For the purpose of this subchapter, the following definitions shall apply unless the context clearly indicates or requires a different meaning.
   AIR GAP SEPARATION. The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture, or other device and the flow leveling of the receptacle. An approved AIR GAP SEPARATION shall be at least double the diameter of the supply pipe measured vertically above the top rim of the vessel.
   APPROVED. The term approved as herein used in reference to a water supply system or backflow prevention device (or method) shall mean one that has been approved by the Public Works Director.
   BACK-PRESSURE BACKFLOW. Backflow caused by a pump elevated tank boiler or other means that could create pressure within the system greater than the supply pressure.
   BACK-SIPHONAGE BACKFLOW. A reversal of the normal direction of flow in the pipeline due to a negative pressure (vacuum) being created in the supply line with the backflow source subject to atmospheric pressure.
   BACKFLOW PREVENTION DEVICE-TYPE - A. Any effective device, method, or construction used to prevent backflow into a potable water system. The type of device used shall be based on the degree of hazard either existing or potential.
   CHECK VALVE-APPROVED. A check valve that is drip-tight in the normal direction of flow when the inlet pressure is one P.S.I, and the outlet pressure is zero. The check valve shall permit no leakage in a direction reverse to the normal flow. The closure element (e.g. clapper) shall be internally weighted or otherwise internally loaded to promote rapid and positive closure.
   CONSUMER. Any person, firm, or corporation using or receiving water from the Town of Biltmore Forest water system.
   CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the water by sewage or industrial fluids or waste to a degree, which creates an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or through the spread of disease.
   CROSS-CONNECTION. Any actual or potential connection of structural arrangement between a public or a consumer’s potable water system and any other source or system through which it is possible to introduce into any part of the potable system any used water, industrial fluid, gas, or substance other than the intended potable water with which the system is supplied. Bypass arrangements jumper connections, removable sections, swivel or change-over devices, and other temporary/permanent devices through which or because of which backflow can or may occur are considered to be CROSS-CONNECTIONS.
   DOUBLE CHECK ASSEMBLY. An assembly composed of two single independently acting approved check valves, including tightly closing shut-off valves located at each end of the assembly and suitable connections for testing the water-tightness of each check valve.
   HAZARD - DEGREE OF. Plumbing type cross-connection in a consumer’s potable water system that has not been properly protected by a vacuum breaker, air-gap separation, or other device. Unprotected, plumbing type cross-connections are considered to be a health hazard. They include, but are not limited to, cross-connections to toilets, sinks, lavatories, wash trays, domestic washing machines, and lawn sprinkling systems. Plumbing type cross-connections can be located in many type of structures, including homes, apartment houses, hotels, and commercial and industrial establishment.
   HAZARD POLLUTION. An actual or potential threat to the physical properties of the water system or the potability of the public or the consumer’s potable water system but which would not constitute a health or system hazard as defined. The maximum degree of intensity of pollution to which the potable water system could be degraded under this definition would cause a nuisance or be aesthetically objectionable or could cause minor damage to the system or its appurtenances.
   HAZARD-SYSTEM. An actual or potential threat of severe danger to the physical properties of the public or the consumer’s potable water system or of a pollution or contamination which would have a protracted effect on the quality of the potable water in the system.
   INDUSTRIAL FLUIDS. Any fluid or solution which may be chemically, biologically, or otherwise contaminated or polluted in a form or concentration such as would constitute a health system, pollutional, or plumbing hazard if introduced into an approved water supply. This may include, but not be limited to: polluted or contaminated used water; all types of process water and “used waters” originating from the public potable water system which may deteriorate in sanitary quality; chemicals in fluid form; planting acids and alkalis; circulated cooling waters collected to an open cooling tower and/or cooling waters that are chemically or biologically treated or stabilized with toxic substances; contaminated natural water such as from wells, springs, streams, rivers, irrigation canals or systems, and the like; oils, gases, glycerin, paraffices, caustic and acid solutions; and other liquid and gaseous fluids used in industrial or other processes or for firefighting purposes.
   INDUSTRIAL PIPING SYSTEM-CONSUMER’S. Any system used by the consumer for transmission of or to confine or store any fluid, solid, or gaseous substance other than an approved water supply. Such a system would include all pipes, conduits, tanks, receptacles, fixtures, equipment, and apparatus used to produce, convey, or store substances which are or may be polluted or contaminated.
   POLLUTION. An impairment of the quality of the water to a degree which does not create an actual hazard to the public health, but which does adversely and unreasonably affect such waters for domestic use.
   REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE BACKFLOW PREVENTION DEVICE. A device containing within its structure a minimum of two independently acting, approved check valves, together with an automatically operating pressure differential relief valve located between the two check valves. The first check valve reduces the supply pressure at predetermined amount so that during normal flow and at cessation of normal flow the pressure between the checks. It shall be less than the supply pressure. In case of leakage of either check valve, the differential relief valve, by its discharging to atmosphere, shall operate to maintain the pressure between the checks less than the supply pressure. The unit shall include tightly closing shut-off valves located at each end of the device and each device shall be fitted with properly located test cocks between the source and the service connection such as valves, pumps, pipes, conduits, tanks, receptacles, fixtures, equipment, and appurtenances used to, produce, convey, treat, or store a potable water for public consumption or use.
   SERVICE CONNECTION. The terminal end of a service connection from the public potable water system (i.e., where the town loses jurisdiction and sanitary control over the water at its point of delivery to the consumer’s water. If a meter is installed at the end of the service connection, then the SERVICE CONNECTION shall mean the downstream end of the meter. There should be no unprotected takeoffs from the service tine ahead of any meter or backflow prevention device located at the point of delivery to the consumer’s water system.
   WATER-POTABLE. Water from any source which has been investigated by the health agency having jurisdiction and which has been approved for human consumption.
   WATER SUPPLY-AUXILIARY. Any water supply on or available to the premises other than the Town of Biltmore Forest’s approved public potable water supply. These auxiliary waters may include water from another purveyor’s public potable water supply or any natural source such as a well, spring, river, stream, and the like, or used water, or industrial fluids. They may be polluted or contaminated or they may be objectionable and constitute an unacceptable water source over which the Town does not have sanitary control.
   WATER SYSTEM-CONSUMERS. Includes any water system located on the consumer’s premises whether supplied by a public potable water system or an auxiliary water supply. The system or systems may be either a potable water system or an industrial piping system.
   WATER SYSTEM-CONSUMER’S POTABLE. The portion of the privately-owned potable water system tying between the service connection and the point of use. This system will include all pipes, conduits, tanks, receptacles, fixtures, equipment, and appurtenances used to produce, convey, store, or use potable water.
   WATER SYSTEM-PUBLIC POTABLE. Any publicly- or privately-owned water system operated as a public utility under a valid health permit to supply water for domestic purposes. This system will include all sources, facilities, and appurtenances.
   WATER USED. Any water supplied by a water purveyor from a public potable water system to a consumer’s water system after it has passed through the service connection and is no longer under the control of the water purveyor.
(2013 Code, § 18.65)