13.3.1   Use of parking area, stacking area, or loading space. All vehicular parking areas, stacking areas, and loading spaces required by this article shall be used only for those purposes. Any other use, including, but not limited to, vehicular storage, vehicle sales, vehicular repair work, vehicle service, or display of any kind, shall constitute a separate use of the space.
   13.3.2   Identified as to purpose and location when not clearly evident. Off-street parking areas of three or more spaces and off-street loading areas shall include painted lines, wheel stops, or other methods of identifying individual parking spaces and loading areas and distinguishing such spaces from aisles.
   13.3.3   Surfacing. All off-street parking, loading, and stacking areas shall be surfaced with asphalt, concrete, brick, stone, pavers, or an equivalent material. These materials shall be maintained in a smooth, well-graded condition at all times. Except for detached single-family development, gravel shall not be used to satisfy the requirements of this section. When gravel is used, a hard surfaced driveway apron must be installed to the greater of eight feet from the edge of pavement or past the ditch tile.
   13.3.4   Arrangement.
   (A)   All off-street parking and loading areas shall be arranged for convenient access and safety of pedestrians and vehicles.
   (B)   Except for detached residential uses, off-street parking areas with three or more spaces shall be arranged so that no parking or maneuvering incidental to parking shall be on a public street or sidewalk, and so that an automobile may be parked and un-parked without moving another automobile.
   (C)   All off-street parking and loading areas, except on lots used for detached residential uses and townhouses, shall be arranged so that no vehicle shall be required to back from such facilities directly onto public streets.
   13.3.5   Curbs and vehicle stops. All off-street parking and loading areas shall provide curbs, wheel stops, or similar devices so as to prevent vehicles from overhanging onto or into the public right-of-way, sidewalks, walkways, adjacent land, or landscape areas.
   13.3.6   Maintenance. All off-street parking and loading areas shall be maintained in good repair, and in safe condition at all times, so as not to constitute a hazard to public safety or a visual or aesthetic nuisance to surrounding land. All off-street parking and loading areas shall be periodically re-striped or otherwise restored to maintain a clear identification of separate parking stalls.
   13.3.7   Responsibility for provision. The responsibility for providing the off-street parking and loading areas required by this section shall be that of whomever develops the land that requires parking and loading areas.
   13.3.8   Construction of off-street parking and loading areas. All off-street parking and loading areas shall be completed prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy for the use or uses they serve.