§ 11.02  DEFINITIONS.
   (A)   Unless specifically defined below, words or phrases used in this article shall be interpreted to give them the meaning they have in common usage and to give this article its most reasonable application.
      (1)   A ZONE.  Special flood hazard areas inundated by the 1% annual chance flood (100-year flood).  Base flood elevations (BFEs) are not determined.
      (2)   ACCESSORY STRUCTURE (APPURTENANT STRUCTURE).  A structure located on the same parcel of property as the principal structure and the use of which is incidental to the use of the principal structure.  Accessory structures should constitute a minimal initial investment, may not be used for human habitation, and should be designed to have minimal flood damage potential.  Examples of accessory structures are detached garages, carports, storage sheds, pole barns, and hay sheds.
      (3)   ACCESSORY USE.  A use which is incidental and subordinate to the principal use of the parcel of land on which it is located.
      (4)   ADDITION (TO AN EXISTING STRUCTURE).  Any walled and roofed expansion to the perimeter or height of a structure.
      (5)   AE ZONES.  Special flood hazard areas inundated by the 1% annual chance flood (100-year flood).  Base flood elevations (BFEs) are determined.
      (6)   AH ZONE.  An area of 100-year shallow flooding where depths are between one and three feet (usually shallow ponding).  Base flood elevations are determined.
      (7)   AO ZONE.  An area of 100-year shallow flooding where water depth is between one and three feet (usually sheet flow on sloping terrain).  Flood depths are determined.
      (8)   APPEAL.  A request for a review of the Floodplain Administrator’s interpretation of any provision of this article or from the Floodplain Administrator’s ruling on a request for a variance.
      (9)   AR/A1 - A30, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/AO, and AR/A ZONES.  Special flood hazard areas (SFHAs) that result from the de-certification of a previously accredited flood protection system that is in the process of being restored to provide a 100-year or greater level of flood protection.  After restoration is complete these areas will still experience residual flooding from other flooding sources.
      (10)   A99 ZONE.  That part of the SFHA inundated by the 100-year flood which is to be protected from the 100-year flood by a federal flood protection system under construction.  No base flood elevations are determined.
      (11)   AREA OF SHALLOW FLOODING.  A designated AO or AH Zone on a community’s Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) where the base flood depths range from one to three feet, there is no clearly defined channel, the path of flooding is unpredictable and indeterminate, and velocity flow may be evident.  Such flooding is characterized by ponding or sheet flow.
      (12)   BASE FLOOD.  A flood which has a 1% chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year (also called the 100- YEAR FLOOD).  BASE FLOOD is the term used throughout this article.
      (13)   BASE FLOOD ELEVATION (BFE).  The elevation shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for Zones AE, AH, A1-30, AR, AR/A, AR/AE, AR/A1-A30, AR/AH, and AR/AO that indicates the water surface elevation resulting from a flood that has a 1% or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
      (14)   BASEMENT.  Any area of a structure having its floor sub-grade (below ground level) on all sides.
      (15)   BUILDING.  See definition for STRUCTURE.
      (16)   COMMUNITY.  A political entity having the authority to adopt and enforce floodplain ordinances for the area under its jurisdiction.
      (17)   COMMUNITY RATING SYSTEM (CRS).  A program developed by the Federal Insurance Administration to provide incentives to those communities in the Regular Program to go beyond the minimum floodplain management requirements to develop extra measures for protection from flooding.
      (18)   COMMUNITY FLOOD HAZARD AREA (CFHA).  An area that has been determined by the Floodplain Administrator (or other delegated, designated, or qualified community official) from available technical studies, historical information, and other available and reliable sources, which may be subject to periodic inundation by flood waters that can adversely affect the public health, safety and general welfare.  This includes areas downstream from dams.
      (19)   CRITICAL FACILITY.  Any property that, if flooded, would result in severe consequences to public health and safety or a facility which, if unusable or unreachable because of flooding, would seriously and adversely affect the health and safety of the public.  Critical facilities include, but are not limited to:  housing likely to contain occupants not sufficiently mobile to avoid injury or death unaided during a flood; schools, nursing homes, hospitals, police, fire and emergency response installations, vehicle and equipment storage facilities, emergency operations centers likely to be called upon before, during and after a flood, public and private utility facilities important to maintaining or restoring normal services before, during and after a flood, and those facilities or installations which produce, use or store volatile, flammable, explosive, toxic and/or water-reactive materials, hazardous materials or hazardous waste.
