13.1   Purpose
13.2   Applicability
13.3   General requirements for off-street parking, loading, and stacking areas
13.4   Off-street parking standards
13.5   Loading area standards
13.6   Stacking space standards
13.7   Pedestrian and bicycle facilities
§ 13.1  PURPOSE.
   It is the purpose of this article to relieve traffic congestion in the streets, to minimize any detrimental effects of off-street parking areas on adjacent lands, and to ensure the proper and uniform development of automobile parking areas throughout the town.
   These regulations shall apply to all land development activities within the town. This includes the expansion, enlargement, change of use, or other action which alters the parking demand for a structure or use.
   13.3.1   Use of parking area, stacking area, or loading space. All vehicular parking areas, stacking areas, and loading spaces required by this article shall be used only for those purposes. Any other use, including, but not limited to, vehicular storage, vehicle sales, vehicular repair work, vehicle service, or display of any kind, shall constitute a separate use of the space.
   13.3.2   Identified as to purpose and location when not clearly evident. Off-street parking areas of three or more spaces and off-street loading areas shall include painted lines, wheel stops, or other methods of identifying individual parking spaces and loading areas and distinguishing such spaces from aisles.
   13.3.3   Surfacing. All off-street parking, loading, and stacking areas shall be surfaced with asphalt, concrete, brick, stone, pavers, or an equivalent material. These materials shall be maintained in a smooth, well-graded condition at all times. Except for detached single-family development, gravel shall not be used to satisfy the requirements of this section. When gravel is used, a hard surfaced driveway apron must be installed to the greater of eight feet from the edge of pavement or past the ditch tile.
   13.3.4   Arrangement.
   (A)   All off-street parking and loading areas shall be arranged for convenient access and safety of pedestrians and vehicles.
   (B)   Except for detached residential uses, off-street parking areas with three or more spaces shall be arranged so that no parking or maneuvering incidental to parking shall be on a public street or sidewalk, and so that an automobile may be parked and un-parked without moving another automobile.
   (C)   All off-street parking and loading areas, except on lots used for detached residential uses and townhouses, shall be arranged so that no vehicle shall be required to back from such facilities directly onto public streets.
   13.3.5   Curbs and vehicle stops. All off-street parking and loading areas shall provide curbs, wheel stops, or similar devices so as to prevent vehicles from overhanging onto or into the public right-of-way, sidewalks, walkways, adjacent land, or landscape areas.
   13.3.6   Maintenance. All off-street parking and loading areas shall be maintained in good repair, and in safe condition at all times, so as not to constitute a hazard to public safety or a visual or aesthetic nuisance to surrounding land. All off-street parking and loading areas shall be periodically re-striped or otherwise restored to maintain a clear identification of separate parking stalls.
   13.3.7   Responsibility for provision. The responsibility for providing the off-street parking and loading areas required by this section shall be that of whomever develops the land that requires parking and loading areas.
   13.3.8   Construction of off-street parking and loading areas. All off-street parking and loading areas shall be completed prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy for the use or uses they serve.
   13.4.1   Minimum number of spaces required. Unless otherwise expressly stated in this section, off-street parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with Table 13-1, Minimum Off-Street Parking Requirements. Unlisted uses shall conform to the requirements of the most similar use. The Ordinance Administrator may approve an alternative parking standard if an applicant submits an alternative parking standard with a parking study from a professional engineer which demonstrates the alternative design meets more current and accepted standards such as IT or ULI standards.
Table 13-1 Minimum Off-Street Parking Requirements
Use Category
Use Type
Parking Requirement
Residential Use Classification
Household Living
Dwelling, duplex
2 per DU
Dwelling, manufactured home
Dwelling, multi-family
1 per efficiency, 1.5 per 1-2 bedroom unit, 2 per 3 bedroom unit
Dwelling, single-family detached
2 per DU
Dwelling, townhouse
Group Living
Group home (1 to 6 persons)
Group home (more than 7 persons)
1 per employee + 1 per 3 adults or 5 children
Rooming house
1 + 1 per bedroom
Institutional Use Classification
Community Services
All (up to 10,000 square feet of gross floor area)
1 per 300 sf
All (more than 10,000 sf GFA)
Educational Facilities
College or university
1 per 600 sf of academic space + 1 per 5 seats in largest assembly hall
School, elementary
1 per every 2 classrooms + 1 per employee
School, middle
School, senior high
1 per classroom + 1 per every 4 students
School, trade or vocational
1 per every 2 students + 1 per employee on largest shift
Government Facilities
All (up to 10,000 sf GFA)
1 per 300 sf of space used by public + 1 per remaining 600 sf
All (more than 10,000 sf GFA)
Public parks or recreational facilities
Determined by Ord. Admin.
