§ 7.12  DRIVEWAYS AND VEHICLE ACCESS.
   To promote greater safety of passage between highway and land, improve the convenience and ease of movement of travelers on the highway, permit reasonable speeds and economy of travel, and increase and protect the capacity of the highway, the location and design of driveways and vehicle access points on to streets and roadways must comply with the following access control requirements. These requirements apply along all arterial and collector streets, as identified in the adopted comprehensive plan.
   7.12.01   Provision of Reserved Turning Lanes.  At those access points where vehicles turning to and from the arterial and collector streets will affect the roadway capacity, turn lanes must be constructed by the developer.
   7.12.02   Coordination of Access Points.  Major access points on opposite sides of arterial and collector streets must be located opposite each other, otherwise turning movement restrictions may be imposed by the Planning Commission or Zoning Administrator, whichever is applicable. In addition, to maximize the efficient utilization of access points, access drives must be designed, located, and constructed in a manner to provide and make possible the coordination of access with, and between, adjacent properties developed (present or future) for similar uses. As a condition of approval for construction, use, or reuse of any access road, the Zoning Administrator may require that unobstructed and unencumbered access, in accordance with the provisions of this ordinance, be provided from any such access point to adjacent properties.
   7.12.03   Spacing Restrictions for Signalized Access Points.
   (A)   Access points that will warrant signalization must be spaced a minimum distance of 0.25 miles apart. The exact location of the signal light must be determined by a traffic engineering study, which must at least account for the following variables:
      (1)   Speed;
      (2)   Traffic signal phasing;
      (3)   Traffic signal cycle length;
      (4)   Roadway geometrics; and
      (5)   Accident experience.
   (B)   Turning movements must maintain the design capacity of the roadway.
   7.12.04   Sight Distance.  The centerline of all access points must intersect as nearly at a 90-degree angle as possible, but in no case may the angle of intersection be less than 75 degrees or greater than one 105 degrees, unless approved by the Planning Commission or Zoning Administrator, whichever is applicable, due to certain exceptional conditions.
   7.12.05   Location of Unsignalized Access Points.
   (A)   Arterial Streets.
      (1)   Unsignalized access points must be spaced a minimum distance of 600 feet apart. Turning restrictions and/or reserved lanes may be required.
      (2)   One access point per existing tract will be permitted. However, if the 600-foot spacing requirement for a direct access point onto an arterial street (as provided in (A)(1), above) cannot be met, then an access point may be located on a frontage road, or on an intersecting local street, or share a common driveway that meets the spacing requirements. For the intersecting local street or frontage road to function properly, access onto them will be controlled as follows:
         (a)   Access points onto local streets intersecting an arterial street must be spaced a minimum distance of 100 feet, measured from point of curb return to point of curb return, from the arterial street.
         (b)   In areas zoned to permit commercial, industrial, or multifamily residential uses, access points from adjacent properties onto frontage roads must be no less than 100 feet, measured from point of curb return to point of curb return, from intersections of the frontage road with local or collector streets.
      (3)   Where the frontage of a tract is greater than 500 feet, an additional access point may be permitted. However, the type of access will depend on the driveway spacing requirement. If the frontage of the tract is large enough, then at least one of the access points may have direct access onto the arterial street, provided the spacing between the adjacent access points meet the requirements of paragraph (A)(1) above and all other requirements of this ordinance. In the case where the frontage allows only one point of direct access, due to spacing restrictions as provided herein, the second access point will be via a frontage road, or an intersecting local street, or share a common driveway that meets the spacing restrictions, as provided along the arterial street.
      (4)   If a tract of land has no means of access that would meet the requirements of this ordinance, one access point must be provided. However, all such access points must be considered a temporary right-of-way and may be terminated, reduced, limited to certain turning movements, or caused to be relocated by the Zoning Administrator at such time as the particular use served by the access point changes and/or the property is otherwise provided an alternate means of access via a frontage road, or an intersecting local street, or sharing of a common driveway. Provisions for the construction of a frontage road, restricted turning movements, or other improvements may be required as a condition to approval to minimize the number of access points and congestion to the adjacent street. In all cases where access points are classified as temporary, such designation must be noted on the site plan or site plan submitted for a zoning permit and also upon the deed of the property in question.