      (20)   D ZONE.  An area in which the flood hazard is undetermined.
      (21)   DEVELOPMENT.  Any manmade change to improved or unimproved real estate, including, but not limited to, buildings or other structures, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavating, drilling operations, or storage of equipment or materials.
      (22)   ELEVATED STRUCTURE.  For insurance proposes, a non-basement structure built to have the lowest floor elevated above ground level by foundation walls, shear walls, posts, piers, pilings or columns.
      (23)   ELEVATION CERTIFICATE.  A statement certified by a registered professional engineer or surveyor on the FEMA-approved form in effect at the time of certification that verifies a structure’s elevation and other related information to verify compliance with this article.
      (24)   EMERGENCY PROGRAM.  The initial phase under which a community participates in the NFIP, intended to provide a first layer amount of insurance at subsidized rates on all insurable structures in that community before the effective date of the initial FIRM.
      (25)   ENCLOSURE.  That portion of a structure below the lowest floor used solely for parking of vehicles, limited storage, or access to the structure.
      (26)   ENCROACHMENT.  The physical advance or infringement of uses, plant growth, fill, excavation, structures, or development into a floodplain, which may impede or alter the flow capacity of a floodplain.
      (27)   EXISTING CONSTRUCTION.  Any structure for which the “start of construction” commenced before the effective date of the FIRM or before January 1, 1975, for FIRMs effective before that date.  EXISTING CONSTRUCTION may also be referred to as EXISTING STRUCTURES.
      (28)   EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION.  A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed before the effective date of the first floodplain management ordinance adopted by a community.
      (29)   EXPANSION TO AN EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION.  The preparation of additional sites by the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads).
      (30)   FIVE-HUNDRED YEAR FLOOD (500-YEAR FLOOD).  The flood that has a 0.2% chance of being equaled or exceeded in any year.  Areas subject to the 500-year flood have a moderate risk of flooding.
      (31)   FLOOD or FLOODING.  A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from:
         (a)   The overflow of inland or tidal waters.
         (b)   The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source.
         (c)   Mudslides which are proximately caused by flooding and are akin to a river of liquid and flowing mud on the surfaces of normally dry land areas, as when earth is carried by a current of water and deposited along the path of the current.
         (d)   The collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or other body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels or suddenly caused by an unusually high water level in a natural body of water, accompanied by a severe storm, or by an unanticipated force of nature, such as flash flood or an abnormal tidal surge, or by some similarly unusual and unforeseeable event which results in flooding.
      (32)   FLOOD BOUNDARY AND FLOODWAY MAP (FBFM).  A map on which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has delineated the areas of flood hazards and the regulatory floodway.
      (33)   FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP (FHBM).  A map on which the boundaries of the flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow), and flood-related erosion areas having special hazards have been designated as Zones A, M, and/or E by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
      (34)   FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM).  A map on which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has delineated special flood hazard areas and risk premium zones.
      (35)   FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY.  The report provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) containing flood profiles, the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), and/or the Flood Boundary Floodway Map (FBFM), and the water surface elevation of the base flood.
      (36)   FLOODPLAIN OR FLOOD-PRONE AREA.  Any land area susceptible to being inundated by flood waters from any source.
      (37)   FLOODPLAIN ADMINISTRATOR.  The individual appointed by the community to administer and enforce the floodplain management ordinances.
      (38)   FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT.  The operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood damage and preserving and enhancing natural resources in the floodplain, including but not limited to emergency preparedness plans, flood control works, floodplain management ordinances, and open space plans.
      (39)   FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS.  This article and other zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, health regulations, special purpose ordinances (such as grading and erosion control), and other applications of police power, which control development in flood- prone areas.  This term describes federal, state and/or local regulations, in any combination thereof, which provide standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and reduction.
      (40)   FLOODPROOFING.  Any combination of structural and non-structural additions, changes, or adjustments to structures which reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate or improved real property, water and sanitation facilities, structures, and their contents.
      (41)   FLOODPROOFING CERTIFICATE.  A certification by a registered professional engineer or architect, the FEMA form in effect at the time of certification stating that a non-residential structure, together with attendant utilities and sanitary facilities is watertight to a specified design elevation with walls that are substantially impermeable to the passage of water and all structural components are capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic flood forces, including the effects of buoyancy and anticipated debris impact forces.
      (42)   FLOODWAY.  The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one foot.  Also referred to as the REGULATORY FLOODWAY.