Healthcare Facilities
2 per bed + 1 per 300 sf of administrative area
Medical treatment facility (up to 10,000 sf GFA)
1 per 300 sf
Medical treatment facility (more than 10,000 sf GFA)
Other Institutional Facilities
Assisted living/nursing facility
1 per 3 patient beds
1 per employee on largest shift
Halfway house
1 per employee + 1 per every 3 residents
Religious or civic institution (up to 10,000 sf GFA)
1 per 4 seats in main assembly rooms
Religious or civic institution (more than 10,000 sf GFA)
Telecomm. facility, collocation on existing structure
1 per service provider with equipment on site
Telecommunications facility, freestanding
Utility, minor
Determined by Ord. Admin.
Utility, major
1 per employee on largest shift
Working Lands Use Classification
Working Lands
No minimum required
Horticulture/plant nursery
Commercial Use Classification
Adult Entertain.
1 per employee + 1 per 200 sf
Animal Care
Animal shelter
1 per 300 sf
Kennel, outdoor
Veterinary clinic/boarding
Daycare facility, fewer than 30 attendees
1 per 200 sf
Daycare facility, 30 or more attendees
Hotels and Motels
Bed and breakfast inn
2 + 1 per guestroom
Hotels, motels, and similar uses
1 per guestroom + 1 per employee on largest shift + 75% of rate for accessory uses
Single tenant (up to 5,000 sf GFA)
1 per 300 sf
Single tenant (more than 5,000 sf GFA)
Multi-tenant (up to 15,000 sf GFA)
Multi-tenant (more than 15,000 sf GFA)
Recreation, Indoor
Commercial recreation, indoor (up to 5,000 sf GFA)
1 per 300 sf
Commercial recreation, indoor (more than 5,000 sf GFA)
Country club
1 per 300 sf + minimum number of spaces for accessory uses
Equine stable/riding academy
1 per employee + 1 per stall
Recreation, Outdoor
Arena, amphitheater, or stadium
1 per 4 seats
Commercial recreation, outdoor
1 per employee on largest shift + 1/2 space per maximum number of participants
Golf course, public or private
6 per hole
Golf driving range
1 per tee
Restaurant without drive through service
1 per 200 sf
Restaurant with drive through service
Retail Sales and Services
Bar, nightclub, or similar establishment
1 per 100 sf
3 + 1 per employee
Retail/service use with gasoline sales
1 per 150 sf
Type I retail or service use
1 per 250 sf
Type II retail or service use (up to 15,000 sf GFA)
1 per 300 sf
Type II retail or service use (more than 15,000 sf GFA)
Type III retail or service use
1 per 400 sf
Industrial Use Classification
Extractive Industry
1 per employee on largest shift
Industrial Services
Building contractor and related specialties
Fuel oil/bottled gas distributor
Heavy equipment sales, rental, or repair
Research and development
Manufacturing, and Production
Manufacturing, heavy
Manufacturing, light
Self Storage
1 per employee + 1 per 50 units
Warehousing and Distribution
Parcel services
1 per employee on largest shift
Truck or freight terminal
Outdoor Storage
Wholesale Sales
1 per 1,000 sf
   13.4.2   Minimum separation. All parking areas shall be separated at least ten feet from buildings in order to allow room for sidewalks, landscaping, and other plantings between the building and the parking area. This separation may be eliminated in the rear of buildings in areas designed for loading and unloading materials.
   13.4.3   Cross access required.
   (A)   General. All development except for detached residential development and attached residential development with fewer than four dwelling units shall be designed to allow for cross access to adjacent compatible sites in accordance with the following standards.
      (1)   Limited to two parcels. Cross access ways shall be designed and located based on the standards of this section, but in no case shall a development be required to provide cross access to more than two adjacent parcels.
      (2)   Future stubs required. A stub for future cross access shall be provided to all adjacent vacant land designated as OI, NB, or HB.
      (3)   Placement and width. Cross access ways shall be located and configured in a manner to provide the most convenient access between adjacent parcels. No part of a cross access way shall be located within a street right-of-way. The minimum width of the cross access way shall be 22 feet.
   (B)   Waiver. The cross access standard shall be waived by the Planning Department if the applicant demonstrates it is impractical to provide cross access due to:
      (1)   Topography or natural features;
      (2)   The size and configuration of the site;
      (3)   Vehicular safety factors;
      (4)   The presence of incompatible uses; or
      (5)   Existing development patterns on adjacent developed sites that make cross access impossible.
      When cross access is waived in accordance with this section, pedestrian connections shall be provided between adjacent developments or uses, to the maximum extent practicable.
   (C)   Recording required. Where provided, cross access easements must be recorded by the owner/developer of the property prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy.
   13.4.4   Dimensional standards for parking spaces and drive aisles. The minimum dimensions for standard car parking spaces and parking lot aisles shall comply with Table 13-2, Dimensional Standards for Parking Spaces and Aisles.
Table 13-2 Dimensional Standards for Parking Spaces and Aisles
Stall Type
Stall Width (feet)
Stall Depth (feet)
Minimum Aisle Width for Two Way Traffic1
45 Degrees
90 Degrees
1. The aisle width may be reduced by one-half for one way traffic.
   13.4.5   Accessible parking for disabled persons. Off-street parking for disabled persons shall be provided in accordance with Federal ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) standards.
