca RF
"Conica"
Dwarf Alberta Spruce
7'
Pyramidal
Shelter from winter sun; light green foliage.
Pinus mugo
Mugo Pine
4'
Mounded
Dry soil; sun; green foliage.
Taxus cuspidata
"Expansa"
Spreading Japanese Yew
6'
Spreading
Shade; urban; dark green foliage; needs ideal conditions.
Taxus cuspidata
"Nana"
Dwarf Japanese Yew
4'
Mounded
Shade; urban; very dark green foliage; needs ideal conditions.
Taxus x hunnewelliana
Hunnewell Yew
6'
Spreading
Shade; green.
Taxus x media cvs.
Anglojapanese Yew
1 - 10'
Round or upright
Shade; very dark green; needs ideal conditions.
Thuja occidentalis RF
"Robusta"
Ware American Arborvitae
8'
Broad pyramid
Wet soil; half-shade; dark green foliage.  Often sold as T.o. "Wareana".
Thuja occidentalis RF
"Woodwardii"
Woodward Globe American Arborvitae
6'
Globe
Wet soil; half-shade; bright green.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
PROHIBITED SPECIES
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
PROHIBITED SPECIES
Botanical Name
Common Name
Growth Rate
Form
Adaptation and Remarks
Acer negundo
Boxelder
Weed tree.
Buckthorn
Invasive.
Crown Vetch
Invasive ground cover; aggressive.
Celtis occidentalis RF
Common Hackberry
M
Vase
Tolerates alkaline soils; "pebbled" bark; yellowish fall color; pest or disease problem may limit use.
Craetagus crusgalli
Cockspur Hawthorn
S
Spreading
Urban; sun; persistent, brick red fruits; orange to red fall color; evil thorns.
Gleditsia triacanthos
Common Honeylocust
F
Vase
Urban; tolerates poor drainage; salt-tolerant; dioecious females produce pods; fine-textured foliage; wicked thorns; yellow fall color; pest or disease problems may limit use.
Lonicera x bella
Belle Honeysuckle
Dry soil; white flowers; red fruits; may become weedy; pest problem.
Lonicera tatarica
Tartarian Honeysuckle
Dry soil; urban; pink to white flowers; dense, red fruits; may become weedy; pest or disease problem.
Lonicera morrowi
Morrow Honeysuckle
Urban; dense, white flowers; pest and disease problem; weedy.
Purple Loosestrife
Perennial, common marsh plant; may choke out native plants.
Rhamnus cathartica
Common Buckthorn
Becomes weak.
Rhamnus frangula
Glossy Buckthorn
Becomes weak.
KEY:
S = Slow
M = Medium
F = Fast
RF = Recommended for reforestation
 
The following sources were used in compiling the preceding list of plant species:
Department of Natural Resources.  Forest Trees of Wisconsin: How to Know Them. Madison, Wisconsin: Department of Natural Resources, 1897.
Hasselkus, E.R.  A Guide to Selecting Landscape Plants for Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin: College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin - Extension, Cooperative Extension Programs, 1982.
Hightshoe, Gary L.  Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and Rural America: A Planting Design Manual for Environmental Designers. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988.
Iowa State University.  Landscape Plants for Iowa.  Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service, May 1984.