      (43)   FLOODWAY FRINGE.  That area of the floodplain on either side of the regulatory floodway.
      (44)   FREEBOARD.  A factor of safety, usually expressed in feet above the BFE, which is applied for the purposes of floodplain management.  It is used to compensate for the many unknown factors that could contribute to flood heights greater than those calculated for the base flood.  Freeboard must be applied not just to the elevation of the lowest floor or floodproofing level, but also to the level of protection provided to all components of the structure, such as building utilities, HVAC components, etc.
      (45)   FRAUD AND VICTIMIZATION.  As related in § 11.06, Appeals and Variance Procedures, of this article, means that the variance granted must not cause fraud on or victimization of the public.  In examining this requirement, the City Commission will consider the fact that every newly constructed structure adds to government responsibilities and remains a part of the community for 50 to 100 years.  Structures that are permitted to be constructed below the base flood elevation are subject during all those years to increased risk of damage from floods, while future owners of the property and the community as a whole are subject to all the costs, inconvenience, danger, and suffering that those increased flood damages may incur.  In addition, future owners may purchase the property, unaware that it is subject to potential flood damage, and can be insured only at very high flood insurance rates.
      (46)   FUNCTIONALLY DEPENDENT USE FACILITY.  A facility, structure, or other development, which cannot be used for its intended purpose unless it is located or carried out in close proximity to water.  The term includes only a docking or port facility necessary for the loading and unloading of cargo or passengers, shipbuilding, or ship repair.  The term does not include long-term storage, manufacture, sales, or service facilities.
      (47)   GOVERNING BODY.  The local governing unit, i.e., county or municipality that is empowered to adopt and implement ordinances to provide for the public health, safety and general welfare of its citizenry.
      (48)   HAZARD POTENTIAL.  The possible adverse incremental consequences that result from the release of water or stored contents due to failure of a dam or misoperation of a dam or appurtenances.  The hazard potential classification of a dam does not reflect in any way the current condition of a dam and its appurtenant structures (e.g., safety, structural integrity, flood routing capacity).
      (49)   HIGHEST ADJACENT GRADE.  The highest natural elevation of the ground surface, prior to construction, next to the proposed walls of a structure.
      (50)   HISTORIC STRUCTURE.  Any structure that is:
         (a)   Listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places (a listing maintained by the Department of Interior) or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register;
         (b)   Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary to qualify as a registered historic district;
         (c)   Individually listed on a state inventory of historic places in states with historic preservation programs which have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or
         (d)   Individually listed on a local inventory of historic places in communities with historic preservation programs that have been certified either:
            1.   By an approved state program as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or
            2.   Directly by the Secretary of the Interior in states without approved programs.
      (51)   INCREASED COST OF COMPLIANCE (ICC). 
         (a)   Increased cost of compliance coverage means under the standard flood insurance policy the cost to repair a substantially flood damaged building that exceeds the minimal repair cost and that is required to bring a substantially damaged building into compliance with the local flood damage prevention ordinance.  Acceptable mitigation measures are floodproofing (non-residential), relocation, elevation, demolition, or any combination thereof.
         (b)   ICC coverage is available on residential and non-residential buildings (this category includes public or government buildings, such as schools, libraries, and municipal buildings) insured under the NFIP.
      (52)   LETTER OF MAP CHANGE (LOMC).  An official FEMA determination, by letter, to amend or revise effective Flood Insurance Rate Maps, Flood Boundary and Floodway Maps, and Flood Insurance Studies.  LOMCs include the following categories:
      (53)   LETTER OF MAP AMENDMENT (LOMA).  A revision based on technical data showing that a properly was inadvertently included in a designated SFHA.  A LOMA amends the current effective FIRM and establishes that a specific property is not located in a SFHA.
      (54)   LETTER OF MAP REVISION (LOMR).  A revision based on technical data that, usually due to manmade changes, shows changes to flood zones, flood elevations, floodplain and floodway delineations, and planimetric features.
      (55)   LETTER OF MAP REVISION - BASED ON FILL (LOMR-F).  A determination that a structure or parcel has been elevated by properly placed engineered fill above the BFE and is, therefore, excluded from the SHFA.
      (56)   LEVEE.  A man-made structure, usually an earthen embankment, designed and constructed in accordance with sound engineering practices to contain, control, or divert the flow of water so as to provide protection from temporary flooding.
      (57)   LEVEE SYSTEM.  A flood protection system that consists of a levee, or levees, and associated structures, such as closure and drainage devices, which are constructed and operated in accordance with sound engineering practices.