   13.5.1   Minimum number of spaces required. Unless otherwise expressly stated in this section, loading areas shall be provided in accordance with Table 13-3, Loading Area Standards.
Table 13-3 Loading Area Standards
Use Type
Gross Floor Area (sq. ft.)
Minimum Number of Spaces
10,000 or more
Retail Sales and Service
3,000 - 14,999
15,000 - 49,999
50,000 - 99,999
100,000 or more
4 + 1 per every additional 100,000 sq. ft.
Wholesale and Manufacturing
Up to 15,000
15,000 - 49,999
50,000 or more
3 + 1 per every additional 50,000 sq. ft.
All other industrial uses except self storage)
Up to 15,0000
15,000 - 49,999
50,000 - 124,999
125,000 - 249,999
250,000 or more
5 +1 per every additional 125,000 sq. ft.
   13.5.2   Design standards.
   (A)   Minimum dimensions.
      (1)   Each loading berth or space required by this division 13.5.2 shall be at least ten feet wide by 60 feet long (or deep), with at least 15 feet of overhead clearance. Each off-street loading space shall have adequate, unobstructed paths for the ingress and egress of vehicles.
      (2)   Uses with less than 5,000 square feet of floor area which are required to provide an off-street loading space may provide a space which is ten feet wide by 30 feet long (or deep), with at least 15 feet of overhead clearance.
   (B)   Location. Where possible, loading areas shall be located to the rear of the use they serve. In addition, the loading area shall be located adjacent to the buildings loading doors, in an area that promotes their practical use.
   (C)   Delineation of loading spaces. All loading spaces shall be delineated by signage, striping, and labeling of the pavement.
   (D)   Access to a street. Every loading area shall be provided with safe and convenient access to a street, but in no case shall the loading space extend into the required aisle of the parking lot.
   (E)   Paving. The ground surface of loading areas shall be paved with a durable, dust free, and hard material, such as surface and seal treatment, bituminous hot mix or Portland cement, concrete, or some comparable material. Such paving shall be maintained for safe and convenient use at all times.
   13.6.1   Minimum number of spaces required. In addition to meeting the off-street parking standards in Table 13-1, Minimum Off-Street Parking Requirements, uses with drive through facilities or similar auto-orientation shall comply with the minimum stacking space standards in Table 13-4, Required Stacking/Standing Spaces.
Table 13-4 Required Stacking/Standing Spaces
Type of Use/Activity
Minimum Stacking Spaces
Measured From
Automated Teller Machine
Teller machine
Automobile Repair and Service
3 per service bay
Bay entrance
Car Wash (Automatic)
Bay entrance
Car Wash (Full Service)
Bay entrance
Daycare Center
Building entrance
Financial Institution
5 per lane
Teller window
Gasoline Sales
30 feet from each end of the outermost island
Nursing Home
Building entrance
Restaurant Drive Through
Pick-up window
Retail Sales and Service (Drug Store, Dry Cleaning, and the like)
5 per lane
Agent window
Unlisted Uses
Determined by the Ordinance Administrator based on the size and type of use
   13.6.2   Dimensional standards. Stacking spaces shall be a minimum of 12 feet wide and 20 feet deep.
   13.7.1   Pedestrian circulation. Off-street parking lots with 25 or more spaces shall include pedestrian corridors through parking areas and sidewalks along building facades to accommodate safe pedestrian travel. Pedestrian corridors shall be demarcated by painting, material changes, or differing heights where they cross vehicular travelways.
   13.7.2   Pedestrian pathways through parking lots. Off-street parking lots containing 150 or more spaces shall provide fully separated pedestrian pathways within the parking lot. These pathways shall:
   (A)   Be located within planted landscaping strips located a minimum of every 130 feet, or every four parking rows;
   (B)   Be paved with asphalt, cement, or other comparable material;
   (C)   Be of contrasting color or materials when crossing drive aisles;
   (D)   Be at least three feet in width when located within planting strips, and ten feet in width when crossing drive aisles;
   (E)   Terminate at drive aisle edges;
   (F)   Be positively drained; and
   (G)   Provide safe and efficient pedestrian access to the use they serve.
   13.7.3   Bicycle parking. All development with parking areas with 25 or more spaces shall provide bicycle parking facilities, which shall comply with the following standards.
   (A)   Bicycle parking spaces shall be conveniently located, but in no case shall such facilities be located farther than 100 linear feet from the primary building entrance.
   (B)   Bicycle parking spaces shall be provided at the rate of one space per ten off-street parking spaces, with a maximum requirement of ten bicycle spaces.
   (C)   Bicycle facilities shall include a rack or other device to enable bicycles to be secured.
   (D)   Access from the bicycle parking area to the primary building entrance shall be constructed of asphalt, concrete, or other durable material. Such access shall also be lighted through sidewalk or parking lot lighting.