   (B)   Collector Streets.
      (1)   On two-lane roadways, one access point per existing tract will be allowed. However, if the frontage is greater than 500 feet, an additional access point may be permitted.  Furthermore, the minimum spacing between adjacent access points on this type of facility must be 100 feet, measured from point of curb return to point of curb return, except in the case where the street intersects another collector street or arterial street, then access points must be spaced a minimum of 300 feet from the intersection.
      (2)   On multi-lane roadways, the spacing is dependent on whether or not a barrier median exists (prohibiting left-turn movements). If a barrier median exists, access points may be spaced as close as 300 feet. However, certain turning movements will be prohibited. If a barrier median does not exist, then the minimum spacing of access points must be 600 feet. In addition, some turning movements may be prohibited.
      (3)   One access point per existing tract will be allowed. However, if the spacing requirements for a direct access point cannot be met, then an access point may be located on a frontage road, or on an intersecting street, or share a common driveway that meets the spacing requirements.
      (4)   If a tract of land has no means of access that would meet the requirements of this ordinance, one access point must be allowed. However, all such access points must be considered a temporary right-of-way and may be terminated, reduced, limited to certain turning movements, or caused to be relocated by the Zoning Administrator at such time as the particular use served by the access point changes and/or the property is otherwise provided an alternate means of access via a frontage road, or an intersecting local street, or sharing of a common driveway. Provisions for the construction of a frontage road, restricted turning movements, or other improvements may be required, as a condition to approval, to minimize the number of access points and congestion to the adjacent street. In all cases where access points are classified as temporary, such designation must be noted on the site plan or site plan submitted for a zoning permit and also upon the deed of the property in question.
   7.12.06   Width of Access Points.
   (A)   In single-family residential zones, no access point may be more than 20 feet in width. In all other zones, access points may not be less than 12 feet nor more than 28 feet in width. The width must be as measured from the point of curb return to point of curb return, or edge of pavement if no curb exists, excluding the curb radius.
   (B)   The Zoning Administrator may modify (enlarge or reduce) the width to provide for a more efficient and safe channelization and/or flow of traffic.
   7.12.07   Exceptions to Access Point Requirements.  Where situations develop that may require special treatment, the requirements of this section may be varied, provided that a traffic engineering report is prepared by a qualified traffic engineer, establishing that the special treatment will have no adverse effects on the roadway safety and capacity.
   7.12.08   Access Point Problem Areas.  If, after special study, it is determined that the type of use or activity proposed would have an adverse effect on the safety and capacity of the adjacent roadway, the access point spacing requirements, as contained in this section, may have to be increased to adequately address traffic safety and circulation issues.
   7.12.09   Approval of Access Points Required. Plans for all access points and modifications thereto (including plans to use existing access points where a change of use for any tract of land would generate more traffic than the previous use, thus producing an adverse effect on the adjacent roadway) must be submitted to the Zoning Administrator and the Planning Commission staff, at a scale not less than one inch = 100 feet. No action of approving or rejecting these plans by the Zoning Administrator must be taken until a review and recommendation of the plans has been made by the Planning Commission staff. Such plans must show the location of all access points and access points within 600 feet in either direction. The proposed access point must include typical cross-sections of pavement, the base and subbase, proposed grade, storm drainage, and such other information or plans as the circumstances may warrant. If such access points are being located in conjunction with off-street parking and/or loading and unloading facilities, then the plans must also include parking and off-street loading and/or unloading plans in accordance with this ordinance.
   7.12.10   Approval of Access Points Along State Maintained Routes by Kentucky Department of Transportation.  A copy of the plans for all access points to be constructed along a state-maintained route must also be submitted to the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet for review and approval during the same time as plans are submitted to the Zoning Administrator. No access point plans will be approved, or permits issued for construction by the Zoning Administrator, until the access point plans have been approved by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet.
Sight Distance for Vehicles Exiting from Access Points
Left Turn Sight Distance for Vehicles Entering Access Points
(Ord. O-37-06, passed 8-15-06)