      (58)   LIMITED STORAGE.  An area used for storage and intended to be limited to incidental items which can withstand exposure to the elements and have low flood damage potential.  Such an area must be of flood resistant material, void of utilities except for essential lighting, and cannot be temperature controlled.
      (59)   LOWEST ADJACENT GRADE.  The lowest elevation of the sidewalk, patio, attached garage, deck support, basement entryway or grade immediately next to the structure and after the completion of construction.
      (60)   LOWEST FLOOR.  The lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area including basement.  An unfinished or flood resistant enclosure, usable solely for parking of vehicles, structure access, or storage in an area other than a basement area is not considered a structure’s lowest floor, provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in violation of the applicable non-elevation design requirements of this article.
      (61)   MANUFACTURED HOME.  A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed to be used with or without a permanent foundation when connected or attached to the required utilities.  The term also includes park trailers, travel trailers, and similar transportable structures placed on a site for 180 consecutive days or longer and intended to be improved property.  The term MANUFACTURED HOME does not include a recreational vehicle (see RECREATIONAL VEHICLE).
      (62)   MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION.  A parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into two or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale.
      (63)   MAP.  The Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM) or the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for a community issued by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
      (64)   MAP PANEL NUMBER.  The four-digit number on a flood map, followed by a letter suffix, assigned by FEMA.  The first four digits represent the map panel.  The letter suffix represents the number of times the map panel has been revised.  (The letter “A” is not used by FEMA, the letter “B” is the first revision.)
      (65)   MARKET VALUE.  The property value (as agreed between a willing buyer and seller), excluding the value of the land as established by what the local real estate market will bear.  Market value of the structure can be established by independent certified appraisal; replacement cost depreciated by age of structure (actual cash value) or adjusted assessed values.
      (66)   MEAN SEA LEVEL (MSL).  The average height of the sea for all stages of the tide.  For the purposes of the National Flood Insurance Program, the MSL is used as a reference for establishing various elevations within the floodplain as shown on the community’s FIRM.  For purposes of this article, the term is synonymous with either National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929 or North American Vertical Datum (NAVD) of 1988.
      (67)   MITIGATION.  Sustained actions taken to reduce or eliminate long-term risk to people and property from hazards and their effects.  The purpose of mitigation is twofold:  to protect people and structures, and to minimize the costs of disaster response and recovery.
      (68)   MUDSLIDE (i.e., MUDFLOW).  Describes a condition where there is a river, flow, or inundation of liquid mud down a hillside, usually as a result of a dual condition of loss of brush cover and the subsequent accumulation of water on the ground, preceded by a period of unusually heavy or sustained rain.  A mudslide (i.e., mudflow) may occur as a distinct phenomenon while a landslide is in progress, and will be recognized as such by the Floodplain Administrator only if the mudflow, and not the landslide, is the proximate cause of damage that occurs.
      (69)   MUDSLIDE (i.e., MUDFLOW) AREA MANAGEMENT.  The operation of and overall program of corrective and preventative measures for reducing mudslide (i.e., mudflow) damage, including but not limited to emergency preparedness plans, mudslide control works, and floodplain management regulations.
      (70)   MUDSLIDE (i.e., MUDFLOW) PRONE AREA.  An area with land surfaces and slopes of unconsolidated material where the history, geology, and climate indicate a potential for mudflow.
      (71)   NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM (NFIP).  The federal program that makes flood insurance available to owners of property in participating communities nationwide through the cooperative efforts of the federal government and the private insurance industry.
      (72)   NATIONAL GEODETIC VERTICAL DATUM (NGVD).  As corrected in 1929, a vertical control used as a reference for establishing varying elevations within the floodplain.  (Generally used as the vertical datum on the older FIRMs.  Refer to FIRM legend panel for correct datum.)
      (73)   NEW CONSTRUCTION.  Structures for which the start of construction commenced on or after the effective date of a floodplain management regulation adopted by a community and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures.
      (74)   NEW MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION.  A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed on or after the effective date of floodplain management regulations adopted by a community.
      (75)   NON-RESIDENTIAL.  Structures that are not designed for human habitation, including but is not limited to:  small business concerns, churches, schools, farm structures (including grain bins and silos), pool houses, clubhouses, recreational structures, mercantile structures, agricultural and industrial structures, warehouses, and hotels or motels with normal room rentals for less than six months duration.
      (76)   NORTH AMERICAN VERTICAL DATUM (NAVD).  As corrected in 1988, a vertical control used as a reference for establishing varying elevations within the floodplain.  (Generally used on the newer FIRMs and Digitally Referenced FIRMs (DFlRMs).  (Refer to FIRM or DFIRM panel legend for correct datum.)
      (77)   OBSTRUCTION.  Includes but is not limited to any dam, wall, embankment, levee, dike, pile, abutment, protection, excavation, channelization, bridge, conduit, culvert, structure, wire, fence, rock, gravel, refuse, fill, structure, vegetation or other material in, along, across or projecting into any watercourse which may alter, impede, retard or change the direction and/or velocity of the flow of water, due to its location, its propensity to snare or collect debris carried by the flow of water, or its likelihood of being carried downstream.
      (78)   ONE-HUNDRED YEAR FLOOD (100-YEAR FLOOD) (see BASE FLOOD).  The flood that has a 1% or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.  Any flood zone that begins with the letter A is subject to inundation by the 100-year flood.  Over the life of a 30-year loan, there is a 26% chance of experiencing such a flood with the SFHA.
      (79)   PARTICIPATING COMMUNITY.  A community that voluntarily elects to participate in the NFIP by adopting and enforcing floodplain management regulations that are consistent with the standards of the NFIP.
      (80)   PRE-FIRM CONSTRUCTION.  New construction or substantial improvements for which start of construction occurred on or before December 31, 1974, or before the effective date of the initial FIRM of the community, whichever is later.
      (81)   POST-FIRM CONSTRUCTION.  New construction or substantial improvements for which start of construction occurred after December 31, 1974, or on or after the effective date of the initial FIRM of the community, whichever is later.
      (82)   PROBATION.  A FEMA imposed change in community’s status resulting from violations and deficiencies in the administration and enforcement of the local floodplain management regulations.
      (83)   PROGRAM DEFICIENCY.  A defect in a community’s floodplain management regulations or administrative procedures that impairs effective implementation of those floodplain management standards.
      (84)   PUBLIC SAFETY AND NUISANCE.  Anything which is injurious to safety or health of an entire community or neighborhood, or any considerable number of persons, or unlawfully obstructs the free passage or use, in the customary manner, of any navigable lake, or river, bay, stream, canal, or basin.
      (85)   RECREATIONAL VEHICLE.  A vehicle that is:
         (a)   Built on a single chassis;
         (b)   Four hundred square feet or less when measured at the largest horizontal projection;
         (c)   Designed to be self-propelled or permanently towable to a light duty truck; and
         (d)   Designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling but as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, travel, or seasonal use.
      (86)   REGULAR PROGRAM.  The phase of a community’s participation in the NFIP where more comprehensive floodplain management requirements are imposed and higher amounts of insurance are available based upon risk zones and flood elevations determined in the FIS.
      (87)   REGULATORY FLOODWAY.  The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one foot.  See BASE FLOOD.
      (88)   REMEDY A VIOLATION.  The process by which a community brings a structure or other development into compliance with state or local floodplain management regulations, or, if this is not possible, to reduce the impact of non-compliance.  Reduced impact may include protecting the structure or other affected development from flood damages, implementing the enforcement provisions of the ordinance or otherwise deterring future similar violations, or reducing state or federal financing exposure with regard to the structure or other development.
      (89)   REPAIR.  The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing structure.
      (90)   REPETITIVE LOSS.  Flood-related damages sustained by a structure on two separate occasions during a ten-year period for which the cost of repairs at the time of each such flood event, on average, equals or exceeds 25% of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.
      (91)   REPETITIVE LOSS PROPERTY.  Any insurable building for which two or more claims of more than $1,000 were paid by the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) within any rolling ten-year period, since 1978.  At least two of the claims must be more than ten days apart but within ten years of each other.  A RL property may or may not be currently insured by the NFIP.
      (92)   RIVERINE.  Relating to, formed by, or resembling a river (including tributaries), stream, brook, etc.
      (93)   SECTION 1316.  That section of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended, which states that no new or renewal flood insurance coverage shall be provided for any property that the Administrator finds has been declared by a duly constituted state or local zoning authority or other authorized public body to be in violation of state or local laws, regulations, or ordinances that are intended to discourage or otherwise restrict land development or occupancy in flood-prone areas.
      (94)   SEVERE REPETITIVE LOSS STRUCTURE.  Any insured property that has met at least one of the following paid flood loss criteria since 1978, regardless of ownership:
         (a)   Four or more separate claim payments of more than $5,000 each (including building and contents payments); or
         (b)   Two or more separate claim payments (building payments only) where the total of the payments exceeds the current market value of the property.
      (95)   In either case, two of the claim payments must have occurred within ten years of each other.  Multiple losses at the same location within ten days of each other are counted as one loss, with the payment amounts added together.
      (96)   SHEET FLOW AREA.  See AREA OF SHALLOW FLOODING.
      (97)   SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA (SFHA).  That portion of the floodplain subject to inundation by the base flood and/or flood-related erosion hazards as shown on a FHBM or FIRM as Zone A, AE, A1 - A30, AH, AO, or AR.
      (98)   START OF CONSTRUCTION (includes substantial improvement and other proposed new development).  The date a building permit is issued, provided the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition placement or other improvement is within 180 days of the permit date. The ACTUAL START means the first placement of permanent construction of a structure (including manufactured home) on a site, such as the pouring of slabs or footings, the installation of piles, construction of columns, or any work beyond the stage of excavation; or the placement of a manufactured home on a foundation.  Permanent construction does not include land preparation, such as clearing, grading, and filling; nor does it include the installation of streets and/or walkways; nor does it include excavation for a basement, footings, piers, or foundations or the erection of temporary forms; the installation on the property of accessory structures, such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure.  For a substantial improvement, the ACTUAL START of construction means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the structure.
      (99)   STRUCTURE.  A walled and roofed building, including gas or liquid storage tank that is principally above ground, as well as a manufactured home.
      (100)   SUBDIVISION.  Any division, for the purposes of sale, lease, or development, either on the installment plan or upon any and all other plans, terms and conditions, of any tract or parcel of land into two or more lots or parcels.
      (101)   SUBROGATION.  A legal action brought by FEMA to recover insurance money paid out where all or part of the damage can be attributed to acts or omissions by a community or other third party.
      (102)   SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE.  Damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its before damaged condition would equal or exceed 50% of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.
      (103)   SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT.  Any reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, or other improvement of a structure, taking place during a one-year period in which the cumulative percentage of improvements equals or exceeds 50% of the market value of the structure before the “start of construction” of the improvement.  This term includes structures which have incurred “substantial damage”, regardless of the actual repair work performed.  The term does not, however, include either:
         (a)   Any project for improvement of a structure to correct existing violations of state or local health, sanitary, or safety code specifications which have been identified by the local Code Enforcement Official and which are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions; or
         (b)   Any alteration of a “historic structure” provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure’s continued designation as a “historic structure.”
      (104)   SUBSTANTIALLY IMPROVED EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARKS OR SUBDIVISIONS.  Repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, or improvement of the streets, utilities, and pads equaling or exceeding 50% of the value of the streets, utilities, and pads before the repair, reconstruction, or improvement commenced.
      (105)   SUSPENSION.  Removal of a participating community from the NFIP for failure to enact and/or enforce floodplain management regulations required for participation in the NFIP.
      (106)   UTILITIES.  Include, but not limited to, electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, and air-conditioning equipment that service the structure and the site.
      (107)   VARIANCE.  Relief from some or all of the requirements of this article.
      (108)   VIOLATION.  Failure of a structure or other development to fully comply with this article.  A structure or other development without the elevation certificate, other certifications, or other evidence of compliance required in this article is presumed to be in violation until such time as that documentation is provided.
      (109)   WATERCOURSE.  A lake, river, creek, stream, wash, channel or other topographic feature on or over which water flows at least periodically.
      (110)   WATER SURFACE ELEVATION.  The height, in relation to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929 (or other datum, where specified), of floods of various magnitudes and frequencies in the floodplains of coastal or riverine areas.
      (111)   WATERSHED.  All the area within a geographic boundary from which water, sediments, dissolved materials, and other transportable materials drain or are carried by water to a common outlet, such as a point on a larger stream, lake, or underlying aquifer.
      (112)   X (SHADED) and B ZONES.  Areas of the 0.2% annual chance (500-year) flood that are outside of the SFHA, areas subject to the 100-year flood with average depths of less than one foot or with contributing drainage area less than one square mile, and areas protected by levees from the base flood.
      (113)   X (UNSHADED) and C ZONES.  Areas determined to be outside the 500-year floodplain.
      (114)   ZONE.  A geographical area shown on a Flood Hazard Boundary Map or a Flood Insurance Rate Map that reflects the severity or type of flooding in the area.
(Ord. O-16-12, passed 8-7-12)